Browsing by Subject "ACUTE ISCHEMIC-STROKE"

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  • Altavilla, Riccardo; Caso, Valeria; Bandini, Fabio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Yaghi, Shadi; Furie, Karen L.; Tadi, Prasanna; Becattini, Cecilia; Zedde, Marialuisa; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H.; Lees, Kennedy R.; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Acciarresi, Monica; D'Amore, Cataldo; Mosconi, Maria Giulia; Cimini, Ludovica Anna; Fusaro, Jessica; Bovi, Paolo; Carletti, Monica; Rigatelli, Alberto; Cappellari, Manuel; Putaala, Jukka; Tomppo, Liisa; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Marcheselli, Simona; Pezzini, Alessandro; Poli, Loris; Padovani, Alessandro; Masotti, Luca; Vannucchi, Vieri; Sohn, Sung-Il; Lorenzini, Gianni; Tassi, Rossana; Guideri, Francesca; Acampa, Maurizio; Martini, Giuseppe; Ntaios, George; Athanasakis, George; Makaritsis, Konstantinos; Karagkiozi, Efstathia; Vadikolias, Konstantinos; Liantinioti, Chrysoula; Chondrogianni, Maria; Mumoli, Nicola; Consoli, Domenico; Galati, Franco; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio; Tiseo, Cindy; Corea, Francesco; Ageno, Walter; Bellesini, Marta; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Ciccone, Alfonso; Lanari, Alessia; Scoditti, Umberto; Denti, Licia; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Maccarrone, Miriam; Ulivi, Leonardo; Orlandi, Giovanni; Giannini, Nicola; Gialdini, Gino; Tassinari, Tiziana; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Rueckert, Christina; Baldi, Antonio; D'Anna, Sebastiano; Toni, Danilo; Letteri, Federica; Giuntini, Martina; Lotti, Enrico Maria; Flomin, Yuriy; Pieroni, Alessio; Kargiotis, Odysseas; Karapanayiotides, Theodore; Monaco, Serena; Baronello, Mario Maimone; Csiba, Laszlo; Szabo, Lilla; Chiti, Alberto; Giorli, Elisa; Del Sette, Massimo; Imberti, Davide; Zabzuni, Dorjan; Doronin, Boris; Volodina, Vera; Michel, Patrik; Vanacker, Peter; Barlinn, Kristian; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Barlinn, Jessica; Deleu, Dirk; Melikyan, Gayane; Ibrahim, Faisal; Akhtar, Naveed; Gourbali, Vanessa; Paciaroni, Maurizio (2019)
    Background and Purpose- Bridging therapy with low-molecular-weight heparin reportedly leads to a worse outcome for acute cardioembolic stroke patients because of a higher incidence of intracerebral bleeding. However, this practice is common in clinical settings. This observational study aimed to compare (1) the clinical profiles of patients receiving and not receiving bridging therapy, (2) overall group outcomes, and (3) outcomes according to the type of anticoagulant prescribed. Methods- We analyzed data of patients from the prospective RAF and RAF-NOACs studies. The primary outcome was defined as the composite of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, systemic embolism, symptomatic cerebral bleeding, and major extracerebral bleeding observed at 90 days after the acute stroke. Results- Of 1810 patients who initiated oral anticoagulant therapy, 371 (20%) underwent bridging therapy with full-dose low-molecular-weight heparin. Older age and the presence of leukoaraiosis were inversely correlated with the use of bridging therapy. Forty-two bridged patients (11.3%) reached the combined outcome versus 72 (5.0%) of the nonbridged patients (P=0.0001). At multivariable analysis, bridging therapy was associated with the composite end point (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.7; P Conclusions- Our findings suggest that patients receiving low-molecular-weight heparin have a higher risk of early ischemic recurrence and hemorrhagic transformation compared with nonbridged patients.
  • Sarikaya, Hakan; da Costa, Bruno R.; Baumgartner, Ralf W.; Duclos, Kathleen; Touze, Emmanuel; de Bray, Jean M.; Metso, Antti; Metso, Tiina; Arnold, Marcel; Arauz, Antonio; Zwahlen, Marcel; Jueni, Peter (2013)
  • Goto, Shinya; Merrill, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wojdyla, Daniel M.; Hanna, Michael; Avezum, Alvaro; Easton, J. Donald; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Huber, Kurt; Lewis, Basil S.; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Zhu, Jun; Granger, Christopher B.; Lopes, Renato D.; Alexander, John H. (2018)
    Aims We investigated baseline characteristics, antithrombotic use, and clinical outcomes of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and a thrombo-embolic event in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) study to better inform the care of these high-risk patients. Method and results Thrombo-embolic events were defined as stroke (ischaemic or unknown cause) or systemic embolism (SE). Clinical outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. All-cause mortality and International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) major bleeding after events were analysed using a Cox proportional hazards model with time-dependent covariates. Of 18 201 patients in ARISTOTLE, 365 experienced a thrombo-embolic event [337 strokes (ischaemic or unknown cause), 28 SE]; 46 (12.6%) of which were fatal. In the 30 days before and after a thrombo-embolic event, 11% and 37% of patients, respectively, were not taking an oral anticoagulant. During follow-up (median 1.8 years), 22 patients (7.1%/year) had a recurrent stroke, 97 (30.1%/year) died, and 10 (6.7%/year) had major bleeding. Compared with patients without a thrombo-embolic event, the short-and long-term adjusted hazards of death in patients with a thrombo-embolic event were high [30 days: HR 3.5, 95% CI 2.5-4.8; both P Conclusions Thrombo-embolic events were rare but associated with high short-and long-term morbidity and mortality. Substantial numbers of patients are not receiving oral anticoagulattherapy before and, despite this risk, after a first thrombo-embolic event.
  • Sykora, M.; Putaala, J.; Meretoja, A.; Tatlisumak, T.; Strbian, D. (2018)
    BackgroundBeta-blocker therapy has been suggested to have neuroprotective properties in the setting of acute stroke; however, the evidence is weak and contradictory. We aimed to examine the effects of pre-admission therapy with beta-blockers (BB) on the mortality following spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). MethodsRetrospective analysis of the Helsinki ICH Study database. ResultsA total of 1013 patients with ICH were included in the analysis. Patients taking BB were significantly older, had a higher premorbid mRS score, had more DNR orders, and more comorbidities as atrial fibrillation, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, and heart failure. After adjustment for age, pre-existing comorbidities, and prior use of antithrombotic and antihypertensive medications, no differences in in-hospital mortality (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.7), 12-month mortality (OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.9-1.9), and 3-month mortality (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.8-1.7) emerged. ConclusionPre-admission use of BB was not associated with mortality after ICH.
  • Woock, Malin; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Seiffge, David J.; Selvik, Henriette Aurora; Nordanstig, Annika; Redfors, Petra; Lindgren, Erik; Sanchez van Kammen, Mayte; Rentzos, Alexandros; Coutinho, Jonathan M.; Doyle, Karen; Naess, Halvor; Putaala, Jukka; Jood, Katarina; Tatlisumak, Turgut (2022)
    The association between stroke and cancer is well-established. Because of an aging population and longer survival rates, the frequency of synchronous stroke and cancer will become even more common. Different pathophysiologic mechanisms have been proposed how cancer or cancer treatment directly or via coagulation disturbances can mediate stroke. Increased serum levels of D-dimer, fibrin degradation products, and CRP are more often seen in stroke with concomitant cancer, and the clot retrieved during thrombectomy has a more fibrin- and platelet-rich constitution compared with that of atherosclerotic etiology. Multiple infarctions are more common in patients with active cancer compared with those without a cancer diagnosis. New MRI techniques may help in detecting typical patterns seen in the presence of a concomitant cancer. In ischemic stroke patients, a newly published cancer probability score can help clinicians in their decision-making when to suspect an underlying malignancy in a stroke patient and to start cancer-screening studies. Treating stroke patients with synchronous cancer can be a delicate matter. Limited evidence suggests that administration of intravenous thrombolysis appears safe in non-axial intracranial and non-metastatic cancer patients. Endovascular thrombectomy is probably rather safe in these patients, but probably futile in most patients placed on palliative care due to their advanced disease. In this topical review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and prognosis of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes as well as cerebral venous thrombosis and concomitant cancer. We further summarize the current evidence on acute management and secondary preventive therapy.
  • Suomalainen, Olli P.; Abou Elseoud, Ahmed; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Tiainen, Marjaana; Forss, Nina; Curtze, Sami (2021)
    Introduction: Patients with small core infarction and salvageable penumbra are likely to benefit from endovascular treatment (EVT). As computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTP) is not always available 24/7 for patient selection, many patients are transferred to stroke centers for CTP. We compared automatically measured infarct core volume (NCCTcore) from the non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) with ischemic core volume (CTPcore) from CTP and the outcome of EVT to clarify if NCCTcore measurement alone is sufficient to identify patients that benefit from transfer to stroke centers for EVT. Patients and methods: We included all consecutive stroke-code patients imaged with both NCCT and CTP at Helsinki University Hospital during 9/2016-01/2018. NCCTcore and CTPcore volumes were automatically calculated from the acute NCCT images. Follow-up infarct volume (FIV) was measured from 24 h follow-up NCCT to evaluate efficacy of EVT. To study whether NCCTcore could be used to identify patients eligible to EVT, we subgrouped patients based on NCCTcore volumes (>50 mL and > 70 mL). Results: Out of 1743 patients, baseline NCCTcore, CTPcore and follow-up NCCT was available for 288 patients. Median time from symptom onset to baseline imaging was 74 min (IQR 52-118), and time to follow-up imaging 24.15 h (22.25-26.33). Baseline NCCTcore was 20 mL (10-42), CTPcore 4 mL (0-16), and FIV 5 mL (1-49). Out of 288 patients, 23 had NCCTcore > 70 mL and 26 had CTPcore > 70 mL. NCCTcore and CTPcore performed similarly well in predicting large FIV (>70 ml). Conclusion: NCCTcore is a promising tool to identify patients that are not eligible to EVT due to large ischemic cores at baseline imaging.
  • Hokkinen, Lasse; Mäkelä, Teemu; Savolainen, Sauli; Kangasniemi, Marko (2021)
    Background: Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) is the mainstay to determine possible eligibility for endovascular thrombectomy (EVT), but there is still a need for alternative methods in patient triage. Purpose: To study the ability of a computed tomography angiography (CTA)-based convolutional neural network (CNN) method in predicting final infarct volume in patients with large vessel occlusion successfully treated with endovascular therapy. Materials and Methods: The accuracy of the CTA source image-based CNN in final infarct volume prediction was evaluated against follow-up CT or MR imaging in 89 patients with anterior circulation ischemic stroke successfully treated with EVT as defined by Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction category 2b or 3 using Pearson correlation coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficients. Convolutional neural network performance was also compared to a commercially available CTP-based software (RAPID, iSchemaView). Results: A correlation with final infarct volumes was found for both CNN and CTP-RAPID in patients presenting 6-24 h from symptom onset or last known well, with r = 0.67 (p < 0.001) and r = 0.82 (p < 0.001), respectively. Correlations with final infarct volumes in the early time window (0-6 h) were r = 0.43 (p = 0.002) for the CNN and r = 0.58 (p < 0.001) for CTP-RAPID. Compared to CTP-RAPID predictions, CNN estimated eligibility for thrombectomy according to ischemic core size in the late time window with a sensitivity of 0.38 and specificity of 0.89. Conclusion: A CTA-based CNN method had moderate correlation with final infarct volumes in the late time window in patients successfully treated with EVT.
  • Raj, R.; Bendel, S.; Reinikainen, M.; Hoppu, S.; Laitio, R.; Ala-Kokko, T.; Curtze, S.; Skrifvars, M. B. (2018)
    Background: Neurocritical illness is a growing healthcare problem with profound socioeconomic effects. We assessed differences in healthcare costs and long-term outcome for different forms of neurocritical illnesses treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: We used the prospective Finnish Intensive Care Consortium database to identify all adult patients treated for traumatic brain injury (TBI), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and acute ischemic stroke (AIS) at university hospital ICUs in Finland during 2003-2013. Outcome variables were one-year mortality and permanent disability. Total healthcare costs included the index university hospital costs, rehabilitation hospital costs and social security costs up to one year. All costs were converted to euros based on the 2013 currency rate. Results: In total 7044 patients were included (44% with TBI, 13% with ICH, 27% with SAH, 16% with AIS). In comparison to TBI, ICH was associated with the highest risk of death and permanent disability (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.1-3.2 and OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.1), followed by AIS (OR 1.9, 95% CI 15-23 and OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.8) and SAH (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.1 and OR 0. 8, 95% CI 0.6-0.9), after adjusting for severity of illness. SAH was associated with the highest mean total costs ((sic)51,906) followed by ICH ((sic)47,661), TBI ((sic)43,916) and AIS ((sic)39222). Cost per independent survivor was lower for TBI ((sic)58,497) and SAH ((sic)96,369) compared to AIS ((sic)104,374) and ICH ((sic)178,071). Conclusion: Neurocritical illnesses are costly and resource-demanding diseases associated with poor outcomes. Intensive care of patients with TBI or SAH more commonly result in independent survivors and is associated with lower total treatments costs compared to ICH and AIS.
  • Stroke Thrombolysis Trialists' (2018)
    Background The recommended maximum age and time window for intravenous alteplase treatment of acute ischemic stroke differs between the Europe Union and United States. Aims We compared the effects of alteplase in cohorts defined by the current Europe Union or United States marketing approval labels, and by hypothetical revisions of the labels that would remove the Europe Union upper age limit or extend the United States treatment time window to 4.5h. Methods We assessed outcomes in an individual-patient-data meta-analysis of eight randomized trials of intravenous alteplase (0.9mg/kg) versus control for acute ischemic stroke. Outcomes included: excellent outcome (modified Rankin score 0-1) at 3-6 months, the distribution of modified Rankin score, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, and 90-day mortality. Results Alteplase increased the odds of modified Rankin score 0-1 among 2449/6136 (40%) patients who met the current European Union label and 3491 (57%) patients who met the age-revised label (odds ratio 1.42, 95% CI 1.21-1.68 and 1.43, 1.23-1.65, respectively), but not in those outside the age-revised label (1.06, 0.90-1.26). By 90 days, there was no increased mortality in the current and age-revised cohorts (hazard ratios 0.98, 95% CI 0.76-1.25 and 1.01, 0.86-1.19, respectively) but mortality remained higher outside the age-revised label (1.19, 0.99-1.42). Similarly, alteplase increased the odds of modified Rankin score 0-1 among 1174/6136 (19%) patients who met the current US approval and 3326 (54%) who met a 4.5-h revised approval (odds ratio 1.55, 1.19-2.01 and 1.37, 1.17-1.59, respectively), but not for those outside the 4.5-h revised approval (1.14, 0.97-1.34). By 90 days, no increased mortality remained for the current and 4.5-h revised label cohorts (hazard ratios 0.99, 0.77-1.26 and 1.02, 0.87-1.20, respectively) but mortality remained higher outside the 4.5-h revised approval (1.17, 0.98-1.41). Conclusions An age-revised European Union label or 4.5-h-revised United States label would each increase the number of patients deriving net benefit from alteplase by 90 days after acute ischemic stroke, without excess mortality.
  • Zhu, Yueqi; Zhang, Hongbo; Zhang, Yiran; Wu, Huayin; Wei, Liming; Zhou, Gen; Zhang, Yuezhou; Deng, Lianfu; Cheng, Yingsheng; Li, Minghua; Almeida Santos, Helder; Cui, Wenguo (2019)
    Cerebrovascular disease involves various medical disorders that obstruct brain blood vessels or deteriorate cerebral circulation, resulting in ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Nowadays, platinum coils with or without biological modification have become routine embolization devices to reduce the risk of cerebral aneurysm bleeding. Additionally, many intracranial stents, flow diverters, and stent retrievers have been invented with uniquely designed structures. To accelerate the translation of these devices into clinical usage, an in‐depth understanding of the mechanical and material performance of these metal‐based devices is critical. However, considering the more distal location and tortuous anatomic characteristics of cerebral arteries, present devices still risk failing to arrive at target lesions. Consequently, more flexible endovascular devices and novel designs are under urgent demand to overcome the deficiencies of existing devices. Herein, the pros and cons of the current structural designs are discussed when these devices are applied to the treatment of diseases ranging broadly from hemorrhages to ischemic strokes, in order to encourage further development of such kind of devices and investigation of their use in the clinic. Moreover, novel biodegradable materials and drug elution techniques, and the design, safety, and efficacy of personalized devices for further clinical applications in cerebral vasculature are discussed.
  • European Stroke Org; Fuentes, Blanca; Ntaios, George; Putaala, Jukka; Thomas, Brenda; Turc, Guillaume; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio (2018)
    Background Hyperglycaemia is a frequent complication in acute stroke that has been shown to be independently associated with larger infarct size, haematoma growth, poor clinical outcome and mortality. This Guideline Document presents the European Stroke Organisation (ESO) Guidelines for the management of blood glucose levels in patients with acute ischemic or haemorrhagic stroke. Methods The working group identified related questions and developed its recommendations based on evidence from randomised controlled trials following the standard operating procedure of the ESO. This Guideline Document was reviewed and approved by the European Stroke Organisation Guidelines Committee and the European Stroke Organisation Executive Committee. Results We found low-quality evidence from clinical trials in ischemic or haemorrhagic stroke exploring the use of intravenous insulin aimed to achieve a tight glycaemic control with different glucose level targets and several other sources of heterogeneity. None of these trials neither the meta-analysis of them have demonstrated any significant benefit of tight glycaemic control with intravenous insulin in acute ischemic or haemorrhagic stroke patients on functional outcome or in survival and they have shown an increased risk for hypoglycaemia. Conclusions We suggest against the routine use of tight glycaemic control with intravenous insulin as a means to improve outcomes. The currently available data about the management of glycaemia in patients with acute stroke are limited and the strengths of the recommendations are therefore weak. Nevertheless, this does not prevent that hyperglycaemia in acute stroke patients could be treated as any other hospitalised patient.
  • EXTEND Investigator; ECASS-4 Investigator; EPITHET Investigator; Campbell, Bruce C.; Ma, Henry; Curtze, Sami; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Kaste, Markku (2019)
    Background Stroke thrombolysis with alteplase is currently recommended 0-4.5 h after stroke onset. We aimed to determine whether perfusion imaging can identify patients with salvageable brain tissue with symptoms 4.5 h or more from stroke onset or with symptoms on waking who might benefit from thrombolysis. Methods In this systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data, we searched PubMed for randomised trials published in English between Jan 1, 2006, and March 1, 2019. We also reviewed the reference list of a previous systematic review of thrombolysis and searched ClinicalTrials. gov for interventional studies of ischaemic stroke. Studies of alteplase versus placebo in patients (aged =18 years) with ischaemic stroke treated more than 4.5 h after onset, or with wake-up stroke, who were imaged with perfusion-diffusion MRI or CT perfusion were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcome was excellent functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score 0-1) at 3 months, adjusted for baseline age and clinical severity. Safety outcomes were death and symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage. We calculated odds ratios, adjusted for baseline age and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, using mixed-effects logistic regression models. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42019128036. Findings We identified three trials that met eligibility criteria: EXTEND, ECASS4-EXTEND, and EPITHET. Of the 414 patients included in the three trials, 213 (51%) were assigned to receive alteplase and 201 (49%) were assigned to receive placebo. Overall, 211 patients in the alteplase group and 199 patients in the placebo group had mRS assessment data at 3 months and thus were included in the analysis of the primary outcome. 76 (36%) of 211 patients in the alteplase group and 58 (29%) of 199 patients in the placebo group had achieved excellent functional outcome at 3 months (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.86, 95% CI 1.15-2.99, p=0.011). Symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage was more common in the alteplase group than the placebo group (ten [5%] of 213 patients vs one [<1%] of 201 patients in the placebo group; adjusted OR 9.7, 95% CI 1.23-76.55, p=0.031). 29 (14%) of 213 patients in the alteplase group and 18 (9%) of 201 patients in the placebo group died (adjusted OR 1.55, 0.81-2.96, p=0.66). Interpretation Patients with ischaemic stroke 4.5-9 h from stroke onset or wake-up stroke with salvageable brain tissue who were treated with alteplase achieved better functional outcomes than did patients given placebo. The rate of symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage was higher with alteplase, but this increase did not negate the overall net benefit of thrombolysis. Copyright (c) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Wu, Teddy Y.; Coleman, Erin; Wright, Sarah L.; Mason, Deborah F.; Reimers, Jon; Duncan, Roderick; Griffiths, Mary; Hurrell, Michael; Dixon, David; Weaver, James; Meretoja, Atte; Fink, John N. (2018)
    Background: Christchurch hospital is a tertiary hospital in New Zealand supported by five general neurologists with after-hours services provided mainly by onsite non-neurology medical residents. We assessed the transferrability and impact of the Helsinki Stroke model on stroke thrombolysis door-to-needle time (DNT) in Christchurch hospital. Methods: Key components of the Helsinki Stroke model were implemented first in 2015 with introduction of patient pre-notification and thrombolysis by the computed tomography (CT) suite, followed by implementation of direct transfer to CT on ambulance stretcher in May 2017. Data from the prospective thrombolysis registry which began in 2012 were analyzed for the impact of these interventions on median DNT. Results: Between May and December 2017, 46 patients were treated with alteplase, 25 (54%) patients were treated in-hours (08:00-17:00 non-public holiday weekdays) and 21 (46%) patients were treated after-hours. The in-hours, after-hours, and overall median (interquartile range) DNTs were 34 (28-43), 47 (38-60), and 40 (30-51) minutes. The corresponding times in 2012-2014 prior to interventions were 87 (68-106), 86 (72-116), and 87 (71-112) minutes, representing median DNT reduction of 53, 39, and 47 minutes, respectively (p-values <0.01). The interventions also resulted in significant reductions in the overall median door-to-CT time (from 49 to 19 min), CT-to-needle time (32 to 20 min) and onset-to-needle time (168 to 120 min). Conclusion: The Helsinki stroke model is transferrable with real-world resources and reduced stroke DNT in Christchurch by over 50%.
  • Räty, Silja; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Suomalainen, Olli; Sibolt, Gerli; Tiainen, Marjaana; Valkonen, Kati; Sairanen, Tiina; Forss, Nina; Curtze, Sami (2021)
    Background: There is contradicting evidence on the outcome of emergency patients treated during weekends versus weekdays. We studied if outcome of ischemic stroke patients receiving intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) differs according to the treatment time. Methods: Our retrospective study included consecutive patients receiving IVT within 4.5 h of stroke onset between June 1995 and December 2018 at the Helsinki University Hospital. The patients were compared based on the treatment initiation either during weekdays (Monday to Friday) or weekend (Saturday and Sunday). The primary outcome was 3-month mortality and secondary outcomes comprised 3-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and incidence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH). Additional analyses studied the effect of IVT treatment according to non-office hours, time of day, and season. Results: Of the 3980 IVT-treated patients, 28.0% received treatment during weekends. Mortality was similar after weekend (10.0%) and weekday (10.6%) admissions in the multivariable regression analysis (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.59-1.03). Neither 3-month mRS (OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.86-1.12), nor the occurrence of sICH (4.2% vs 4.6%; OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.60-1.26) differed between the groups. No outcome difference was observed between the office vs non-office hours or by the time of day. However, odds for worse outcome were higher during autumn (OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.04-1.35) and winter (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.01-1.30). Conclusion: We did not discover any weekend effect for IVT-treated stroke patients. This confirms that with standardized procedures, an equal quality of care can be provided to patients requiring urgent treatment irrespective of time.
  • Ritvonen, Juhani; Sairanen, Tiina; Silvennoinen, Heli; Virtanen, Pekka; Salonen, Oili; Lindsberg, Perttu J.; Strbian, Daniel (2021)
    Background The data on long-term outcome after basilar artery occlusion (BAO) are scarce. Little is known about BAO survivors ' outcome over decades. Aim We set out to investigate long-term survival and causes of death in BAO patients with up to two decades of follow-up. We also evaluated differences in outcome trends. Methods Two hundred and seven BAO patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) at the Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Hospital, between 1995 and 2016, were analyzed. Short-term outcome was assessed by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months. Long-term cumulative survival rate was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Factors associated with mortality were analyzed with Cox regression. Results Moderate outcome (mRS 0-3) was achieved in 41.1% and good outcome (mRS 0-2) in 30.4% of patients at 3 months. Three-month mortality was 39.6%, of which 89% died within the first month. The median follow-up time in 3-month survivors was 8.9 years (maximum 21.8 years). Total mortality during follow-up was 52.2%. Cumulative mortality rate was 25.7%. Older age, coronary artery disease and more extensive ischemic changes on admission brain imaging were independently associated with long-term mortality. After the acute phase, the rate of other vascular causes of death increased in relation to stroke. Conclusions The described evolution of a large, single-center BAO cohort shows a trend towards a higher rate of good and/or moderate outcome during later years in IVT-treated patients. Survivors showed relative longevity, and the rate of cardiac and other vascular causes of death increased in relation to stroke sequelae over the long term.
  • Acciarresi, Monica; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Falocci, Nicola; Caso, Valeria; Becattini, Cecilia; Marcheselli, Simona; Rueckert, Christina; Pezzini, Alessandro; Morotti, Andrea; Costa, Paolo; Padovani, Alessandro; Csiba, Laszlo; Szabo, Lilla; Sohn, Sung-Il; Tassinari, Tiziana; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H.; Michel, Patrik; Cordier, Maria; Vanacker, Peter; Remillard, Suzette; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; D'Amore, Cataldo; Scoditti, Umberto; Denti, Licia; Orlandi, Giovanni; Chiti, Alberto; Gialdini, Gino; Bovi, Paolo; Carletti, Monica; Rigatelli, Alberto; Putaala, Jukka; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Masotti, Luca; Lorenzini, Gianni; Tassi, Rossana; Guideri, Francesca; Martini, Giuseppe; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Vadikolias, Kostantinos; Liantinioti, Chrissoula; Corea, Francesco; Del Sette, Massimo; Ageno, Walter; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Baldi, Antonio; D'Anna, Sebastiano; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio; Tiseo, Cindy; Imberti, Davide; Zabzuni, Dorjan; Doronin, Boris; Volodina, Vera; Consoli, Domenico; Galati, Franco; Pieroni, Alessio; Toni, Danilo; Monaco, Serena; Baronello, Mario Maimone; Barlinn, Kristian; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Kepplinger, Jessica; Bodechtel, Ulf; Gerber, Johannes; Deleu, Dirk; Melikyan, Gayane; Ibrahim, Faisal; Akhtar, Naveed; Mosconi, Maria Giulia; Lees, Kennedy R. (2017)
    Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate for a possible association between both prestroke CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score and the severity of stroke at presentation, as well as disability and mortality at 90 days, in patients with acute stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: This prospective study enrolled consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, AF, and assessment of prestroke CHA2DS2-VASc score. Severity of stroke was assessed on admission using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (severe stroke: NIHSS >= 10). Disability and mortality at 90 days were assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS <3 or >= 3). Multiple logistic regression was used to correlate prestroke CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc and severity of stroke, as well as disability and mortality at 90 days. Results: Of the 1020 patients included in the analysis, 606 patients had an admission NIHSS score lower and 414 patients higher than 10. At 90 days, 510 patients had mRS >= 3. A linear correlation was found between the prestroke CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score and severity of stroke (P = .001). On multivariate analysis, CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score correlated with severity of stroke (P = .041) and adverse functional outcome (mRS = 3) (P = .001). A logistic regression with the receiver operating characteristic graph procedure (C-statistics) evidenced an area under the curve of .60 (P = .0001) for severe stroke. Furthermore, a correlation was found between prestroke CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score and lesion size. Conclusions: In patients with AF, in addition to the risk of stroke, a high CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score was independently associated with both stroke severity at onset and disability and mortality at 90 days.
  • Ijäs, Petra; Aro, Ellinoora; Eriksson, Henrietta; Vikatmaa, Pirkka; Soinne, Lauri; Venermo, Maarit (2018)
    Background and Purpose Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is recommended within 14 days after carotid artery stroke to prevent recurrence. However, the optimal timing of CEA after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) remains unclear. We studied the safety of CEA after IVT while taking into account both stroke recurrence and CEA-related complications. Methods Patients who underwent IVT followed by CEA in Helsinki University Hospital 2005 to 2016 were withdrawn from prospectively collected registers. The incidence of stroke recurrence during the time between IVT and CEA, peri/postoperative stroke, hyperperfusion syndrome or drug-resistant high blood pressure, and 3-month outcome measured by modified Rankin Scale was recorded. Stroke patients treated with CEA without preceding IVT were used as controls. Results Altogether 128 CEAs with preceding IVT and 777 CEAs for stroke without IVT were identified. The median time from IVT to CEA was 9 days (range, 0-349 days; interquartile range, 16). Seven patients (5.5%) underwent CEA within 24 hours, 20 (15.6%) within 48 hours and 87 (68.0%) within 2 weeks from IVT. Stroke recurrence in IVT-CEA patients was 5.5% at median 4 days after IVT (range, 0-8 days). Outcome from CEAs performed within 48 hours from IVT did not differ from CEAs performed later with respect to peri/postoperative ischemic strokes (5.0% and 3.7%), hemorrhagic strokes (5.0% and 1.9%), neck hematomas (5.0% and 8.3%), myocardial infarctions (0.0% and 0.9%), or 3-month modified Rankin Scale. There was a tendency toward higher incidence of hyperperfusion syndrome in the patients operated within 48 hours from IVT (20.0% versus 6.5%; P=0.070). The CEA-related stroke rate was similar to that of the operation without thrombolysis. Only smoking was significantly associated with peri/postoperative stroke (odds ratio, 21.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-439.58). Conclusions Time between IVT and CEA was not associated with CEA-related complications. The high rate of stroke recurrence during the waiting time for CEA underscores the importance of shortening surgery delays.
  • Kaesmacher, Johannes; Abdullayev, Nuran; Maamari, Basel; Dobrocky, Tomas; Vynckier, Jan; Piechowiak, Eike; Pop, Raoul; Behme, Daniel; Sporns, Peter B.; Styczen, Hanna; Virtanen, Pekka; Meyer, Lukas; Meinel, Thomas R.; Cantre, Daniel; Kabbasch, Christoph; Maus, Volker; Pekkola, Johanna; Fischer, Sebastian; Hasiu, Anca; Schwarz, Alexander; Wildgruber, Moritz; Seiffge, David J.; Langner, Soenke; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Radbruch, Alexander; Schlamann, Marc; Mihoc, Dan; Beaujeux, Remy; Strbian, Daniel; Fiehler, Jens; Mordasini, Pasquale; Gralla, Jan; Fischer, Urs (2021)
    Background and Purpose Data on safety and efficacy of intra-arterial (IA) fibrinolytics as adjunct to mechanical thrombectomy (MT) are sparse. Methods INtra-arterial FIbriNolytics In ThrombectomY (INFINITY) is a retrospective multi-center observational registry of consecutive patients with anterior circulation large-vessel occlusion ischemic stroke treated with MT and adjunctive administration of IA fibrinolytics (alteplase [tissue plasminogen activator, tPA] or urokinase [UK]) at 10 European centers. Primary outcome was the occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II definition. Secondary outcomes were mortality and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at 3 months. Results Of 5,612 patients screened, 311 (median age, 74 years; 44.1% female) received additional IA after or during MT (194 MT+IA tPA, 117 MT+IA UK). IA fibrinolytics were mostly administered for rescue of thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) 0-2b after MT (80.4%, 250/311). sICH occurred in 27 of 308 patients (8.8%), with an increased risk in patients with initial TICI0/1 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 5.0 per TICI grade decrease) or in those with intracranial internal carotid artery occlusions (aOR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.2 to 12.5). In patients with attempted rescue of TICI0-2b and available angiographic follow-up, 116 of 228 patients (50.9%) showed any angiographic reperfusion improvement after IA fibrinolytics, which was associated with mRS Conclusions Administration of IA fibrinolytics as adjunct to MT is performed rarely, but can improve reperfusion, which is associated with better outcomes. Despite a selection bias, an increased risk of sICH seems possible, which underlines the importance of careful patient selection.
  • Kaesmacher, Johannes; Meinel, Thomas Raphael; Kurmann, Christoph; Zaidat, Osama O.; Castonguay, Alicia C.; Zaidi, Syed F.; Mueller-Kronast, Nils; Kappelhof, Manon; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; Soudant, Marc; Bracard, Serge; Hill, Michael D.; Goyal, Mayank; Strbian, Daniel; Heiferman, Daniel M.; Ashley, William; Anadani, Mohammad; Spiotta, Alejandro M.; Dobrocky, Tomas; Piechowiak, Eike; Arnold, Marcel; Goeldlin, Martina; Seiffge, David; Mosimann, Pascal J.; Mordasini, Pasquale; Gralla, Jan; Fischer, Urs (2021)
    Background Achieving the best possible reperfusion is a key determinant of clinical outcome after mechanical thrombectomy (MT). However, data on the safety and efficacy of intra-arterial (IA) fibrinolytics as an adjunct to MT with the intention to improve reperfusion are sparse. Methods We performed a PROSPERO-registered (CRD42020149124) systematic review and meta-analysis accessing MEDLINE, PubMed, and Embase from January 1, 2000 to January 1, 2020. A random-effect estimate (Mantel-Haenszel) was computed and summary OR with 95% CI were used as a measure of added IA fibrinolytics versus control on the risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) and secondary endpoints (modified Rankin Scale
  • Ahmed, N; Mazya, M; Nunes, AP; Moreira, T; Ollikainen, JP; Escudero-Martinez, I; Bigliardi, G; Dorado, L; Davalos, A; Egido, JA; Tassi, R; Strbian, D; Zini, A; Nichelli, P; Herzig, R; Jurak, L; Hurtikova, E; Tsivgoulis, G; Peeters, A; Nevsimalova, M; Brozman, M; Cavallo, R; Lees, KR; Mikulik, R; Toni, D; Holmin, S (2021)
    Background and objective We aimed to evaluate the safety and outcomes of thrombectomy in anterior circulation acute ischaemic stroke recorded in the SITS-International Stroke Thrombectomy Register (SITS-ISTR) and compare them with pooled randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and two national registry studies. Methods We identified centres recording >= 10 consecutive patients in the SITS-ISTR with at least 70% of available modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months during 2014-2019. We defined large artery occlusion as intracranial internal carotid artery, first and second segment of middle cerebral artery and first segment of anterior cerebral artery. Outcome measures were functional independence (mRS score 0-2) and death at 3 months and symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (SICH) per modified SITS-MOST. Results Results are presented in the following order: SITS-ISTR, RCTs, MR CLEAN Registry and German Stroke Registry (GSR). Median age was 73, 68, 71 and 75 years; baseline NIHSS score was 16, 17, 16 and 15; prior intravenous thrombolysis was 62%, 83%, 78% and 56%; onset to reperfusion time was 289, 285, 267 and 249 min; successful recanalization (mTICI score 2b or 3) was 86%, 71%, 59% and 83%; functional independence at 3 months was 45.5% (95% CI: 44-47), 46.0% (42-50), 38% (35-41) and 37% (35-41), respectively; death was 19.2% (19-21), 15.3% (12.7-18.4), 29.2% (27-32) and 28.6% (27-31); and SICH was 3.6% (3-4), 4.4% (3.0-6.4), 5.8% (4.7-7.1) and not available. Conclusion Thrombectomy in routine clinical use registered in the SITS-ISTR showed safety and outcomes comparable to RCTs, and better functional outcomes and lower mortality than previous national registry studies.