Browsing by Subject "ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY"

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  • Nukarinen, Eija; Lindstrom, Outi; Kuuliala, Krista; Kylänpää, Leena; Pettilä, Ville; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Kuuliala, Antti; Hamalainen, Mari; Moilanen, Eeva; Repo, Heikki; Hästbacka, Johanna (2016)
    Objectives Several biomarkers for early detection of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) have been presented. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP) are released early in inflammation. We aimed to assess levels of MMP-7, -8, -9 and TIMP-1 in acute pancreatitis (AP) and explore their ability to detect disease severity. Our second aim was to find an association between MMPs, TIMP and creatinine. Methods We collected plasma samples for MMP-7, -8, -9 and TIMP-1 analyses from 176 patients presenting within 96 h from onset of acute pancreatitis (AP) symptoms. We used samples from 32 control subjects as comparison. The revised Atlanta Classification was utilised to assess severity of disease. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and Spearman's Rho-test were utilised for statistical calculations. Results Compared with controls, patients showed higher levels of all studied markers. MMP-8 was higher in moderately severe AP than in mild AP (p = 0.005) and MMP-8, -9 and TIMP-1 were higher in severe than in mild AP (p
  • Wiersema, Renske; Jukarainen, Sakari; Eck, Ruben J.; Kaufmann, Thomas; Koeze, Jacqueline; Keus, Frederik; Pettilä, Ville; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Vaara, Suvi T. (2020)
    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and clinically relevant problem in critically ill patients. Various randomized controlled trials (RCT) have attempted to assess potentially beneficial treatments for AKI. Different approaches to applying the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria for AKI make a comparison of studies difficult. The objective of this study was to assess how different approaches may impact estimates of AKI incidence and whether the association between AKI and 90-day mortality varied by the approach used. Methods Consecutive acutely admitted adult intensive care patients were included in a prospective observational study. AKI was determined following the KDIGO criteria during the first 7 days of ICU admission. In this post hoc analysis, we assessed whether AKI incidence differed when applying the KDIGO criteria in 30 different possible methods, varying in (A) serum creatinine (sCr), (B) urine output (UO), and (C) the method of combining these two into an outcome, e.g., severe AKI. We assessed point estimates and 95% confidence intervals for each incidence. Univariable regression was used to assess the associations between AKI and 90-day mortality. Results A total of 1010 patients were included. Baseline creatinine was available in 449 (44%) patients. The incidence of any AKI ranged from 28% (95%CI 25-31%) to 75% (95%CI 72-77%) depending on the approach used. Methods to estimate missing baseline sCr caused a variation in AKI incidence up to 15%. Different methods of handling UO caused a variation of up to 35%. At 90 days, 263 patients (26%) had died, and all 30 variations were associated with 90-day mortality. Conclusions In this cohort of critically ill patients, AKI incidence varied from 28 to 75%, depending on the method used of applying the KDIGO criteria. A tighter adherence to KDIGO definitions is warranted to decrease the heterogeneity of AKI and increase the comparability of future studies.
  • Bajc, Marika; Schümichen, Carl; Grüning, Thomas; Lindqvist, Ari; Le Roux, Pierre-Yves; Alatri, Adriano; Bauer, Ralf W.; Dilic, Mirza; Neilly, Brian; Verberne, Hein J.; Delgado Bolton, Roberto C.; Jonson, Bjorn (2019)
    These guidelines update the previous EANM 2009 guidelines on the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). Relevant new aspects are related to (a) quantification of PE and other ventilation/perfusion defects; (b) follow-up of patients with PE; (c) chronic PE; and (d) description of additional pulmonary physiological changes leading to diagnoses of left ventricular heart failure (HF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pneumonia. The diagnosis of PE should be reported when a mismatch of one segment or two subsegments is found. For ventilation, Technegas or krypton gas is preferred over diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) in patients with COPD. Tomographic imaging with V/P-SPECT has higher sensitivity and specificity for PE compared with planar imaging. Absence of contraindications makes V/P-SPECT an essential method for the diagnosis of PE. When V/P-SPECT is combined with a low-dose CT, the specificity of the test can be further improved, especially in patients with other lung diseases. Pitfalls in V/P-SPECT interpretation are discussed. In conclusion, V/P-SPECT is strongly recommended as it accurately establishes the diagnosis of PE even in the presence of diseases like COPD, HF and pneumonia and has no contraindications.
  • Pesonen, Eero; Vlasov, Hanna; Suojaranta, Raili; Hiippala, Seppo; Schramko, Alexey; Wilkman, Erika; Eränen, Tiina; Arvonen, Kaapo; Mazanikov, Maxim; Salminen, Ulla-Stina; Meinberg, Mihkel; Vähäsilta, Tommi; Petäjä, Liisa; Raivio, Peter; Juvonen, Tatu; Pettilä, Ville (2022)
    IMPORTANCE In cardiac surgery, albumin solution may maintain hemodynamics better than crystalloids and reduce the decrease in platelet count and excessive fluid balance, but randomized trials are needed to compare the effectiveness of these approaches in reducing surgical complications. OBJECTIVE To assess whether 4% albumin solution compared with Ringer acetate as cardiopulmonary bypass prime and perioperative intravenous volume replacement solution reduces the incidence of major perioperative and postoperative complications in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized, double-blind, single-center clinical trial in a tertiary university hospital during 2017-2020 with 90-day follow-up postoperatively involving patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting; aortic, mitral, or tricuspid valve surgery; ascending aorta surgery without hypothermic circulatory arrest; and/or the maze procedure were randomly assigned to 2 study groups (last follow-up was April 13, 2020). INTERVENTIONS The patients received in a 1:1 ratio either 4% albumin solution (n = 693) or Ringer acetate solution (n = 693) as cardiopulmonary bypass priming and intravenous volume replacement intraoperatively and up to 24 hours postoperatively. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcomewas the number of patients with at least 1 major adverse event: death, myocardial injury, acute heart failure, resternotomy, stroke, arrhythmia, bleeding, infection, or acute kidney injury. RESULTS Among 1407 patients randomized, 1386 (99%; mean age, 65.4 [SD, 9.9] years; 1091 men [79%]; 295 women [21%]) completed the trial. Patients received a median of 2150 mL (IQR, 1598-2700 mL) of study fluid in the albumin group and 3298 mL (IQR, 2669-3500 mL) in the Ringer group. The number of patients with at least 1 major adverse event was 257 of 693 patients (37.1%) in the albumin group and 234 of 693 patients (33.8%) in the Ringer group (relative risk albumin/Ringer, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.95-1.27; P =.20), an absolute difference of 3.3 percentage points (95% CI, -1.7 to 8.4). The most common serious adverse events were pulmonary embolus (11 [1.6%] in the albumin group vs 8 [1.2%] in the Ringer group), postpericardiotomy syndrome (9 [1.3%] in both groups), and pleural effusion with intensive care unit or hospital readmission (7 [1.0%] in the albumin group vs 9 [1.3%] in the Ringer group). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, treatment with 4% albumin solution for priming and perioperative intravenous volume replacement solution compared with Ringer acetate did not significantly reduce the risk of major adverse events over the following 90 days. These findings do not support the use of 4% albumin solution in this setting.
  • Perner, Anders; Cecconi, Maurizio; Cronhjort, Maria; Darmon, Michael; Jakob, Stephan M.; Pettilä, Ville; van der Horst, Iwan C. C. (2018)
    Hypovolemia is frequent in patients with sepsis and may contribute to worse outcome. The management of these patients is impeded by the low quality of the evidence for many of the specific components of the care. In this paper, we discuss recent advances and controversies in this field and give expert statements for the management of hypovolemia in patients with sepsis including triggers and targets for fluid therapy and volumes and types of fluid to be given. Finally, we point to unanswered questions and suggest a roadmap for future research.
  • Perner, Anders; Hjortrup, Peter B.; Pettila, Ville (2017)
  • Tietavainen, Johanna; Mantula, Paula; Outinen, Tuula; Huhtala, Heini; Porsti, Ilkka H.; Niemela, Onni; Vaheri, Antti; Makela, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka (2019)
    Introduction: Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) causes a mild type of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome characterized by acute kidney injury (AKI), increased capillary leakage, and thrombocytopenia. Albuminuria and hematuria in dipstick urine test at hospital admission are known to predict the severity of upcoming AKI. Methods: We analyzed dipstick urine glucose in 195 patients with acute PUUV infection at hospital admission, and divided them into 2 categories according to the presence or absence of glucose in the dipstick urine test. Determinants of disease severity were analyzed in glucosuric and nonglucosuric patients. Results: Altogether, 24 of 195 patients (12%) had glucosuria. The patients with glucosuria had more severe AKI than patients without glucosuria (median maximum creatinine concentration 459 mmol/l, range 78-1041 mmol/l vs. 166 mmol/l, range 51-1499 mmol/l; P <0.001). The glucosuric patients had more severe thrombocytopenia (median minimum platelet count 41 x 10(9)/l, range 5-102 x 10(9)/l vs. 62 x 10(9)/l, range 3249 x 10(9)/l; P = 0.006), and more pronounced signs of increased capillary leakage (change in weight, maximum plasma hematocrit, minimum plasma albumin). The glucosuric patients were more often in clinical shock at admission (20.8% vs. 1.2%; P <0.001) and the length of hospital stay was longer (median 7.5 days, range 4-22 days vs. 6 days, range 2-30 days; P = 0.009). Conclusion: Glucosuria is relatively rare, but when present it predicts a more severe disease course in patients with acute PUUV infection.
  • Outinen, Tuula K.; Mantula, Paula; Jaatinen, Pia; Hämäläinen, Mari; Moilanen, Eeva; Vaheri, Antti; Huhtala, Heini; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka (2019)
    Most cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe are caused by the Puumala hantavirus (PUUV). Typical features of the disease are increased vascular permeability, acute kidney injury (AKI), and thrombocytopenia. YKL-40 is an inflammatory glycoprotein involved in various forms of acute and chronic inflammation. In the present study, we examined plasma YKL-40 levels and the associations of YKL-40 with disease severity in acute PUUV infection. A total of 79 patients treated in Tampere University Hospital during 2005-2014 were studied. Plasma YKL-40 was measured in the acute phase, the recovery phase, and one year after hospitalization. Plasma YKL-40 levels were higher during the acute phase compared to the recovery phase and one year after hospitalization (median YKL-40 142 ng/mL, range 11-3320, vs. 45 ng/mL, range 15-529, vs. 32 ng/mL, range 3-213, p <0.001). YKL-40 level was correlated with the length of hospital stay (r = 0.229, p = 0.042), the levels of inflammatory markers-that is, blood leukocytes (r = 0.234, p = 0.040), plasma C-reactive protein (r = 0.332, p = 0.003), and interleukin-6 (r = 0.544, p <0.001), and maximum plasma creatinine level (r = 0.370, p = 0.001). In conclusion, plasma YKL-40 levels were found to be elevated during acute PUUV infection and correlated with the overall severity of the disease, as well as with the degree of inflammation and the severity of AKI.
  • Cabrera, Luz E.; Schmotz, Constanze; Saleem, Moin A.; Lehtonen, Sanna; Vapalahti, Olli; Vaheri, Antti; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka; Strandin, Tomas (2022)
    Old-world orthohantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), characterized by acute kidney injury (AKI) with transient proteinuria. It seems plausible that proteinuria during acute HFRS is mediated by the disruption of the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) due to vascular leakage, a hallmark of orthohantavirus-caused diseases. However, direct infection of endothelial cells by orthohantaviruses does not result in increased endothelial permeability, and alternative explanations for vascular leakage and diminished GFB function are necessary. Vascular integrity is partly dependent on an intact endothelial glycocalyx, which is susceptible to cleavage by heparanase (HPSE). To understand the role of glycocalyx degradation in HFRS-associated proteinuria, we investigated the levels of HPSE in urine and plasma during acute, convalescent and recovery stages of HFRS caused by Puumala orthohantavirus. HPSE levels in urine during acute HFRS were significantly increased and strongly associated with the severity of AKI and other markers of disease severity. Furthermore, increased expression of HPSE was detected in vitro in orthohantavirus-infected podocytes, which line the outer surfaces of glomerular capillaries. Taken together, these findings suggest the local activation of HPSE in the kidneys of orthohantavirus-infected patients with the potential to disrupt the endothelial glycocalyx, leading to increased protein leakage through the GFB, resulting in high amounts of proteinuria.
  • Raty, Panu; Mentula, Panu; Lampela, Hanna; Nykänen, Taina; Helanterä, Ilkka; Haapio, Mikko; Lehtimäki, Tiina; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Vaara, Suvi T.; Leppäniemi, Ari; Sallinen, Ville (2020)
    Introduction CT is the primary imaging option for acute abdominal pain in adults. Intravenous (IV) contrast media use improves CT quality but may cause post-contrast acute kidney injury (PC-AKI). Retrospective studies show no association between reduced baseline renal function and IV contrast CT, but, to our knowledge, no data from randomised controlled trials exist. Methods and analysis The INCARO (INtravenous Contrast computed tomography versus native computed tomography in patients with acute Abdomen and impaired Renal functiOn) trial is a multicentre, open-label, parallel group, superiority, individually randomised controlled trial comparing IV contrast-enhanced CT to native CT in patients requiring emergency abdominal or body CT with impaired renal function defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 15 to 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2). The primary outcome is a composite of all-cause mortality or renal replacement therapy (RRT) within 90 days from CT. Secondary outcomes are AKI measured by KDIGO (The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) criteria within 72 hours from CT, organ dysfunction defined by mSOFA (modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment) criteria after 48 hours from CT, alive and hospital-free days within 90 days after CT, and time from imaging to definitive treatment. All-cause mortality, need for RRT and renal transplant in long-term follow-up are also measured. The calculated sample size is 994 patients. Patient recruitment is estimated to take 3 years. Ethics and dissemination The Ethics Committee of Helsinki University Hospital approved the study. The findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed academic journals.
  • Rakkolainen, Ilmari; Mustonen, Kukka-Maaria; Vuola, Jyrki (2020)
    Acute kidney injury is a common sequela after major burn injury, but only a small proportion of patients need renal replacement therapy. In the majority of patients, need for renal replacement therapy subsides before discharge from the burn center but limited literature exists on long-term outcomes. A few studies report an increased risk for chronic renal failure after burn injury. We investigated the long-term outcome of severely burned patients receiving renal replacement therapy during acute burn injury treatment. Data on 68 severely burned patients who received renal replacement therapy in Helsinki Burn Centre between November 1988 and December 2015 were collected retrospectively. Thirty-two patients survived and remained for follow-up after the primary hospital stay until December 31, 2016. About 56.3% of discharged patients were alive at the end of follow-up. In 81.3% of discharged patients, need for renal replacement therapy subsided before discharge. Two patients received renal replacement therapy for longer than 3 months; however, need for renal replacement therapy subsided in both patients. One patient required dialysis several years later on after the need for renal replacement therapy had subsided. This study showed that long-term need for renal replacement therapy is rare after severe burn injury. In the vast majority of patients, need for renal replacement therapy subsided before discharge from primary care. Acute kidney injury in association with burns is a potential but small risk factor for later worsening of kidney function in fragile individuals.
  • Clement, Jan; Ahlm, Clas; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana; Botten, Jason; Chandran, Kartik; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Klingstrom, Jonas; Klempa, Boris; Krueger, Detlev H.; Leirs, Herwig; Li, Dexin; Liang, Mifang; Markotic, Alemka; Papa, Anna; Schmaljohn, Connie S.; Tischler, Nicole D.; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Vaheri, Antti; Vial, Cecilia; Yanagihara, Richard; Maes, Piet (2020)
    The 2019 11th International Conference on Hantaviruses (ICH 2019) was organized by the International Society for Hantaviruses (ISH), and held on September 1-4, 2019, at the Irish College, in Leuven, Belgium. These ICHs have been held every three years since 1989. ICH 2019 was attended by 158 participants from 33 countries. The current report summarizes research presented on all aspects of hantavirology: ecology; pathogenesis and immune responses; virus phylogeny, replication and morphogenesis; epidemiology; vaccines, therapeutics and prevention; and clinical aspects and diagnosis.
  • Inkinen, Nina; Selander, Tuomas; Pettila, Ville; Valkonen, Miia; Bäcklund, Minna; Wennervirta, Johanna; Pulkkinen, Anni; Hästbacka, Johanna; Vaara, Suvi T. (2020)
    Background Oliguria is a frequent trigger for administering a fluid bolus, but the effect of fluid bolus in improving urine output is inadequately demonstrated. Here, we summarize the protocol and detailed statistical analysis plan of the randomized, controlled RESPONSE trial comparing follow-up as the experimental group and a 500 mL crystalloid fluid bolus as the control group for oliguria in critically ill oliguric patients. Methods Our trial is an investigator-initiated, randomized, controlled, pilot trial conducted in three ICUs in two centers. We aim to randomize 1:1 altogether 130 hemodynamically stable oliguric patients either to a 2-hour follow-up without interventions or to receive a crystalloid bolus of 500 mL over 30 minutes. The primary outcome is the change in individual urine output during the 2-hour period compared to 2 hours preceding randomization. Doubling of the urine output is considered clinically significant. Additionally, we record the duration of oliguria, physiological and biochemical variables, adverse events, and the incidences of acute kidney injury and renal replacement therapy. Conclusions Oliguria is a frequent trigger for potentially harmful fluid loading. Therefore, the RESPONSE trial will give information of the potential effect of fluid bolus on oliguria in critically ill patients. Trial registration clinical.trials.gov, NCT02860572.
  • Dahlbacka, Sebastian; Laakso, Teemu; Kinnunen, Eeva-Maija; Moriyama, Noriaki; Laine, Mika; Virtanen, Marko; Maaranen, Pasi; Ahvenvaara, Tuomas; Tauriainen, Tuomas; Husso, Annastiina; Jalava, Maina; Jaakkola, Jussi; Airaksinen, Juhani; Valtola, Antti; Niemela, Matti; Makikallio, Timo; Eskola, Markku; Vento, Antti; Juvonen, Tatu; Biancari, Fausto; Raivio, Peter (2021)
    Background. The impact of patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) on long-term outcome after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) is controversial. We sought to investigate the incidence of PPM and its impact on survival and reinterventions in a Finnish nationwide cohort. Methods. In the context of the nationwide FinnValve registry, we identified 4097 patients who underwent SAVR with a stented bioprosthesis with or without myocardial revascularization. The indexed effective orifice areas (EOAs) of surgical bioprostheses were calculated using literature-derived EOAs. PPM was graded as moderate (EOA 0.65-0.85 cm(2)/m(2)) or severe (EOA Results. The incidence of PPM was 46.0%. PPM was moderate in 38.8% (n = 1579) patients and severe in 7.2% (n = 297) patients. Time-trend analysis showed that the proportion of PPM decreased significantly from 74% in 2009 to 18% in 2017 (P < .01). Severe PPM was associated with increased 5-year all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-2.76; P = .02). Severe PPM was not associated with an increased risk of repeat AVR (adjusted HR, 5.90; 95% CI, 0.95-36.5; P = .06). In a subanalysis of patients greater than or equal to 70 years of age, in comparison with no PPM, any PPM (adjusted HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05-1.45; P = .01) and severe PPM (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.17-2.00; P < 0.01) were associated with increased risk of 5-year mortality. Conclusions. Severe PPM after SAVR had a negative impact on survival. This study demonstrated that the effects of PPM should not be overlooked in elderly undergoing SAVR. (C) 2021 by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons
  • Outinen, Tuula K.; Mäkelä, Satu; Pörsti, Ilkka; Vaheri, Antti; Mustonen, Jukka (2022)
    Annually, over 10,000 cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) are diagnosed in Europe. Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) causes most of the European HFRS cases. PUUV causes usually a relatively mild disease, which is rarely fatal. However, the severity of the infection varies greatly, and factors affecting the severity are mostly unrevealed. Host genes are known to have an effect. The typical clinical features in PUUV infection include acute kidney injury, thrombocytopenia, and increased vascular permeability. The primary target of hantavirus is the endothelium of the vessels of different organs. Although PUUV does not cause direct cytopathology of the endothelial cells, remarkable changes in both the barrier function of the endothelium and the function of the infected endothelial cells occur. Host immune or inflammatory mechanisms are probably important in the development of the capillary leakage. Several immunoinflammatory biomarkers have been studied in the context of assessing the severity of HFRS caused by PUUV. Most of them are not used in clinical practice, but the increasing knowledge about the biomarkers has elucidated the pathogenesis of PUUV infection.
  • Vaara, Suvi T.; Hollmen, Maija; Korhonen, Anna-Maija; Maksimow, Mikael; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Salmi, Marko; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Pettilä, Ville; FINNAKI Study Grp (2016)
    Background CD73 dephosphorylates adenosine monophosphate to adenosine that is an anti-inflammatory molecule inhibiting immune activation and vascular leakage. Therefore, CD73 could be an interesting mediator both in sepsis and acute kidney injury (AKI). We aimed to explore the soluble CD73 (sCD73) levels and their evolution in critically ill patients with severe sepsis and, second, to scrutinize the potential association of sCD73 levels with AKI and 90-day mortality. Methods This was a post-hoc laboratory analysis of the prospective, observational FINNAKI study conducted in 17 Finnish ICU during 5 months in 2011-2012. Plasma samples of 588 patients admitted with severe sepsis/shock or with developing severe sepsis were analyzed at 0h (ICU admission) and 24h, and additionally, on day 3 or day 5 from a subset of the patients. Results The median [IQR] sCD73 levels at 0h were 5.11 [3.29-8.28] ng/mL and they decreased significantly from 0h to 4.14 [2.88-7.11] ng/mL at 24h, P Conclusions Compared to normal population, the sCD73 levels were generally low at 0h, showed a decrease to 24h, and later an increase by day 5. The sCD73 levels do not seem useful in predicting the development of AKI or 90-day mortality among patients with severe sepsis or shock.
  • Pettila, Ville; Merz, Tobias; Wilkman, Erika; Karlsson, Sari; Perner, Anders; Lange, Theis; Hästbacka, Johanna; Hjortrup, Peter Buhl; Kuitunen, Anne; Jakob, Stephan M.; Takala, Jukka (2016)
    Background: Septic shock has a 90-day mortality risk of up to 50 %. The hemodynamic targets, including mean arterial pressure (MAP) are not based on robust clinical data. Both severe hypotension and high doses of vasopressors may be harmful. Hence, re-evaluation of hemodynamic targets in septic shock is relevant. Methods/design: The targeted tissue perfusion versus macrocirculation-guided standard care in patients with septic shock (TARTARE-2S) trial is a prospective, two-parallel-group, randomized, open-label, multicenter trial with assessor-blinded outcome evaluation. We will randomize at least 200 patients with septic shock in four European intensive care units (ICUs) to test whether a tissue perfusion-guided treatment strategy based on capillary refill time, peripheral temperature, arterial lactate concentrations, and accepting lower MAP levels, leads to a faster resolution of shock than macrocirculation target-guided standard care. The primary outcome measure is days alive in 30 days with normal arterial blood lactate (first value of Discussion: The TARTARE-2S trial will provide important clinical data on treatment targets in septic shock, evaluating the impact of clinical tissue perfusion-guided hemodynamic treatment on a surrogate outcome combining resolution of shock (hyperlactatemia and vasopressors/inotropes), and 30-day mortality.
  • Tietäväinen, Johanna; Mäkelä, Satu; Huhtala, Heini; Pörsti, Ilkka H; Strandin, Tomas; Vaheri, Antti; Mustonen, Jukka (2021)
    Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) causes a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome characterized by thrombocytopenia, increased capillary leakage, and acute kidney injury (AKI). As glucosuria at hospital admission predicts the severity of PUUV infection, we explored how plasma glucose concentration associates with disease severity. Plasma glucose values were measured during hospital care in 185 patients with PUUV infection. They were divided into two groups according to maximum plasma glucose concentration: P-Gluc < 7.8 mmol/L (n = 134) and P-Gluc >= 7.8 mmol/L (n = 51). The determinants of disease severity were analyzed across groups. Patients with P-Gluc >= 7.8 mmol/L had higher hematocrit (0.46 vs. 0.43; p < 0.001) and lower plasma albumin concentration (24 vs. 29 g/L; p < 0.001) than patients with P-Gluc < 7.8 mmol/L. They presented with higher prevalence of pulmonary infiltrations and pleural effusion in chest radiograph, higher prevalence of shock and greater weight change during hospitalization. Patients with P-Gluc >= 7.8 mmol/L were characterized by lower platelet count (50 vs. 66 x 10(9)/L; p = 0.001), more severe AKI (plasma creatinine 272 vs. 151 mu mol/L; p = 0.001), and longer hospital treatment (8 vs. 6 days; p < 0.001) than patients with P-Gluc < 7.8 mmol/L. Plasma glucose level is associated with the severity of capillary leakage, thrombocytopenia, inflammation, and AKI in patients with acute PUUV infection.
  • DIAMOND Study Grp; Trunecka, Pavel; Klempnauer, Juergen; Bechstein, Wolf Otto; Isoniemi, Helena; Tisone, Giuseppe (2019)
    Background: The DIAMOND study of de novo liver transplant patients showed that prolonged-release tacrolimus exposure in the acute post-transplant period maintained renal function over 24 weeks of treatment. To assess these findings further, we performed a post-hoc analysis in patients according to baseline kidney function, Model for End-stage Liver Disease [MELD] scores, and donor age. Material/Methods: Patients received prolonged-release tacrolimus (initial-dose, Arm 1: 0.2 mg/kg/day, Arm 2: 0.15-0.175 mg/kg/day, Arm 3: 0.2 mg/kg/day delayed until Day 5), mycophenolate mofetil and 1 steroid bolus. Arms 2 and 3 also received basiliximab. The recommended tacrolimus target trough levels to Day 42 post-transplantation were 5-15 ng/mL in all arms. In this post-hoc analysis, change in renal outcome, based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), Modified Diet in Renal Disease-4 (MDRD4), values from baseline to Week 24 post-transplantation, were assessed according to baseline patient factors: eGFR (>= 60 and = 25) and donor age (= 50 years). Results: Baseline characteristics were comparable (Arms 1-3: n=283, n=287, n=274, respectively). Patients with baseline renal function, eGFR >= 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), experienced a decrease in eGFR in all tacrolimus treatment arms. In patients with lower baseline renal function (eGFR Conclusions: Pre-transplantation factors, such as renal function and donor age, could guide the choice of prolonged-release tacrolimus regimen following liver transplantation.
  • Passov, Arie; Petäjä, Liisa; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Salminen, Ulla-Stina; Suojaranta, Raili; Vento, Antti; Andersson, Sture; Pettilä, Ville; Schramko, Alexey; Pesonen, Eero (2019)
    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common after heart surgery. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is produced in injured kidney. NGAL has been used as an early plasma biomarker for AKI in patients undergoing heart surgery. Neutrophils contain all isoforms (25-kDa, 45-kDa and 145-kDa) but the kidney produces almost exclusively the 25-kDa isoform of NGAL. We investigated first, whether there is association between NGAL and neutrophil activation, and second whether activated neutrophils are a significant source of circulating NGAL in plasma in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods: Two separate patient cohorts were studied: 1) the "kinetic cohort" (n = 29) and 2) the "FINNAKI cohort" (n = 306). As NGAL is strictly co-localized with lactoferrin in neutrophils, NGAL and lactoferrin were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all patients. In sixty-one patients of the "FINNAKI cohort" Western blot was used to separate NGAL isoforms according to their molecular size. Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis H, Pearson's and Spearman's tests were used as appropriate. Results: There was strong intraoperative association between NGAL and lactoferrin at all four time-points in the "kinetic cohort". In the "FINNAKI cohort", NGAL and lactoferrin concentrations correlated preoperatively (R = 0.59, p <0.001) and at admission to the intensive care unit (R = 0.69, p <0.001). At admission to intensive care unit, concentrations of NGAL and lactoferrin were higher in AKI than in non-AKI patients (NGAL: p <0.001; lactoferrin: p <0.029). In Western blot analyses, neutrophil specific 45-kDa isoform (median 41% [IQR 33.3-53.1]) and mostly neutrophil derived 145-kDa isoform (median 53.5% [IQR 44.0-64.9%]) together represented over 90% of total NGAL in plasma. Potentially kidney derived NGAL isoform (25-kDa) accounted for only 0.9% (IQR 0.3 - 3.0%) of total NGAL in plasma. There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of NGAL isomers between AKI and non-AKI patients. Conclusions: Plasma NGAL during cardiac surgery is associated with neutrophil activation. Based on molecular size, the majority of circulating NGAL is derived from neutrophils. Neutrophil activation is a confounding factor when interpreting increased plasma NGAL in cardiac surgery.