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  • Stassen, Willem; Wallis, Lee; Castren, Maaret; Vincent-Lambert, Craig; Kurland, Lisa (2019)
    The incidence of cardiovascular disease and STEMI is on the rise in sub-Saharan Africa. Timely treatment is essential to reduce mortality. Internationally, prehospital 12 lead ECG telemetry has been proposed to reduce time to reperfusion. Its value in South Africa has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prehospital 12 lead ECG telemetry on the PCI-times of STEMI patients in South Africa. A multicentre randomised controlled trial was attempted among adult patients with prehospital 12 lead ECG evidence of STEMI. Due to poor enrolment and small sample sizes, meaningful analyses could not be made. The challenges and lessons learnt from this attempt at Africa's first prehospital RCT are discussed. Challenges associated with conducting this RCT related to the healthcare landscape, resources, training of paramedics, rollout and rando-misation, technology, consent and research culture. High quality evidence to guide prehospital emergency care practice is lacking both in Africa and the rest of the world. This is likely due to the difficulties with performing prehospital clinical trials. Every trial will be unique to the test intervention and setting of each study, but by considering some of the challenges and lessons learnt in the attempt at this trial, future studies might experience less difficulty. This may lead to a stronger evidence-base for prehospital emergency
  • Cerlinskaite, Kamile; Javanainen, Tuija; Cinotti, Raphael; Mebazaa, Alexandre (2018)
    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a life-threatening medical condition, where urgent diagnostic and treatment methods are of key importance. However, there are few evidence-based treatment methods. Interestingly, despite relatively similar ways of management of AHF throughout the globe, mid-term outcome in East Asia, including South Korea is more favorable than in Europe. Yet, most of the treatment methods are symptomatic. The cornerstone of AHF management is identifying precipitating factors and specific phenotype. Multidisciplinary approach is important in AHF, which can be caused or aggravated by both cardiac and non-cardiac causes. The main pathophysiological mechanism in AHF is congestion, both systemic and inside the organs (lung, kidney, or liver). Cardiac output is often preserved in AHF except in a few cases of advanced heart failure. This paper provides guidance on AHF management in a time-based approach. Treatment strategies, criteria for triage, admission to hospital and discharge are described.
  • Tolppanen, Heli; Rivas-Lasarte, Mercedes; Lassus, Johan; Sans-Rosello, Jordi; Hartmann, Oliver; Lindholm, Matias; Arrigo, Mattia; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Kober, Lars; Thiele, Holger; Pulkki, Kari; Spinar, Jindrich; Parissis, John; Banaszewski, Marek; Silva-Cardoso, Jose; Carubelli, Valentina; Sionis, Alessandro; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Mebazaa, Alexandre (2017)
    Background: The clinical CardShock risk score, including baseline lactate levels, was recently shown to facilitate risk stratification in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS). As based on baseline parameters, however, it may not reflect the change in mortality risk in response to initial therapies. Adrenomedullin is a prognostic biomarker in several cardiovascular diseases and was recently shown to associate with hemodynamic instability in patients with septic shock. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value and association with hemodynamic parameters of bioactive adrenomedullin (bio-ADM) in patients with CS. Methods: CardShock was a prospective, observational, European multinational cohort study of CS. In this sub-analysis, serial plasma bio-ADM and arterial blood lactate measurements were collected from 178 patients during the first 10 days after detection of CS. Results: Both bio-ADM and lactate were higher in 90-day non-survivors compared to survivors at all time points (P <0.05 for all). Lactate showed good prognostic value during the initial 24 h (AUC 0.78 at admission and 0.76 at 24 h). Subsequently, lactate returned normal ( 55.7 pg/mL) at 48 h compared to those with low bio-ADM levels (49.1 vs. 22.6%, P = 0.001). High levels of bio-ADM were associated with impaired cardiac index, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, and systolic pulmonary artery pressure during the study period. Furthermore, high levels of bio-ADM at 48 to 96 h were related to persistently impaired cardiac and end-organ function. Conclusions: Bio-ADM is a valuable prognosticator and marker of impaired hemodynamics in CS patients. High levels of bio-ADM may show shock refractoriness and developing end-organ dysfunction and thus help to guide therapeutic approach in patients with CS.
  • Tolvi, Morag; Mattila, Kimmo; Haukka, Jari; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Lehtonen, Lasse (2020)
    Background: The weekend effect, the phenomenon of patients admitted at the weekend having a higher mortality risk, has been widely investigated and documented in both elective and emergency patients. Research on the issue is scarce in Europe, with the exception of the United Kingdom. We examined the situation in Helsinki University Hospital over a 14-year period from a specialty-specific approach. Materials and methods: We collected the data for all patient visits for 2000-2013, selecting patients with in-hospital care in the university hospital and extracting patients that died during their hospital stay or within 30 days of discharge. These patients were categorized according to urgency of care and specialty. Results: A total of 1,542,230 in-patients (853,268 emergency patients) met the study criteria, with 47,122 deaths in-hospital or within 30 days of discharge. Of 12 specialties, we found a statistically significant weekend effect for in-hospital mortality in 7 specialties (emergency admissions) and 4 specialties (elective admissions); for 30-day post-discharge mortality in 1 specialty (emergency admissions) and 2 specialties (elective admissions). Surgery, internal medicine, neurology, and gynecology and obstetrics were most sensitive to the weekend effect. Conclusions: The study confirms a weekend effect for both elective and emergency admissions in most specialties. Reducing the number of weekend elective procedures may be necessary. More disease-specific research is needed to find the diagnoses most susceptible. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Gholami, Mahdia; Pakdaman, Afsaneh; Montazeri, Ali; Jafari, Ahmad; Virtanen, Jorma I. (2014)
  • Hänninen, Mikko; Jäntti, Toni; Tolppanen, Heli; Segersvärd, Heli; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Lassus, Johan; Vausort, Melanie; Devaux, Yvan; Sionis, Alessandro; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Lakkisto, Päivi (2020)
    Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a life-threatening emergency. New biomarkers are needed in order to detect patients at greater risk of adverse outcome. Our aim was to assess the characteristics of miR-21-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-320a-3p in CS and evaluate the value of their expression levels in risk prediction. Circulating levels of miR-21-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-320a-3p were measured from serial plasma samples of 179 patients during the first 5-10 days after detection of CS, derived from the CardShock study. Acute coronary syndrome was the most common cause (80%) of CS. Baseline (0 h) levels of miR-21-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-320a-3p were all significantly elevated in nonsurvivors compared to survivors (p <0.05 for all). Above median levels at 0h of each miRNA were each significantly associated with higher lactate and alanine aminotransferase levels and decreased glomerular filtration rates. After adjusting the multivariate regression analysis with established CS risk factors, miR-21-5p and miR-320a-3p levels above median at 0 h were independently associated with 90-day all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1-3.0), p = 0.018; adjusted hazard ratio 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.2-3.2), p = 0.009, respectively). In conclusion, circulating plasma levels of miR-21-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-320a-3p at baseline were all elevated in nonsurvivors of CS and associated with markers of hypoperfusion. Above median levels of miR-21-5p and miR-320a-3p at baseline appear to independently predict 90-day all-cause mortality. This indicates the potential of miRNAs as biomarkers for risk assessment in cardiogenic shock.
  • Stassen, Willem; Kurland, Lisa; Wallis, Lee; Castren, Maaret; Vincent-Lambert, Craig (2020)
    Background: ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is on the rise in sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa consistently fails to deliver timely reperfusion to these patients, possibly due to under-developed coronary care networks (CCN). Objectives: To determine the current perceived state of CCNs, to determine the barriers to optimising CCNs and to suggest facilitators to optimising CCNs within the South African context. Methods: A qualitative descriptive approach was employed, by performing two structured in-depth and two focus group interviews (n=4 and 5, respectively), inviting a purposely heterogeneous sample of 11 paramedics (n=4), doctors (n=5), and nurses (n=2) working within different settings in South African CCNs. Recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and subjected to content analysis. Results: Participants described an under-resourced, unprioritised and fragmented CCN with significant variation in performance. Barriers to CCN optimisation resided in recognition and diagnosis of STEMI, transport and treatment decisions, and delays. Participants suggested that thrombolysing all STEMI patients could facilitate earlier reperfusion and that pre-hospital thrombolysis should be considered. Participants highlighted the need for regionalised STEMI guidelines, and the need for further research. Conclusion: Numerous barriers were highlighted. Healthcare policy-makers should prioritise the development of CCNs that is underpinned by evidence and that is contextualised to each specific region within the South African health care system.
  • Koivula, Kimmo; Nikus, Kjell; Viikilä, Juho; Lilleberg, Jyrki; Huhtala, Heini; Birnbaum, Yochai; Eskola, Markku (2019)
    Background Both Q waves and T-wave inversion (TWI) in the presenting ECG are associated with a progressed stage of myocardial infarction, possibly with less potential for myocardial salvage with reperfusion therapy. Combining the diagnostic information from the Q- and T-wave analyses could improve the prognostic work-up in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Methods We sought to determine the prognostic impact of Q waves and TWI in the admission ECG on patient outcome in STEMI. We formed four groups according to the presence of Q waves and/or TWI (Q+TWI+; Q-TWI+; Q+TWI-; Q-TWI-). We studied 627 all-comers with STEMI derived from two patient cohorts. Results The patients with Q+TWI+ had the highest and those with Q-TWI- the lowest 30-day and one-year mortality. One-year mortality was similar between Q-TWI+ and Q+TWI-. The survival analysis showed higher early mortality in Q+TWI- but the higher late mortality in Q-TWI+ compensated for the difference at 1 year. The highest peak troponin level was found in the patients with Q+TWI-. Conclusion Q waves and TWI predict adverse outcome, especially if both ECG features are present. Q waves and TWI predict similar one-year mortality. Extending the ECG analysis in STEMI patients to include both Q waves and TWI improves risk stratification.
  • Ristagno, Giuseppe; Latini, Roberto; Plebani, Mario; Zaninotto, Martina; Vaahersalo, Jukka; Masson, Serge; Tiainen, Marjaana; Kurola, Jouni; Gaspari, Flavio; Milani, Valentina; Pettila, Ville; Skrifvars, Markus Benedikt; FINNRESUSCI Study Grp (2015)
    Introduction: We studied associations of the stress hormones copeptin and cortisol with outcome and organ dysfunction after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Methods: Plasma was obtained after consent from next of kin in the FINNRESUSCI study conducted in 21 Finnish intensive care units (ICUs) between 2010 and 2011. We measured plasma copeptin (pmol/L) and free cortisol (nmol/L) on ICU admission (245 patients) and at 48 hours (additional 33 patients). Organ dysfunction was categorised with 24-hour Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores. Twelve-month neurological outcome (available in 276 patients) was classified with cerebral performance categories (CPC) and dichotomised into good (CPC 1 or 2) or poor (CPC 3 to 5). Data are presented as medians and interquartile ranges (IQRs). A Mann-Whitney U test, multiple linear and logistic regression tests with odds ratios (ORs) 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and beta (B) values, repeated measure analysis of variance, and receiver operating characteristic curves with area under the curve (AUC) were performed. Results: Patients with a poor 12-month outcome had higher levels of admission copeptin (89, IQR 41 to 193 versus 51, IQR 29 to 111 pmol/L, P = 0.0014) and cortisol (728, IQR 522 to 1,017 versus 576, IQR 355 to 850 nmol/L, P = 0.0013). Copeptin levels fell between admission and 48 hours (P Conclusions: Admission copeptin and free cortisol were not of prognostic value regarding 12-month neurological outcome after OHCA. Higher admission copeptin and cortisol were associated with ICU death, and copeptin predicted subsequent organ dysfunction.
  • Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Lassus, Johan; Varpula, Marjut; Sionis, Alessandro; Sund, Reijo; Kober, Lars; Spinar, Jindrich; Parissis, John; Banaszewski, Marek; Cardoso, Jose Silva; Carubelli, Valentina; Di Somma, Salvatore; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; CardShock Study Investigators (2016)
    Background: Vasopressors and inotropes remain a cornerstone in stabilization of the severely impaired hemodynamics and cardiac output in cardiogenic shock (CS). The aim of this study was to analyze current real-life use of these medications, and their impact on outcome and on changes in cardiac and renal biomarkers over time in CS. Methods: The multinational CardShock study prospectively enrolled 219 patients with CS. The use of vasopressors and inotropes was analyzed in relation to the primary outcome, i.e., 90-day mortality, with propensity score methods in 216 patients with follow-up data available. Changes in cardiac and renal biomarkers over time until 96 hours from baseline were analyzed with linear mixed modeling. Results: Patients were 67 (SD 12) years old, 26 % were women, and 28 % had been resuscitated from cardiac arrest prior to inclusion. On average, systolic blood pressure was 78 (14) and mean arterial pressure 57 (11) mmHg at detection of shock. 90-day mortality was 41 %. Vasopressors and/or inotropes were administered to 94 % of patients and initiated principally within the first 24 hours. Noradrenaline and adrenaline were given to 75 % and 21 % of patients, and 30 % received several vasopressors. In multivariable logistic regression, only adrenaline (21 %) was independently associated with increased 90-day mortality (OR 5.2, 95 % CI 1.88, 14.7, p = 0.002). The result was independent of prior cardiac arrest (39 % of patients treated with adrenaline), and the association remained in propensity-score-adjusted analysis among vasopressor-treated patients (OR 3.0, 95 % CI 1.3, 7.2, p = 0.013); this was further confirmed by propensity-score-matched analysis. Adrenaline was also associated, independent of prior cardiac arrest, with marked worsening of cardiac and renal biomarkers during the first days. Dobutamine and levosimendan were the most commonly used inotropes (49 % and 24 %). There were no differences in mortality, whether noradrenaline was combined with dobutamine or levosimendan. Conclusion: Among vasopressors and inotropes, adrenaline was independently associated with 90-day mortality in CS. Moreover, adrenaline use was associated with marked worsening in cardiac and renal biomarkers. The combined use of noradrenaline with either dobutamine or levosimendan appeared prognostically similar.
  • Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Salomaa, Veikko; Havulinna, Aki; Airaksinen, Juhani; Ketonen, Matti; Koukkunen, Heli; Ukkola, Olavi; Kesaniemi, Y. Antero; Lyytinen, Heli; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Mikkola, Tomi S. (2016)
    Objectives: The role of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) in the incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has been studied extensively, but less is known of the impact of HT on the mortality risk due to an ACS. Study design and main outcome measures: We extracted from a population-based ACS register, FINAMI, 7258 postmenopausal women with the first ACS. These data were combined with HT use data from the National Drug Reimbursement Register; 625 patients (9%) had used various HT regimens. The death risks due to ACS before admission to hospital, 2-28, or 29-365 days after the incident ACS were compared between HT users and non-users with logistic regression analyses. Results: In all follow-up time points, the ACS death risks in HT ever-users were smaller compared to non-users. Of women with FIT ever use, 42% died within one year as compared with 52% of non-users (OR 0.62, p <0.001). Most deaths (84%) occurred within 28 days after the ACS, and in this group 36% of women with ever use of FIT (OR 0.73, p = 0.002) and 30% of women with >= 5 year FIT use (OR 0.54, p <0.001) died as compared to 43% of the non-users. Age 60 years at the HT initiation was accompanied with similar reductions in ACS mortality risk. Conclusions: Postmenopausal HT use is accompanied with reduced mortality risk after primary ACS. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Pradhapan, Paruthi; Tarvainen, Mika P.; Nieminen, Tuomo; Lehtinen, Rami; Nikus, Kjell; Lehtimaki, Terho; Kahonen, Mika; Viik, Jari (2014)
  • Chioncel, Ovidiu; Parissis, John; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Thiele, Holger; Desch, Steffen; Bauersachs, Johann; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Antohi, Elena-Laura; Arrigo, Mattia; Gal, Tuvia B.; Celutkiene, Jelena; Collins, Sean P.; DeBacker, Daniel; Iliescu, Vlad A.; Jankowska, Ewa; Jaarsma, Tiny; Keramida, Kalliopi; Lainscak, Mitja; Lund, Lars H.; Lyon, Alexander R.; Masip, Josep; Metra, Marco; Miro, Oscar; Mortara, Andrea; Mueller, Christian; Mullens, Wilfried; Nikolaou, Maria; Piepoli, Massimo; Price, Susana; Rosano, Giuseppe; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine; Weinstein, Jean M.; Anker, Stefan D.; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Ruschitzka, Frank; Coats, Andrew J. S.; Seferovic, Petar (2020)
    Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a complex multifactorial clinical syndrome with extremely high mortality, developing as a continuum, and progressing from the initial insult (underlying cause) to the subsequent occurrence of organ failure and death. There is a large spectrum of CS presentations resulting from the interaction between an acute cardiac insult and a patient's underlying cardiac and overall medical condition. Phenotyping patients with CS may have clinical impact on management because classification would support initiation of appropriate therapies. CS management should consider appropriate organization of the health care services, and therapies must be given to the appropriately selected patients, in a timely manner, whilst avoiding iatrogenic harm. Although several consensus-driven algorithms have been proposed, CS management remains challenging and substantial investments in research and development have not yielded proof of efficacy and safety for most of the therapies tested, and outcome in this condition remains poor. Future studies should consider the identification of the new pathophysiological targets, and high-quality translational research should facilitate incorporation of more targeted interventions in clinical research protocols, aimed to improve individual patient outcomes. Designing outcome clinical trials in CS remains particularly challenging in this critical and very costly scenario in cardiology, but information from these trials is imperiously needed to better inform the guidelines and clinical practice. The goal of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the definition, epidemiology, underlying causes, pathophysiology and management of CS based on important lessons from clinical trials and registries, with a focus on improving in-hospital management.
  • Leopold, Valentine; Gayat, Etienne; Pirracchio, Romain; Spinar, Jindrich; Parenica, Jiri; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Lassus, Johan; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Champion, Sebastien; Zannad, Faiez; Valente, Serafina; Urban, Philip; Chua, Horng-Ruey; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Popovic, Batric; Ouweneel, Dagmar M.; Henriques, Jose P. S.; Simonis, Gregor; Levy, Bruno; Kimmoun, Antoine; Gaudard, Philippe; Basir, Mir Babar; Markota, Andrej; Adler, Christoph; Reuter, Hannes; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Chouihed, Tahar (2018)
    Catecholamines have been the mainstay of pharmacological treatment of cardiogenic shock (CS). Recently, use of epinephrine has been associated with detrimental outcomes. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the association between epinephrine use and short-term mortality in all-cause CS patients. We performed a meta-analysis of individual data with prespecified inclusion criteria: (1) patients in non-surgical CS treated with inotropes and/or vasopressors and (2) at least 15% of patients treated with epinephrine administrated alone or in association with other inotropes/vasopressors. The primary outcome was short-term mortality. Fourteen published cohorts and two unpublished data sets were included. We studied 2583 patients. Across all cohorts of patients, the incidence of epinephrine use was 37% (17-76%) and short-term mortality rate was 49% (21-69%). A positive correlation was found between percentages of epinephrine use and short-term mortality in the CS cohort. The risk of death was higher in epinephrine-treated CS patients (OR [CI] = 3.3 [2.8-3.9]) compared to patients treated with other drug regimens. Adjusted mortality risk remained striking in epinephrine-treated patients (n = 1227) (adjusted OR = 4.7 [3.4-6.4]). After propensity score matching, two sets of 338 matched patients were identified and epinephrine use remained associated with a strong detrimental impact on short-term mortality (OR = 4.2 [3.0-6.0]). In this very large cohort, epinephrine use for hemodynamic management of CS patients is associated with a threefold increase of risk of death.
  • Metra, Marco; Mentz, Robert J.; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Heizer, Gretchen M.; Armstrong, Paul W.; Clausell, Nadine; Corbalan, Ramon; Costanzo, Maria Rosa; Dickstein, Kenneth; Dunlap, Mark E.; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Howlett, Jonathan G.; Komajda, Michel; Krum, Henry; Lombardi, Carlo; Fonarow, Gregg C.; McMurray, John J. V.; Nieminen, Markku S.; Swedberg, Karl; Voors, Adriaan A.; Starling, Randall C.; Teerlink, John R.; O'Connor, Christopher M. (2016)
    A growing number of countries and geographical regions are involved in major clinical trials. Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide in Decompensated Heart Failure is the largest trial in acutely decompensated heart failure (HF) with patients from 5 geographical regions: North America (NA), Latin America (LA), Western Europe (WE), Central Europe (CE), and Asia-Pacific (AP). Data from the 5 geographical, areas were compared including baseline characteristics, medications, 30-day outcomes (mortality and mortality or HF hospitalization), and 180-day mortality. Of the 7,141 study patients, 3,243 (45.4%) were from NA (average of 15.2 patients/site), 1,762 (24.7%) from AP (28.4 patients/site), 967 (13.5%) from CE (20.2 patients/site), 665 (9.3%) from LA (17.1 patients/site), and 504 (7.1%) from WE (14.4 patients/site). There were marked differences in co-morbidities, clinical profile, medication use, length of stay, 30-day event rates, and 180-day mortality by region. Compared with NA, the adjusted risk for death or HF hospitalization at 30 days was significantly lower in CE (odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.64), WE (OR 0.52 95% CI 0.35 to 0.75), and AP (OR 0.62 95% CI 0.48 to 0:79) and numerically lower in LA (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.04) with similar results for 180-day mortality. In conclusion, in patients with acutely decompensated HF, major differences in baseline characteristics, treatments, length of the hospital stay, and 30-day HF rehospitalization rates, and 180-day mortality were found in patients enrolled from different, geographical areas. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Siltanen, Antti; Kitabayashi, Katsukiyo; Lakkisto, Paivi; Mäkelä, Johanna; Pätilä, Tommi; Ono, Masamichi; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Sawa, Yoshiki; Kankuri, Esko; Harjula, Ari (2011)
  • De Luca, Giuseppe; Cercek, Miha; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Vavlukis, Marija; Calmac, Lucian; Johnson, Tom; Roura i Ferrer, Gerard; Ganyukov, Vladimir; Wojakowski, Wojtek; von Birgelen, Clemens; Versaci, Francesco; Ten Berg, Jurrien; Laine, Mika; Dirksen, Maurits; Casella, Gianni; Kala, Petr; Diez Gil, Jose Luis; Becerra, Victor; De Simone, Ciro; Carrill, Xavier; Scoccia, Alessandra; Lux, Arpad; Kovarnik, Tomas; Davlouros, Periklis; Gabrielli, Gabriele; Rios, Xacobe Flores; Bakraceski, Nikola; Levesque, Sebastien; Guiducci, Vincenzo; Kidawa, Michal; Marinucci, Lucia; Zilio, Filippo; Galasso, Gennaro; Fabris, Enrico; Menichelli, Maurizio; Manzo, Stephane; Caiazzo, Gianluca; Moreu, Jose; Sanchis Fores, Juan; Donazzan, Luca; Vignali, Luigi; Teles, Rui; Ojeda, Francisco Bosa; Lehtola, Heidi; Camacho-Freiere, Santiago; Kraaijeveld, Adriaan; Antti, Ylitalo; Boccalatte, Marco; Lozano Martinez-Luengas, Inigo; Scheller, Bruno; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Uccello, Giuseppe; Faurie, Benjamin; Barrios, Alejandro Gutierrez; Wilbert, Bor; Cortese, Giuliana; Moreno, Raul; Parodi, Guido; Kedhi, Elvin; Verdoia, Monica (2020)
    Background It has been suggested the COVID pandemic may have indirectly affected the treatment and outcome of STEMI patients, by avoidance or significant delays in contacting the emergency system. No data have been reported on the impact of diabetes on treatment and outcome of STEMI patients, that was therefore the aim of the current subanalysis conducted in patients included in the International Study on Acute Coronary Syndromes-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (ISACS-STEMI) COVID-19. Methods The ISACS-STEMI COVID-19 is a retrospective registry performed in European centers with an annual volume of > 120 primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and assessed STEMI patients, treated with primary PCI during the same periods of the years 2019 versus 2020 (March and April). Main outcomes are the incidences of primary PCI, delayed treatment, and in-hospital mortality. Results A total of 6609 patients underwent primary PCI in 77 centers, located in 18 countries. Diabetes was observed in a total of 1356 patients (20.5%), with similar proportion between 2019 and 2020. During the pandemic, there was a significant reduction in primary PCI as compared to 2019, similar in both patients with (Incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.79 (95% CI: 0.73-0.85, p <0.0001) and without diabetes (IRR 0.81 (95% CI: 0.78-0.85, p <0.0001) (p int = 0.40). We observed a significant heterogeneity among centers in the population with and without diabetes (p <0.001, respectively). The heterogeneity among centers was not related to the incidence of death due to COVID-19 in both groups of patients. Interaction was observed for Hypertension (p = 0.024) only in absence of diabetes. Furthermore, the pandemic was independently associated with a significant increase in door-to-balloon and total ischemia times only among patients without diabetes, which may have contributed to the higher mortality, during the pandemic, observed in this group of patients. Conclusions The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on the treatment of patients with STEMI, with a similar reduction in primary PCI procedures in both patients with and without diabetes. Hypertension had a significant impact on PCI reduction only among patients without diabetes. We observed a significant increase in ischemia time and door-to-balloon time mainly in absence of diabetes, that contributed to explain the increased mortality observed in this group of patients during the pandemic. Trial registration number: NCT 04412655.
  • Strandberg, Timo E.; Räikkönen, K.; Salomaa, V.; Strandberg, A.; Kautiainen, H.; Kivimäki, M.; Pitkälä, K.; Huttunen, J. (2018)
    Objectives: In a 5-year multifactorial risk reduction intervention for healthy men with at least one cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor, mortality was unexpectedly higher in the intervention than the control group during the first 15-year follow-up. In order to find explanations for the adverse outcome, we have extended mortality follow-up and examined in greater detail baseline characteristics that contributed to total mortality. Design: Long-term follow-up of a controlled intervention trial. Setting: The Helsinki Businessmen Study Intervention Trial. Participants and Intervention: The prevention trial between 1974-1980 included 1,222 initially healthy men (born 1919-1934) at high CVD risk, who were randomly allocated into intervention (n=612) and control groups (n=610). The 5-year multifactorial intervention consisted of personal health education and contemporary drug treatments for dyslipidemia and hypertension. In the present analysis we used previously unpublished data on baseline risk factors and lifestyle characteristics. Main outcome measures: 40-year total and cause-specific mortality through linkage to nation-wide death registers. Results: The study groups were practically identical at baseline in 1974, and the 5-year intervention significantly improved risk factors (body mass index, blood pressure, serum lipids and glucose), and total CVD risk by 46% in the intervention group. Despite this, total mortality has been consistently higher up to 25 years post-trial in the intervention group than the control group, and converging thereafter. Increased mortality risk was driven by CVD and accidental deaths. Of the newly-analysed baseline factors, there was a significant interaction for mortality between intervention group and yearly vacation time (P=0.027): shorter vacation was associated with excess 30-year mortality in the intervention (hazard ratio 1.37, 95% CI 1.03-1.83, P=0.03), but not in the control group (P=0.5). This finding was robust to multivariable adjustments. Conclusion: After a multifactorial intervention for healthy men with at least one CVD risk factor, there has been an unexpectedly increased mortality in the intervention group. This increase was especially observed in a subgroup characterised by shorter vacation time at baseline. Although this adverse response to personal preventive measures in vulnerable individuals may be characteristic to men of high social status with subclinical CVD, it clearly deserves further investigation.
  • Ryynanen, Olli-Pekka; Iirola, Timo; Reitala, Janne; Malmivaara, Antti (2010)
    Background -: Prehospital care is classified into ALS- (advanced life support) and BLS- (basic life support) levels according to the methods used. ALS-level prehospital care uses invasive methods, such as intravenous fluids, medications and intubation. However, the effectiveness of ALS care compared to BLS has been questionable. Aim -: The aim of this systematic review is to compare the effectiveness of ALS- and BLS-level prehospital care. Material and methods -: In a systematic review, articles where ALS-level prehospital care was compared to BLS-level or any other treatment were included. The outcome variables were mortality or patient's health-related quality of life or patient's capacity to perform daily activities. Results -: We identified 46 articles, mostly retrospective observational studies. The results on the effectiveness of ALS in unselected patient cohorts are contradictory. In cardiac arrest, early cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation are essential for survival, but prehospital ALS interventions have not improved survival. Prehospital thrombolytic treatment reduces mortality in patients having a myocardial infarction. The majority of research into trauma favours BLS in the case of penetrating trauma and also in cases of short distance to a hospital. In patients with severe head injuries, ALS provided by paramedics and intubation without anaesthesia can even be harmful. If the prehospital care is provided by an experienced physician and by a HEMS organisation (Helicopter Emergency Medical Service), ALS interventions may be beneficial for patients with multiple injuries and severe brain injuries. However, the results are contradictory. Conclusions -: ALS seems to improve survival in patients with myocardial infarction and BLS seems to be the proper level of care for patients with penetrating injuries. Some studies indicate a beneficial effect of ALS among patients with blunt head injuries or multiple injuries. There is also some evidence in favour of ALS among patients with epileptic seizures as well as those with a respiratory distress.
  • Nammas, Wail; de Belder, Adam; Niemela, Matti; Sia, Jussi; Romppanen, Hannu; Laine, Mika; Karjalainen, Pasi P. (2017)
    Background: The BASE ACS trial demonstrated an outcome of titanium-nitride-oxide-coated bioactive stents (BAS) that was non-inferior to everolimus-eluting stents (EES) in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We performed a post hoc analysis of elderly versus non-elderly patients from the BASE ACS trial. Methods: We randomized 827 patients (1:1) presenting with ACS to receive either BAS or EES. The primary end-point was major adverse cardiac events (MACE): a composite of cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), or ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization (TLR). Follow-up was planned at 12 months and yearly thereafter for up to 7 years. Elderly age was defined as >= 65 years. Results: Of the 827 patients enrolled in the BASE ACS trial, 360 (43.5%) were elderly. Mean follow-up duration was 4.2 +/- 1.9 years. MACE was more frequent in elderly versus younger patients (19.7% versus 12.0%, respectively, p = 0.002), probably driven by more frequent cardiac death and non-fatal MI events (5.3% versus 1.5%, and 9.7% versus 4.5%, p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively). The rates of ischemia-driven TLR were comparable (p > 0.05). In propensity score-matched analysis (215 pairs), only cardiac death was more frequent in elderly patients (6% versus 1.4%, respectively, p = 0.01). Diabetes independently predicted both MACE and cardiac death in elderly patients. Conclusions: Elderly patients treated with stent implantation for ACS had worse long-term clinical outcome, compared with younger ones, mainly due to a higher death rate. (C) 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.