Browsing by Subject "ADAPTIVE DYNAMICS"

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  • Berardo, Cecilia; Geritz, Stefanus (2021)
    The war of attrition in game theory is a model of a stand-off situation between two opponents where the winner is determined by its persistence. We model a stand-off between a predator and a prey when the prey is hiding and the predator is waiting for the prey to come out from its refuge, or when the two are locked in a situation of mutual threat of injury or even death. The stand-off is resolved when the predator gives up or when the prey tries to escape. Instead of using the asymmetric war of attrition, we embed the stand-off as an integral part of the predator-prey model of Rosenzweig and MacArthur derived from first principles. We apply this model to study the coevolution of the giving-up rates of the prey and the predator, using the adaptive dynamics approach. We find that the long term evolutionary process leads to three qualitatively different scenarios: the predator gives up immediately, while the prey never gives up; the predator never gives up, while the prey adopts any giving-up rate greater than or equal to a given positive threshold value; the predator goes extinct. We observe that some results are the same as for the asymmetric war of attrition, but others are quite different. (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Gyllenberg, Mats; Hanski, Ilkka; Lindstrom, Torsten (2017)
    Within the framework of adaptive dynamics we consider the evolution by natural selection of reproductive strategies in which individuals may adjust their reproductive behaviour in response to changing environmental conditions. As a specific example we considered a discrete-time model in which possible fluctuations in the environmental conditions are caused by predator-prey interaction. Our main findings include: (1) Coexistence between two fixed strategies (i.e., strategies that do not adjust to changing environmental conditions) is impossible; there exists a best fixed strategy, which invades and ousts all other fixed strategies. (2) A necessary condition for conditional (adjustable) strategies to evolve is that there are fluctuations in the environmental conditions. Predator-prey interactions may cause such fluctuations and under natural assumptions there exists an optimal conditional strategy which is uninvadable and invades and ousts all other strategies.
  • Karisto, Petteri; Kisdi, Eva (2017)
    The pattern of connectivity between local populations or between microsites supporting individuals within a population is a poorly understood factor affecting the evolution of dispersal. We modify the well-known Hamilton May model of dispersal evolution to allow for variable connectivity between microsites. For simplicity, we assume that the microsites are either solitary, i.e., weakly connected through costly dispersal, or part of a well-connected cluster of sites with low-cost dispersal within the cluster. We use adaptive dynamics to investigate the evolution of dispersal, obtaining analytic results for monomorphic evolution and numerical results for the co-evolution of two dispersal strategies. A monomorphic population always evolves to a unique singular dispersal strategy, which may be an evolutionarily stable strategy or an evolutionary branching point. Evolutionary branching happens if the contrast between connectivities is sufficiently high and the solitary microsites are common. The dimorphic evolutionary singularity, when it exists, is always evolutionarily and convergence stable. The model exhibits both protected and unprotected dimorphisms of dispersal strategies, but the dimorphic singularity is always protected. Contrasting connectivities can thus maintain dispersal polymorphisms in temporally stable environments.
  • Priklopil, Tadeas; Kisdi, Eva; Gyllenberg, Mats (2015)
    We consider mating strategies for females who search for males sequentially during a season of limited length. We show that the best strategy rejects a given male type if encountered before a time-threshold but accepts him after. For frequency-independent benefits, we obtain the optimal time-thresholds explicitly for both discrete and continuous distributions of males, and allow for mistakes being made in assessing the correct male type. When the benefits are indirect (genes for the offspring) and the population is under frequency-dependent ecological selection, the benefits depend on the mating strategy of other females as well. This case is particularly relevant to speciation models that seek to explore the stability of reproductive isolation by assortative mating under frequency-dependent ecological selection. We show that the indirect benefits are to be quantified by the reproductive values of couples, and describe how the evolutionarily stable time-thresholds can be found. We conclude with an example based on the Levene model, in which we analyze the evolutionarily stable assortative mating strategies and the strength of reproductive isolation provided by them.
  • Toivonen, Jaakko; Fromhage, Lutz (2019)
    It has been previously hypothesized that the perfectly synchronized mass emergence of periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) evolved as a result of a switch from size-based to age-based emergence. In the former case, cicada nymphs emerge immediately (at the first opportunity) on reaching maturity, whereas in the latter case, nymphs wait in order to emerge at a specific age. Here we use an individual-based model to simulate the cicada life cycle and to study the evolution of periodicity. We find that if age-based emergence evolves in a constant abiotic environment, it typically results in a population that is protoperiodic, and synchronous emergence of the whole population is not achieved. However, perfect periodicity and synchronous emergence can be attained, if the abiotic environment changes back and forth between favorable and unfavorable conditions (hysteresis). Furthermore, once age-based emergence evolves, generally it can only be invaded by other age-based emergence strategies with longer cycle lengths (evolutionary ratchet). Together, these mechanisms promote the evolution of long periodic life cycles and synchronous emergence in the Magicicada. We discuss how our results connect to previous theories and recent phylogenetic studies on Magicicada evolution.
  • Vitale, Caterina; Kisdi, Eva (2019)
    Under the threat of predation, a species of prey can evolve to its own extinction. Matsuda and Abrams (Theor Popul Biol 45:76-91, 1994a) found the earliest example of evolutionary suicide by demonstrating that the foraging effort of prey can evolve until its population dynamics cross a fold bifurcation, whereupon the prey crashes to extinction. We extend this model in three directions. First, we use critical function analysis to show that extinction cannot happen via increasing foraging effort. Second, we extend the model to non-equilibrium systems and demonstrate evolutionary suicide at a fold bifurcation of limit cycles. Third, we relax a crucial assumption of the original model. To find evolutionary suicide, Matsuda and Abrams assumed a generalist predator, whose population size is fixed independently of the focal prey. We embed the original model into a three-species community of the focal prey, the predator and an alternative prey that can support the predator also alone, and investigate the effect of increasingly strong coupling between the focal prey and the predator's population dynamics. Our three-species model exhibits (1) evolutionary suicide via a subcritical Hopf bifurcation and (2) indirect evolutionary suicide, where the evolution of the focal prey first makes the community open to the invasion of the alternative prey, which in turn makes evolutionary suicide of the focal prey possible. These new phenomena highlight the importance of studying evolution in a broader community context.
  • Cai, Yuhua; Geritz, Stefanus (2020)
    We study resident-invader dynamics in fluctuating environments when the invader and the resident have close but distinct strategies. First we focus on a class of continuous-time models of unstructured populations of multi-dimensional strategies, which incorporates environmental feedback and environmental stochasticity. Then we generalize our results to a class of structured population models. We classify the generic population dynamical outcomes of an invasion event when the resident population in a given environment is non-growing on the long-run and stochastically persistent. Our approach is based on the series expansion of a model with respect to the small strategy difference, and on the analysis of a stochastic fast-slow system induced by time-scale separation. Theoretical and numerical analyses show that the total size of the resident and invader population varies stochastically and dramatically in time, while the relative size of the invader population changes slowly and asymptotically in time. Thereby the classification is based on the asymptotic behavior of the relative population size, and which is shown to be fully determined by invasion criteria (i.e., without having to study the full generic dynamical system). Our results extend and generalize previous results for a stable resident equilibrium (particularly, Geritz in J Math Biol 50(1):67-82, 2005; Dercole and Geritz in J Theor Biol 394:231-254, 2016) to non-equilibrium resident population dynamics as well as resident dynamics with stochastic (or deterministic) drivers.
  • Kisdi, Eva; Weigang, Helene C.; Gyllenberg, Mats (2020)
    Local adaptation and habitat choice are two key factors that control the distribution and diversification of species. Here we model habitat choice mechanistically as the outcome of dispersal with nonrandom immigration. We consider a structured metapopulation with a continuous distribution of patch types and determine the evolutionarily stable immigration strategy as the function linking patch type to the probability of settling in the patch on encounter. We uncover a novel mechanism whereby coexisting strains that only slightly differ in their local adaptation trait can evolve substantially different immigration strategies. In turn, different habitat use selects for divergent adaptations in the two strains. We propose that the joint evolution of immigration and local adaptation can facilitate diversification and discuss our results in the light of niche conservatism versus niche expansion.
  • Fan, Ruili; Geritz, Stefan A. H. (2021)
    We study the evolution of virulence of an endemic pathogen in response to healthcare interventions which affect host recovery and pathogen transmission. By anticipating the evolutionary response of the pathogen we may develop effective long-term management strategies for controlling the impact of the endemic on the society. To that end, we use standard Adaptive Dynamics techniques in an SIS model. The recovery rate and the transmission rate, both of which can be affected by healthcare interventions, are used as evolutionary control variables. The effect of interventions may be density-independent (self-help based on healthcare instructions) or density-dependent (when assistance of a healthcare worker is required). We consider the evolutionary response of the pathogen both to abrupt changes and to gradual changes in the level of healthcare intervention. Healthcare intervention is optimised for three alternative objectives: minimisation of virulence, minimisation of the probability that an infected individual dies of the disease, and total eradication of the endemic. We find that the optimal strategy may depend on the objective. High levels of healthcare intervention may eradicate the pathogen, but this option may not be available for budgetary reasons or otherwise. Counterintuitively, to minimise virulence, one should keep healthcare interventions at a minimum, while to minimise the probability for an infected individual to die of the disease, both low and high levels of healthcare intervention suffice. Changes in the level of healthcare intervention should be implemented fast (not gradually) in order to avoid sudden changes in pathogen evolution and the possible emergence of multiple simultaneously coexisting pathogen strains. (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.