Browsing by Subject "ADENOCARCINOMA"

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  • Hautala, Laura C.; Pang, Poh-Choo; Antonopoulos, Aristotelis; Pasanen, Annukka; Lee, Cheuk-Lun; Chiu, Philip C. N.; Yeung, William S. B.; Loukovaara, Mikko; Bützow, Ralf; Haslam, Stuart M.; Dell, Anne; Koistinen, Hannu (2020)
    Glycodelin is a major glycoprotein expressed in reproductive tissues, like secretory and decidualized endometrium. It has several reproduction related functions that are dependent on specific glycosylation, but it has also been found to drive differentiation of endometrial carcinoma cells toward a less malignant phenotype. Here we aimed to elucidate whether the glycosylation and function of glycodelin is altered in endometrial carcinoma as compared with a normal endometrium. We carried out glycan structure analysis of glycodelin expressed in HEC-1B human endometrial carcinoma cells (HEC-1B Gd) by mass spectrometry glycomics strategies. Glycans of HEC-1B Gd were found to comprise a typical mixture of high-mannose, hybrid, and complex-type N-glycans, often containing undecorated LacNAc (Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc) antennae. However, several differences, as compared with previously reported glycan structures of normal human decidualized endometrium-derived glycodelin isoform, glycodelin-A (GdA), were also found. These included a lower level of sialylation and more abundant poly-LacNAc antennae, some of which are fucosylated. This allowed us to select lectins that showed different binding to these classes of glycodelin. Despite the differences in glycosylation between HEC-1B Gd and GdA, both showed similar inhibitory activity on trophoblast cell invasion and peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation. For the detection of cancer associated glycodelin, we established a novel in situ proximity-ligation based histochemical staining method using a specific glycodelin antibody and UEAI lectin. We found that the UEAI reactive glycodelin was abundant in endometrial carcinoma, but virtually absent in normal endometrial tissue even when glycodelin was strongly expressed. In conclusion, we established a histochemical staining method for the detection of endometrial carcinoma-associated glycodelin and showed that this specific glycodelin is exclusively expressed in cancer, not in normal endometrium. Similar methods can be used for studies of other glycoproteins. Glycodelin is a major endometrial glycoprotein. The authors analyzed glycan structures of endometrial carcinoma associated glycodelin and established a novel glycodelin-glycoform specific histochemical staining method. With this, they showed that glycodelin is differentially glycosylated in endometrial carcinoma tissue, as compared to normal endometrium, representing a neoantigen with potential clinical applications.
  • Nummela, Pirjo; Heiskanen, Annamari; Kytölä, Soili; Haglund, Caj; Lepistö, Anna; Satomaa, Tero; Ristimäki, Ari (2021)
    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a highly mucinous adenocarcinoma growing in the peritoneal cavity and most commonly originating from the appendix. Glycans play an important role in carcinogenesis, and glycosylation is altered in malignant diseases, including PMP. We have previously demonstrated that fucosylation of N-glycans is increased in PMP, but we did not observe modulation of overall sialylation. As sialic acids can be attached to the rest of the glycan via α2,3- or α2,6-linkage, we have now analyzed the linkage patterns of sialic acids in tissue specimens of normal appendices, low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMN), low-grade (LG) PMP and high-grade (HG) PMP. For the linkage analysis, the enzymatically released acidic N-glycans were first treated with ethyl esterification or α2,3-sialidase digestion followed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Significant increase in the relative abundance of α2,6-sialylated and decrease in α2,3-sialylated N-glycans was observed in PMP tumors as compared to the normal appendices (P \lt; 0.025). More specifically, increased α2,6-sialylation (P \lt; 0.05) and decreased α2,3-sialylation (P \lt; 0.01) were detected in afucosylated and monofucosylated N-glycans of PMPs, whereas the less abundant multifucosylated glycans, containing terminal fucose, demonstrated increased α2,3-sialylation (P \lt; 0.01). Importantly, the increase in α2,6-sialylation was also detected between PMP and the appendiceal precursor lesion LAMN (P \lt; 0.01). The identified glycosylation alterations produce ligands for sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) and sialofucosylated glycans binding selectins, which play a role in the peritoneal dissemination and progression of the disease.
  • Sobral-Leite, Marcelo; Wesseling, Jelle; Smit, Vincent T. H. B. M.; Nevanlinna, Heli; van Miltenburg, Martine H.; Sanders, Joyce; Hofland, Ingrid; Blows, Fiona M.; Coulson, Penny; Patrycja, Gazinska; Schellens, Jan H. M.; Fagerholm, Rainer; Heikkila, Paivi; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Provenzano, Elena; Ali, Hamid Raza; Figueroa, Jonine; Sherman, Mark; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine; Visscher, Daniel; Brenner, Hermann; Butterbach, Katja; Arndt, Volker; Holleczek, Bernd; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John W. M.; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; van de Water, Bob; Broeks, Annegien; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; de Graauw, Marjo; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; kConFab-AOCS Investigators (2015)
    Background: Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a protein related with the carcinogenesis process and metastasis formation in many tumors. However, little is known about the prognostic value of ANXA1 in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between ANXA1 expression, BRCA1/2 germline carriership, specific tumor subtypes and survival in breast cancer patients. Methods: Clinical-pathological information and follow-up data were collected from nine breast cancer studies from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) (n = 5,752) and from one study of familial breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations (n = 107). ANXA1 expression was scored based on the percentage of immunohistochemical staining in tumor cells. Survival analyses were performed using a multivariable Cox model. Results: The frequency of ANXA1 positive tumors was higher in familial breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations than in BCAC patients, with 48.6 % versus 12.4 %, respectively; P <0.0001. ANXA1 was also highly expressed in BCAC tumors that were poorly differentiated, triple negative, EGFR-CK5/6 positive or had developed in patients at a young age. In the first 5 years of follow-up, patients with ANXA1 positive tumors had a worse breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) than ANXA1 negative (HRadj = 1.35; 95 % CI = 1.05-1.73), but the association weakened after 10 years (HRadj = 1.13; 95 % CI = 0.91-1.40). ANXA1 was a significant independent predictor of survival in HER2+ patients (10-years BCSS: HRadj = 1.70; 95 % CI = 1.17-2.45). Conclusions: ANXA1 is overexpressed in familial breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations and correlated with poor prognosis features: triple negative and poorly differentiated tumors. ANXA1 might be a biomarker candidate for breast cancer survival prediction in high risk groups such as HER2+ cases.
  • Slik, Khadija; Turkki, Riku; Carpen, Olli; Kurki, Samu; Korkeila, Eija; Sundström, Jari; Pellinen, Teijo (2019)
    Current risk factors in stage II colorectal carcinoma are insufficient to guide treatment decisions. Loss of CDX2 has been shown to associate with poor clinical outcome and predict benefit for adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II and III colorectal carcinoma. The prognostic relevance of CDX2 in stage II disease has not been sufficiently validated, especially in relation to clinical risk factors, such as microsatellite instability (MSI) status, BRAF mutation status, and tumor budding. In this study, we evaluated the protein expression of CDX2 in tumor center and front areas in a tissue microarrays material of stage II colorectal carcinoma patients (n=232). CDX2 expression showed a partial or total loss in respective areas in 8.6% and 10.9% of patient cases. Patients with loss of CDX2 had shorter disease-specific survival when scored independently either in tumor center or tumor front areas (log rank P=0.012; P=0.012). Loss of CDX2 predicted survival independently of other stage II risk factors, such as MSI status and BRAF mutation status, pT class, and tumor budding (hazard ratio=5.96, 95% confidence interval=1.55-22.95; hazard ratio=3.70, 95% confidence interval=1.30-10.56). Importantly, CDX2 loss predicted inferior survival only in patients with microsatellite stable, but not with MSI-high phenotype. Interestingly, CDX2 loss associated with low E-cadherin expression, tight junction disruption, and high expression of ezrin protein. The work demonstrates that loss of CDX2 is an independent risk factor of poor disease-specific survival in stage II colorectal carcinoma. Furthermore, the study suggests that CDX2 loss is linked with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition independently of tumor budding.
  • Nagaraj, Ashwini S.; Lahtela, Jenni; Hemmes, Annabrita; Pellinen, Teijo; Blom, Sami; Devlin, Jennifer R.; Salmenkivi, Kaisa; Kallioniemi, Olli; Mäyränpää, Mikko; Narhi, Katja; Verschuren, Emmy W. (2017)
    Lung cancers exhibit pronounced functional heterogeneity, confounding precision medicine. We studied how the cell of origin contributes to phenotypic heterogeneity following conditional expression of Kras(G12D) and loss of Lkb1 (Kras; Lkb1). Using progenitor cell-type-restricted adenoviral Cre to target cells expressing surfactant protein C (SPC) or club cell antigen 10 (CC10), we show that Ad5-CC10-Cre-infected mice exhibit a shorter latency compared with Ad5-SPC-Cre cohorts. We further demonstrate that CC10(+) cells are the predominant progenitors of adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) tumors and give rise to a wider spectrum of histotypes that includes mucinous and acinar adenocarcinomas. Transcriptome analysis shows ASC histotype-specific upregulation of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory genes. This is accompanied by an ASC-specific immunosuppressive environment, consisting of downregulated MHC genes, recruitment of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs), and decreased T cell numbers. We conclude that progenitor cell-specific etiology influences the Kras; Lkb1-driven tumor histopathology spectrum and histotype-specific immune microenvironment.
  • Borgmastars, Emmy; Lundberg, Erik; Öhlund, Daniel; Nyström, Hanna; Franklin, Oskar; Lundin, Christina; Jonsson, Par; Sund, Malin (2021)
    Simple Summary:& nbsp;Detecting cancer early significantly increases the chances of successful (surgical) treatment. Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest cancer forms, since it is usually discovered at a late and already spread stage. Finding biomarkers showing pancreatic cancer at an early stage is a possible approach to early detection and improved treatment. The aim of our study was to assess the potential of tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS) as a biomarker for early pancreatic cancer detection. We studied TPS levels in blood plasma samples from a population-based biobank in Vasterbotten, Sweden that were collected before individuals were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Although TPS levels are raised at diagnosis, this occurs late, and thus TPS does not seem to hold promise as an early detection marker for pancreatic cancer.& nbsp;Early detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is challenging, and late diagnosis partly explains the low 5-year survival. Novel and sensitive biomarkers are needed to enable early PDAC detection and improve patient outcomes. Tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS) has been studied as a biomarker in PDAC diagnostics, and it has previously been shown to reflect clinical status better than the 'golden standard' biomarker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) that is most widely used in the clinical setting. In this cross-sectional case-control study using pre-diagnostic plasma samples, we aim to evaluate the potential of TPS as a biomarker for early PDAC detection. Furthermore, in a subset of individuals with multiple samples available at different time points before diagnosis, a longitudinal analysis was used. We assessed plasma TPS levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 267 pre-diagnostic PDAC plasma samples taken up to 18.8 years before clinical PDAC diagnosis and in 320 matched healthy controls. TPS levels were also assessed in 25 samples at PDAC diagnosis. Circulating TPS levels were low both in pre-diagnostic samples of future PDAC patients and in healthy controls, whereas TPS levels at PDAC diagnosis were significantly increased (odds ratio 1.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.05) in a logistic regression model adjusted for age. In conclusion, TPS levels increase late in PDAC progression and hold no potential as a biomarker for early detection.
  • Söderström, Henna K.; Rasanen, Jari; Saarnio, Juha; Toikkanen, Vesa; Tyrväinen, Tuula; Rantanen, Tuomo; Valtola, Antti; Ohtonen, Pasi; Pääaho, Minna; Kokkola, Arto; Kallio, Raija; Karttunen, Tuomo J.; Pohjanen, Vesa-Matti; Ristimäki, Ari; Laine, Simo; Sihvo, Eero; Kauppila, Joonas H. (2020)
    Purpose The Finnish National Esophago-Gastric Cancer Cohort (FINEGO) was established to combine the available registry data with detailed patient information to form a comprehensive, retrospective, population-based research platform of surgically treated oesophageal and gastric cancer in Finland. This cohort profile describes the 2045 surgically treated patients with oesophageal cancer included in the FINEGO cohort. Participants Registry data were collected from the National Cancer, Patient, Education and Death Registries from 1 January 1987 to 31 December 2016. All patients over 18 years of age, who had either curative surgery, palliative surgery or salvage surgery for primary cancer in the oesophagus are included in this study. Findings to date 2045 patients had surgery for oesophageal cancer in the selected time period. 67.2% were man, and the majority had only minor comorbidities. The proportions of adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas were 43.1% and 44.4%, respectively, and 12.5% had other or missing histology. Only about 23% of patients received neoadjuvant therapy. Oesophagectomy was the treatment of choice and most patients were treated at low-volume centres, but median annual hospital volume increased over time. Median overall survival was 23 months, 5-year survival for all patients in the cohort was 32.9% and cancer-specific survival was 36.5%. Future plans Even though Finland only has a population of 5.5 million, surgery for oesophageal carcinoma has not been centralised and therefore previously reported results have mostly been small, single-centre cohorts. Because of FINEGO, we now have a population-based, unselected cohort of surgically treated patients, enabling research on national trends over time regarding oesophageal cancer, including patient characteristics, tumour histology, stage and neoadjuvant treatment, surgical techniques, hospital volumes and patient mortality. Data collection is ongoing, and the cohort will be expanded to include more detailed data from patient records and national biobanks.
  • Kauppila, Joonas H.; Ohtonen, Pasi; Rantanen, Tuomo; Tyrväinen, Tuula; Toikkanen, Vesa; Pääaho, Minna; Valtola, Antti; Räsänen, Jari; Kallio, Raija; Sihvo, Eero; Saarnio, Juha; Karttunen, Tuomo J.; Pohjanen, Vesa-Matti; Ristimäki, Ari; Laine, Simo; Kokkola, Arto (2020)
    Purpose The Finnish National Esophago-Gastric Cancer Cohort (FINEGO) was established with the aim of identifying factors that could contribute to improved outcomes in oesophago-gastric cancer. The aim of this study is to describe the patients with gastric cancer included in FINEGO. Participants A total of 10 457 patients with gastric cancer or tumour diagnosis in the Finnish Cancer Registry or the Finnish Patient Registry during 1987-2016 were included in the cohort, with follow-up from Causes of Death Registry until 31 December 2016. All of the participants were at least 18 years of age, and had undergone either resectional or endoscopic mucosal surgery with curative or palliative intent. Findings to date Of the 10 457 patients, 90.1% were identified to have cancer in both cancer and patient registries. In all, the median age was 70 at the time of surgery, 54.5% of the patients were men and 64.4% had no comorbidities. Education data were available for 31.1% of the patients, of whom the majority had had
  • Saraswat, Mayank; Joenvaara, Sakari; Seppanen, Hanna; Mustonen, Harri; Haglund, Caj; Renkonen, Risto (2017)
    Finland ranks sixth among the countries having highest incidence rate of pancreatic cancer with mortality roughly equaling incidence. The average age of diagnosis for pancreatic cancer is 69years in Nordic males, whereas the average age of diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis is 40-50years, however, many cases overlap in age. By radiology, the evaluation of a pancreatic mass, that is, the differential diagnosis between chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer is often difficult. Preoperative needle biopsies are difficult to obtain and are demanding to interpret. New blood based biomarkers are needed. The accuracy of the only established biomarker for pancreatic cancer, CA 19-9 is rather poor in differentiating between benign and malignant mass of the pancreas. In this study, we have performed mass spectrometry analysis (High Definition MSE) of serum samples from patients with chronic pancreatitis (13) and pancreatic cancer (22). We have quantified 291 proteins and performed detailed statistical analysis such as principal component analysis, orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis and receiver operating curve analysis. The proteomic signature of chronic pancreatitis versus pancreatic cancer samples was able to separate the two groups by multiple statistical techniques. Some of the enriched pathways in the proteomic dataset were LXR/RXR activation, complement and coagulation systems and inflammatory response. We propose that multiple high-confidence biomarker candidates in our pilot study including Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H2 (Area under the curve, AUC: 0.947), protein AMBP (AUC: 0.951) and prothrombin (AUC: 0.917), which should be further evaluated in larger patient series as potential new biomarkers for differential diagnosis.
  • Riihimaeki, Matias; Thomsen, Hauke; Hemminki, Akseli; Sundquist, Kristina; Hemminki, Kari (2013)
  • Hagens, Eliza R. C.; Henegouwen, Mark I. van Berge; van Sandick, Johanna W.; Cuesta, Miguel A.; van der Peet, Donald L.; Heisterkamp, Joos; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A. P.; Rosman, Camiel; Scheepers, Joris J. G.; Sosef, Meindert N.; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Lagarde, Sjoerd M.; Nilsson, Magnus; Räsänen, Jari; Nafteux, Philippe; Pattyn, Piet; Hoelscher, Arnulf H.; Schroeder, Wolfgang; Schneider, Paul M.; Mariette, Christophe; Castoro, Carlo; Bonavina, Luigi; Rosati, Riccardo; de Manzoni, Giovanni; Mattioli, Sandro; Roig Garcia, Josep; Pera, Manuel; Griffin, Michael; Wilkerson, Paul; Chaudry, M. Asif; Sgromo, Bruno; Tucker, Olga; Cheong, Edward; Moorthy, Krishna; Walsh, Thomas N.; Reynolds, John; Tachimori, Yuji; Inoue, Haruhiro; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Chen, Haiquan; Law, Simon Y. K.; Pramesh, C. S.; Puntambekar, Shailesh P.; Murthy, Sudish; Linden, Philip; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Kuppusamy, Madhan K.; Shen, K. Robert; Darling, Gail E.; Sabino, Flavio D.; Grimminger, Peter P.; Meijer, Sybren L.; Bergman, Jacques J. G. H. M.; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; Mearadji, Banafsche; Bennink, Roel J.; Annema, Jouke T.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Gisbertz, Suzanne S. (2019)
    BackgroundAn important parameter for survival in patients with esophageal carcinoma is lymph node status. The distribution of lymph node metastases depends on tumor characteristics such as tumor location, histology, invasion depth, and on neoadjuvant treatment. The exact distribution is unknown. Neoadjuvant treatment and surgical strategy depends on the distribution pattern of nodal metastases but consensus on the extent of lymphadenectomy has not been reached. The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of lymph node metastases in patients with resectable esophageal or gastro-esophageal junction carcinoma in whom a transthoracic esophagectomy with a 2- or 3-field lymphadenectomy is performed. This can be the foundation for a uniform worldwide staging system and establishment of the optimal surgical strategy for esophageal cancer patients.MethodsThe TIGER study is an international observational cohort study with 50 participating centers. Patients with a resectable esophageal or gastro-esophageal junction carcinoma in whom a transthoracic esophagectomy with a 2- or 3-field lymphadenectomy is performed in participating centers will be included. All lymph node stations will be excised and separately individually analyzed by pathological examination. The aim is to include 5000 patients. The primary endpoint is the distribution of lymph node metastases in esophageal and esophago-gastric junction carcinoma specimens following transthoracic esophagectomy with at least 2-field lymphadenectomy in relation to tumor histology, tumor location, invasion depth, number of lymph nodes and lymph node metastases, pre-operative diagnostics, neo-adjuvant therapy and (disease free) survival.DiscussionThe TIGER study will provide a roadmap of the location of lymph node metastases in relation to tumor histology, tumor location, invasion depth, number of lymph nodes and lymph node metastases, pre-operative diagnostics, neo-adjuvant therapy and survival. Patient-tailored treatment can be developed based on these results, such as the optimal radiation field and extent of lymphadenectomy based on the primary tumor characteristics.Trial registrationNCT03222895, date of registration: July 19th, 2017.
  • Björkman, Patrick; Kantonen, Ilkka; Blomqvist, Carl; Venermo, Maarit; Alback, Anders (2019)
    Aortic sarcomas have not been linked to Lynch syndrome in humans, although other soft tissue malignancies have been. We report the case of a 31-year-old man with Lynch syndrome, who presented with abdominal pain and severe claudication. The clinical and diagnostic workup revealed near occlusion of the infrarenal aorta due to aortic angiosarcoma. En bloc resection of the visceral and infrarenal aorta with right nephrectomy was performed, facilitated by temporary extracorporeal bypass to the visceral arteries. The aorta was reconstructed with a bifurcated Dacron graft. At the 24-month follow-up examination, the patient was free of disease but was experiencing chronic diarrhea.
  • Youssef, Omar; Sarhadi, Virinder; Ehsan, Homa; Böhling, Tom; Carpelan-Holmström, Monika; Koskensalo, Selja; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Kokkola, Arto; Knuutila, Sakari (2017)
    AIM To study cancer hotspot mutations by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in stool DNA from patients with different gastrointestinal tract (GIT) neoplasms. METHODS Stool samples were collected from 87 Finnish patients diagnosed with various gastric and colorectal neoplasms, including benign tumors, and from 14 healthy controls. DNA was isolated from stools by using the PSP (R) Spin Stool DNA Plus Kit. For each sample, 20 ng of DNA was used to construct sequencing libraries using the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 or Ion AmpliSeq Colon and Lung Cancer panel v2. Sequencing was performed on Ion PGM. Torrent Suite Software v.5.2.2 was used for variant calling and data analysis. RESULTS NGS was successful in assaying 72 GIT samples and 13 healthy controls, with success rates of the assay being 78% for stomach neoplasia and 87% for colorectal tumors. In stool specimens from patients with gastric neoplasia, five hotspot mutations were found in APC, CDKN2A and EGFR genes, in addition to seven novel mutations. From colorectal patients, 20 mutations were detected in AKT1, APC, ERBB2, FBXW7, KIT, KRAS, NRAS, SMARCB1, SMO, STK11 and TP53. Healthy controls did not exhibit any hotspot mutations, except for two novel ones. APC and TP53 were the most frequently mutated genes in colorectal neoplasms, with five mutations, followed by KRAS with two mutations. APC was the most commonly mutated gene in stools of patients with premalignant/benign GIT lesions. CONCLUSION Our results show that in addition to colorectal neoplasms, mutations can also be assayed from stool specimens of patients with gastric neoplasms.
  • Laitinen, Alli; Bockelman, Camilla; Hagstrom, Jaana; Kokkola, Arto; Kallio, Pauliina; Haglund, Caj (2017)
    Background PROX1 is a transcription factor involved in the development of various organs. It has also an important function in colorectal cancer progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic role of PROX1 expression in gastric cancer. Methods We evaluated PROX1 expression in gastric cancer by immunohistochemistry of tumor-tissue microarrays including tumor specimens from 283 patients who underwent surgery at Helsinki University Hospital. We investigated the association of PROX1 expression with clinicopathologic variables and patient survival. Results Cytoplasmic PROX1 reactivity was high in 56 (20.5%) and low in 217 (79.5%) cases. Low PROX1 immunostaining associated with diffuse cancer type (p = 0.002). In subgroup analysis, PROX1 was a significant marker of better prognosis in patients aged under 66 (p = 0.007), in those with intestinal cancer (p = 0.025), among men (p = 0.019), and in tumors of less than 5 cm diameter (p = 0.030). Patients with high PROX1 expression had a cancer-specific 5-year survival of 65.6% (95% CI 52.7-78.5), compared to 37.1% (95% CI 30.2-44.0) for those with low expression (p = 0.004, log-rank test). This result remained significant in multivariable analysis (HR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.35-0.90; p = 0.017). Conclusion In gastric cancer, high cytoplasmic PROX1 expression is an independent marker of better prognosis.
  • Saavalainen, Liisu; Lassus, Heini; But, Anna; Gissler, Mika; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Pukkala, Eero (2021)
    Background Endometriosis is associated with increased risk of clear cell ovarian cancer and has even suggested being an etiological factor for this cancer. Association between endometriosis and extraovarian clear cell cancers is unclear. This study aimed to assess the association between surgically diagnosed endometriosis and risk of extraovarian clear cell cancers according to the type of endometriosis (i.e., ovarian, peritoneal, and other endometriosis) and the site of clear cell cancer. Methods In this register-based historic cohort study we identified all women with surgically diagnosed endometriosis from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Registry 1987-2012. Data on extraovarian clear cell cancers of these women were obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. The follow-up started January 1(st), 2007 or at endometriosis diagnosis (if later), and ended at emigration, death or on the December 31(st), 2014. Standardized incidence ratios were calculated for each site of clear cell carcinoma (intestine, kidney, urinary tract, gynecological organs other than ovary), using the Finnish female population as reference. Results The endometriosis cohort consisted of 48,996 women, including 22,745 women with ovarian and 19,809 women with peritoneal endometriosis. Altogether 23 extraovarian clear cell cancers were observed during 367,386 person-years of follow-up. The risk of extraovarian clear cell cancer was not increased among all women with surgically diagnosed endometriosis (standardized incidence ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.56-1.33) nor in different types of endometriosis. The incidence of clear cell cancer in any specific site was not increased either. Conclusions The risk of extraovarian clear cell cancers in women with surgically diagnosed endometriosis is similar to that in the general population in Finland.
  • ten Kate, Chantal A.; de Klein, Annelies; de Graaf, Bianca M.; Doukas, Michail; Koivusalo, Antti; Pakarinen, Mikko P.; van der Helm, Robert; Brands, Tom; IJsselstijn, Hanneke; van Bever, Yolande; Wijnen, Rene M. H.; Spaander, Manon C. W.; Brosens, Erwin (2022)
    Simple Summary We investigated the increased prevalence of Barrett's esophagus in adults with esophageal atresia. A higher polygenic risk score and disturbances in inflammatory, stress response and oncological pathways upon acid exposure suggest a genetic susceptibility and increased induction of inflammatory processes. Although further research is required to explore this hypothesis, this could be a first-step into selecting patients that are more at risk to develop Barrett's esophagus and/or esophageal carcinoma. Currently, an endoscopic screening and surveillance program is in practice in our institution for patients born with esophageal atresia, to early detect (pre)malignant lesions. Since recurrent endoscopies can be a burden for the patient, selecting patients by for example genetic susceptibility would allow to only include those at risk in future practice. The prevalence of Barrett's esophagus (BE) in adults born with esophageal atresia (EA) is four times higher than in the general population and presents at a younger age (34 vs. 60 years). This is (partly) a consequence of chronic gastroesophageal reflux. Given the overlap between genes and pathways involved in foregut and BE development, we hypothesized that EA patients have an intrinsic predisposition to develop BE. Transcriptomes of Esophageal biopsies of EA patients with BE (n = 19, EA/BE); EA patients without BE (n = 44, EA-only) and BE patients without EA (n = 10, BE-only) were compared by RNA expression profiling. Subsequently, we simulated a reflux episode by exposing fibroblasts of 3 EA patients and 3 controls to acidic conditions. Transcriptome responses were compared to the differential expressed transcripts in the biopsies. Predisposing single nucleotide polymorphisms, associated with BE, were slightly increased in EA/BE versus BE-only patients. RNA expression profiling and pathway enrichment analysis revealed differences in retinoic acid metabolism and downstream signaling pathways and inflammatory, stress response and oncological processes. There was a similar effect on retinoic acid signaling and immune response in EA patients upon acid exposure. These results indicate that epithelial tissue homeostasis in EA patients is more prone to acidic disturbances.
  • Cserni, Gabor; Floris, Giuseppe; Koufopoulos, Nektarios; Kovacs, Aniko; Nonni, Afroditi; Regitnig, Peter; Ståhls, Anders; Varga, Zsuzsanna (2017)
    Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast is known to produce intracellular mucin and has been recognized in single-case reports to show extracellular mucin production, as well. This latter morphology is not only rare but must also be under- or misdiagnosed. The aim was to better characterize this entity. Cases of lobular cancers demonstrating extracellular mucin formation were identified in a multi-institutional effort and their clinical and morphologic features were assessed. Immunohistochemistry was used to characterize the E-cadherin-membrane complex, neuroendocrine differentiation, and to some extent, mucin formation. All but one of the eight cases occurred in postmenopausal patients. Extracellular mucin production was present in 5 to 50% of the tumour samples and rarely also appeared in nodal and distant metastases. The tumours were completely E-cadherin negative and showed cytoplasmic p120 positivity. The majority (n = 6/8) was also completely negative for beta-catenin, but two tumours displayed focal beta-catenin positivity in the mucinous area. MUC1 and MUC2 expression was observed in all and 7/8 tumours, respectively; neuroendocrine differentiation was present in only one. Invasive lobular carcinoma with extracellular mucin formation is a rare morphologic variant of lobular carcinoma prone to be misdiagnosed and warranting further studies.
  • Laajala, Teemu D.; Seikkula, Heikki; Sadat, Fatemeh Seyednasrollah; Mirtti, Tuomas; Bostrom, Peter J.; Elo, Laura L. (2016)
    Ultrasensitive prostate-specific antigen (u-PSA) remains controversial for follow-up after radical prostatectomy (RP). The aim of this study was to model PSA doubling times (PSADT) for predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR) and to capture possible discrepancies between u-PSA and traditional PSA (t-PSA) by utilizing advanced statistical modeling. 555 RP patients without neoadjuvant/adjuvant androgen deprivation from the Turku University Hospital were included in the study. BCR was defined as two consecutive PSA values > 0.2 ng/mL and the PSA measurements were log(2)-transformed. One third of the data was reserved for independent validation. Models were first fitted to the post-surgery PSA measurements using cross-validation. Major trends were then captured using linear mixed-effect models and a predictive generalized linear model effectively identified early trends connected to BCR. The model generalized for BCR prediction to the validation set with ROC-AUC of 83.6% and 95.1% for the 1 and 3 year follow-up censoring, respectively. A web-based tool was developed to facilitate its use. Longitudinal trends of u-PSA did not display major discrepancies from those of t-PSA. The results support that u-PSA provides useful information for predicting BCR after RP. This can be beneficial to avoid unnecessary adjuvant treatments or to start them earlier for selected patients.
  • Hämetoja, Hanna; Mäkitie, Antti; Bäck, Leif; Leivo, Ilmo; Haglund, Caj; Sorsa, Timo; Hagström, Jaana (2021)
    Knowledge on the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is limited. MMPs are capable of degrading almost all extracellular and pericellular components to promote invasion and metastasis. This study aimed to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of MMP-7,-8,-9,-15, and-25 in ACC and to relate the results with clinicopathological factors and survival. The study included 68 patients with minor salivary gland ACC treated at the Helsinki University Hospital (Helsinki, Finland) in 1974-2012. Samples from 52 patients were available, consisting of 44 primary tumours and eight recurrent tumours. We scored immunostaining of MMP-7,-8,-9,-15, and-25 and analysed the immunoscore against clinical and pathological parameters using statistical correlation test. MMP-9 immunoexpression in pseudocysts of ACC and in peritumoural inflammatory cells associated with better survival and fewer treatment failures. High tumoural MMP-7 and-25 associated with better survival. High tumoural MMP-15 associated with poorer survival and high tumoural MMP-9 with advanced stage and regional recurrences. Tumour cells did not show MMP-8 immunopositivity. These results suggest that MMP-9 may contribute to ACC carcinogenesis in different roles. MMP-7,-8, and-9 can stimulate signalling pathways that may promote tissue modulation and metastatic potential. MMP-15 and-25 may reflect prognosis.
  • Sammallahti, Heidelinde; Kokkola, Arto; Rezasoltani, Sama; Ghanbari, Reza; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid; Knuutila, Sakari; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Sarhadi, Virinder Kaur (2021)
    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is an aggressive disease with a high mortality and poor prognosis. The human microbiome is a key factor in many malignancies, having the ability to alter host metabolism and immune responses and participate in tumorigenesis. Gut microbes have an influence on physiological functions of the healthy pancreas and are themselves controlled by pancreatic secretions. An altered oral microbiota may colonize the pancreas and cause local inflammation by the action of its metabolites, which may lead to carcinogenesis. The mechanisms behind dysbiosis and PC development are not completely clear. Herein, we review the complex interactions between PC tumorigenesis and the microbiota, and especially the question, whether and how an altered microbiota induces oncogenomic changes, or vice versa, whether cancer mutations have an impact on microbiota composition. In addition, the role of the microbiota in drug efficacy in PC chemo- and immunotherapies is discussed. Possible future scenarios are the intentional manipulation of the gut microbiota in combination with therapy or the utilization of microbial profiles for the noninvasive screening and monitoring of PC.