Browsing by Subject "ADENOSINE"

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  • Yegutkin, Gennady G.; Auvinen, Kaisa; Karikoski, Marika; Rantakari, Pia; Gerke, Heidi; Elima, Kati; Maksimow, Mikael; Quintero, Ileana B.; Vihko, Pirkko; Salmi, Marko; Jalkanen, Sirpa (2014)
  • Loukovaara, Sirpa; Sandholm, Jouko; Aalto, Kristiina; Liukkonen, Janne; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Yegutkin, Gennady G. (2017)
    Clear signaling roles for ATP and adenosine have been established in all tissues, including the eye. The magnitude of signaling responses is governed by networks of enzymes; however, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of purinergic signaling in the eye. By employing thin-layer chromatographic assays with 3H-labeled substrates, this study aimed to evaluate the role of nucleotide homeostasis in the pathogenesis of vitreoretinal diseases in humans. We have identified soluble enzymes ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73, adenylate kinase-1, and nucleoside diphosphate kinase in the vitreous fluid that control active cycling between proinflammatory ATP and anti-inflammatory adenosine. Strikingly, patients with proliferative form of diabetic retinopathy (DR) had higher adenylate kinase activity and ATP concentration, when compared to non-proliferative DR eyes and non-diabetic controls operated for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, macular hole, and pucker. The non-parametric correlation analysis revealed positive correlations between intravitreal adenylate kinase and concentrations of ATP, ADP, and other angiogenic (angiopoietins-1 and -2), profibrotic (transforming growth factor-similar to 1), and proteolytic (matrix metalloproteinase-9) factors but not erythropoietin and VEGF. Immunohistochemical staining of postmortem human retina additionally revealed selective expression of ecto-5'-nucleotidase/ CD73 on the rod-and-cone-containing photoreceptor cells. Collectively, these findings provide novel insights into the regulatory mechanisms that influence purinergic signaling in diseased eye and open up new possibilities in the development of enzyme-targeted therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of DR.
  • Aho, Joonas; Helenius, Mikko; Vattulainen-Collanus, Sanna; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka; Koskenvuo, Juha (2016)
    Cell damage can lead to rapid release of ATP to extracellular space resulting in dramatic change in local ATP concentration. Evolutionary, this has been considered as a danger signal leading to adaptive responses in adjacent cells. Our aim was to demonstrate that elevated extracellular ATP or inhibition of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (ENTPD1/CD39) activity could be used to increase tolerance against DNA-damaging conditions. Human endothelial cells, with increased extracellular ATP concentration in cell proximity, were more resistant to irradiation or chemically induced DNA damage evaluated with the DNA damage markers gamma H2AX and phosphorylated p53. In our rat models of DNA damage, inhibiting CD39-driven ATP hydrolysis with POM-1 protected the heart and lung tissues against chemically induced DNA damage. Interestingly, the phenomenon could not be replicated in cancer cells. Our results show that transient increase in extracellular ATP can promote resistance to DNA damage.
  • Harborne, Steven P. D.; Strauss, Jannik; Boakes, Jessica C.; Wright, Danielle L.; Henderson, James G.; Boivineau, Jacques; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka; Goldman, Adrian (2020)
    Identifying stabilising variants of membrane protein targets is often required for structure determination. Our new computational pipeline, the Integral Membrane Protein Stability Selector (IMPROvER) provides a rational approach to variant selection by employing three independent approaches: deep-sequence, model-based and data-driven. In silico tests using known stability data, and in vitro tests using three membrane protein targets with 7, 11 and 16 transmembrane helices provided measures of success. In vitro, individual approaches alone all identified stabilising variants at a rate better than expected by random selection. Low numbers of overlapping predictions between approaches meant a greater success rate was achieved (fourfold better than random) when approaches were combined and selections restricted to the highest ranked sites. The mix of information IMPROvER uses can be extracted for any helical membrane protein. We have developed the first general-purpose tool for selecting stabilising variants of alpha -helical membrane proteins, increasing efficiency and reducing workload. IMPROvER can be accessed at
  • Zeiner, Julian; Loukovaara, Sirpa; Losenkova, Karolina; Zuccarini, Mariachiara; Korhonen, Ani M.; Lehti, Kaisa; Kauppinen, Anu; Kaarniranta, Kai; Mueller, Christa E.; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Yegutkin, Gennady G. (2019)
    ATP and adenosine are important signaling molecules involved in vascular remodeling, retinal function, and neurovascular coupling in the eye. Current knowledge on enzymatic pathways governing the duration and magnitude of ocular purinergic signaling is incompletely understood. By employing sensitive analytical assays, this study dissected ocular purine homeostasis as a complex and coordinated network. Along with previously characterized ecto-5-nucleotidase/CD73 and adenylate kinase activities, other enzymes have been identified in vitreous fluids, including nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase), adenosine deaminase, and alkaline phosphatase. Strikingly, activities of soluble adenylate kinase, adenosine deaminase, ecto-5-nucleotidase/CD73, and alkaline phosphatase, as well as intravitreal concentrations of ATP and ADP, were concurrently upregulated in patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy (DR) with non-clearing vitreous hemorrhage (VH), when compared to DR eyes without VH and control eyes operated due to macular hole or pucker. Additional histochemical analysis revealed selective distribution of key ecto-nucleotidases (NTPDase1/CD39, NTPDase2, ecto-5-nucleotidase/CD73, and alkaline phosphatase) in the human sensory neuroretina and optic nerve head, and also in pathological neofibrovascular tissues surgically excised from patients with advanced proliferative DR. Collectively, these data provide evidence for specific hemorrhage-related shifts in purine homeostasis in DR eyes from the generation of anti-inflammatory adenosine towards a pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic ATP-regenerating phenotype. In the future, identifying the exact mechanisms by which a broad spectrum of soluble and membrane-bound enzymes coordinately regulates ocular purine levels and the further translation of purine-converting enzymes as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of proliferative DR and other vitreoretinal diseases will be an area of intense interest.Key messagesNTPDase, alkaline phosphatase, and adenosine deaminase circulate in human vitreous.Purinergic enzymes are up-regulated in diabetic eyes with vitreous hemorrhage.Soluble adenylate kinase maintains high ATP levels in diabetic retinopathy eyes.Ecto-nucleotidases are co-expressed in the human retina and optic nerve head.Alkaline phosphatase is expressed on neovascular tissues excised from diabetic eyes.
  • Gasecka, Aleksandra; Nieuwland, Rienk; Budnik, Monika; Dignat-George, Francoise; Eyileten, Ceren; Harrison, Paul; Lacroix, Romaric; Leroyer, Aurelie; Opolski, Grzegorz; Pluta, Kinga; van der Pol, Edwin; Postula, Marek; Siljander, Pia; Siller-Matula, Jolanta M.; Filipiak, Krzysztof J. (2020)
    Background Platelet P2Y12 antagonist ticagrelor reduces mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to clopidogrel, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Because activated platelets, leukocytes, and endothelial cells release proinflammatory and prothrombotic extracellular vesicles (EVs), we hypothesized that the release of EVs is more efficiently inhibited by ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel. Objectives We compared EV concentrations and EV procoagulant activity in plasma of patients after AMI treated with ticagrelor or clopidogrel. Methods After percutaneous coronary intervention, 60 patients with first AMI were randomized to ticagrelor or clopidogrel. Flow cytometry was used to determine concentrations of EVs from activated platelets (CD61(+), CD62p(+)), fibrinogen(+), phosphatidylserine (PS+), leukocytes (CD45(+)), endothelial cells (CD31(+), 146(+)), and erythrocytes (CD235a(+)) in plasma at randomization, after 72 hours and 6 months of treatment. A fibrin generation test was used to determine EV procoagulant activity. Results Concentrations of platelet, fibrinogen(+), PS+, leukocyte, and erythrocyte EVs increased 6 months after AMI compared to the acute phase of AMI (P = .17). Conclusions Ticagrelor attenuates the increase of EV concentrations in plasma after acute myocardial infarction compared to clopidogrel. The ongoing release of EVs despite antiplatelet therapy might explain recurrent thrombotic events after AMI and worse clinical outcomes on clopidogrel compared to ticagrelor.
  • Quintero, Ileana B.; Herrala, Annakaisa M.; Araujo, Cesar L.; Pulkka, Anitta E.; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Ovaska, Kristian; Pryazhnikov, Evgeny; Kulesskiy, Evgeny; Ruuth, Maija K.; Soini, Ylermi; Sormunen, Raija T.; Khirug, Leonard; Vihko, Pirkko T. (2013)