Browsing by Subject "ADHERENCE"

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  • Vikke, Heidi Storm; Vittinghus, Svend; Betzer, Martin; Giebner, Matthias; Kolmos, Hans Jorn; Smith, Karen; Castren, Maaret; Lindström, Veronica; Mäkinen, Marja; Harve, Heini; Mogensen, Christian Backer (2019)
    BackgroundHand hygiene (HH), a cornerstone in infection prevention and control, lacks quality in emergency medical services (EMS). HH improvement includes both individual and institutional aspects, but little is known about EMS providers' HH perception and motivations related to HH quality. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the HH perception and assess potential factors related to self-reported HH compliance among the EMS cohort.MethodsA cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire consisting of 24 items (developed from the WHOs Perception Survey for Health-Care Workers) provided information on demographics, HH perceptions and self-reported HH compliance among EMS providers from Denmark.ResultsOverall, 457 questionnaires were answered (response rate 52%). Most respondents were advanced-care providers, males, had >5years of experience, and had received HH training
  • Dimitri, Paul; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Banerjee, Indraneel; Bergada, Ignacio; Calliari, Luis Eduardo; Dahlgren, Jovanna; de Arriba, Antonio; Lapatto, Risto; Reinehr, Thomas; Senniappan, Senthil; Thomas-Teinturier, Cecile; Tsai, Meng-Che; Zaini, Azriyanti Anuar; Bagha, Merat; Koledova, Ekaterina (2021)
    Background: The use of technology to support health and health care has grown rapidly in the last decade across all ages and medical specialties. Newly developed eHealth tools are being implemented in long-term management of growth failure in children, a low prevalence pediatric endocrine disorder. Objective: Our objective was to create a framework that can guide future implementation and research on the use of eHealth tools to support patients with growth disorders who require growth hormone therapy. Methods: A total of 12 pediatric endocrinologists with experience in eHealth, from a wide geographical distribution, participated in a series of online discussions. We summarized the discussions of 3 workshops, conducted during 2020, on the use of eHealth in the management of growth disorders, which were structured to provide insights on existing challenges, opportunities, and solutions for the implementation of eHealth tools across the patient journey, from referral to the end of pediatric therapy. Results: A total of 815 responses were collected from 2 questionnaire-based activities covering referral and diagnosis of growth disorders, and subsequent growth hormone therapy stages of the patient pathway, relating to physicians, nurses, and patients, parents, or caregivers. We mapped the feedback from those discussions into a framework that we developed as a guide to integration of eHealth tools across the patient journey. Responses focused on improved clinical management, such as growth monitoring and automation of referral for early detection of growth disorders, which could trigger rapid evaluation and diagnosis. Patient support included the use of eHealth for enhanced patient and caregiver communication, better access to educational opportunities, and enhanced medical and psychological support during growth hormone therapy management. Given the potential availability of patient data from connected devices, artificial intelligence can be used to predict adherence and personalize patient support. Providing evidence to demonstrate the value and utility of eHealth tools will ensure that these tools are widely accepted, trusted, and used in clinical practice, but implementation issues (eg, adaptation to specific clinical settings) must be addressed. Conclusions: The use of eHealth in growth hormone therapy has major potential to improve the management of growth disorders along the patient journey. Combining objective clinical information and patient adherence data is vital in supporting decision-making and the development of new eHealth tools. Involvement of clinicians and patients in the process of integrating such technologies into clinical practice is essential for implementation and developing evidence that eHealth tools can provide value across the patient pathway.
  • Männistö, Satu; Harald, Kennet; Härkänen, Tommi; Maukonen, Mirkka; Eriksson, Johan G.; Heikkinen, Sanna; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kaartinen, Niina E.; Kanerva, Noora; Knekt, Paul; Koskinen, Seppo; Laaksonen, Maarit A.; Malila, Nea; Rissanen, Harri; Pitkäniemi, Janne (2021)
    There is limited evidence for any dietary factor, except alcohol, in breast cancer (BC) risk. Therefore, studies on a whole diet, using diet quality indices, can broaden our insight. We examined associations of the Nordic Diet (mNDI), Mediterranean diet (mMEDI) and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (mAHEI) with postmenopausal BC risk. Five Finnish cohorts were combined including 6374 postmenopausal women with dietary information. In all, 8-9 dietary components were aggregated in each index, higher total score indicating higher adherence to a healthy diet. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the combined hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for BC risk. During an average 10-year follow-up period, 274 incident postmenopausal BC cases were diagnosed. In multivariable models, the HR for highest vs. lowest quintile of index was 0.67 (95 %CI 0.48-1.01) for mNDI, 0.88 (0.59-1.30) for mMEDI and 0.89 (0.60-1.32) for mAHEI. In this combined dataset, a borderline preventive finding of high adherence to mNDI on postmenopausal BC risk was found. Of the indices, mNDI was more based on the local food culture than the others. Although a healthy diet has beneficially been related to several chronic diseases, the link with the etiology of postmenopausal BC does not seem to be that obvious.
  • Perez-Tanoira, Ramon; Horwat, David; Kinnari, Teemu J.; Perez-Jorge, Concepcion; Gomez-Barrena, Enrique; Migot, Sylvie; Esteban, Jaime (2016)
    The aim of this study was to compare the bacterial adhesion of Staphylococcus spp. on Ti-6Al-4V with respect to Ti-6Al-V modified alloys with a set of Cubic yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and Ag-YSZ nanocomposite films. Silver is well known to have a natural biocidal character and its presence in the surface predicted to enhance the antimicrobial properties of biomedical surfaces. Microbial adhesion tests were performed using collection strains and twelve clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The adherence study was performed using a previously published protocol by Kinnari et al. Both collection strains and clinical isolates have shown lower bacterial adhesion to materials modified with respect to the alloy Ti-6Al-4V and the modification with silver reduced the bacterial adhesion for most of all the strains studied. Moreover the percentage of dead bacteria have been evaluated, demonstrating increased proportion of dead bacteria for the modified surfaces. Nanocrystalline silver dissolves releasing both Ag+ and Ag-0 whereas other silver sources release only Ag+. We can conclude that YSZ with nanocrystalline silver coating may lead to diminished postoperative infections and to increased corrosion and scratch resistance of YSZ incorporating alloys Ti-6Al-4V.
  • Ritzel, Robert; Roussel, Ronan; Giaccari, Andrea; Vora, Jiten; Brulle-Wohlhueter, Claire; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele (2018)
    AimsTo investigate the efficacy and safety of insulin glargine 300U/mL (Gla-300) vs insulin glargine 100U/mL (Gla-100) over 12months in a patient-level meta-analysis, using data from the EDITION studies in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods EDITION 1, 2 and 3 were multicentre, randomized, open-label, 2-arm, parallel-group, treat-to-target phase IIIa studies. Similar study designs and endpoints enabled a meta-analysis to be conducted. ResultsReductions in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were better sustained over 12months with Gla-300 than with Gla-100 (least squares [LS] mean difference in change from baseline: -0.10 % [95% confidence interval {CI} -0.18 to -0.02] or -1.09mmol/mol [95% CI -2.01 to -0.20]; P=.0174). Risk of confirmed (3.9mmol/L) or severe hypoglycaemia was 15% lower with Gla-300 vs Gla-100 at night (relative risk 0.85 [95% CI 0.77-0.92]) and 6% lower at any time of day (relative risk 0.94 [95% CI 0.90-0.98]). Rates of hypoglycaemia were 18% lower with Gla-300 vs Gla-100 at night (rate ratio 0.82 [95% CI 0.67-0.99]), but comparable at any time of day. HbA1c ConclusionsIn a broad population of people with T2DM over 12months, use of Gla-300 provided more sustained glycaemic control and significantly lower hypoglycaemia risk at night and at any time of day compared with Gla-100.
  • Mattila, Tiina; Hasala, Hannele; Kreivi, Hanna-Riikka; Avellan-Hietanen, Heidi; Bachour, Adel; Herse, Fredrik; Leskelä, Riikka-Leena; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna; Erhola, Marina; Haahtela, Tari; Vasankari, Tuula (2022)
    Background In the current century, sleep apnoea has become a significant public health problem due to the obesity epidemic. To increase awareness, improve diagnostics, and improve treatment, Finland implemented a national sleep apnoea programme from 2002 to 2010. Here, we present changes in the societal burden caused by sleep apnoea from 1996 to 2018. Methods National register data were collected from the Care Register for Health Care, Statistics Finland, the Social Insurance Institution of Finland, and the Finnish Centre for Pensions. Disease prevalence, use of healthcare and social services, and societal costs were estimated. Findings The number of sleep apnoea patients increased in secondary care from 8 600 in 1996 to 61 000 in 2018. There was a continuous increase in outpatient visits in secondary care from 9 700 in 1996 to 122 000 in 2018 (1 160%) and in primary care from 10 000 in 2015 to 29 000 in 2018 (190%). Accordingly, the cumulative annual number of days off work for sleep apnoea increased from 1 100 to 46 000. However, disability pensions for sleep apnoea decreased from 820 to 550 (33%) during the observation period. Societal costs per patient decreased over 50% during the observation period ((sic) 2 800 to (sic)1 200). Interpretation The number of sleep apnoea patients in Finland increased remarkably during the observation period. To control this burden, diagnostic methods and treatment were revised and follow up was reorganised. Consequently, there was a significant decrease in societal costs per patient. The decrease in disability pensions suggests earlier diagnosis and improved treatment. The national sleep apnoea programme was one of the initiators for these improved outcomes. Funding The Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare and the Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa (HUH), Helsinki, Finland. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
  • Banić, Martina; Uroić, Ksenija; Leboš Pavunc, Andreja; Novak, Jasna; Zorić, Katarina; Durgo, Ksenija; Petković, Hrvoje; Jamnik, Polona; Kazazić, Saša; Kazazić, Snježana; Radović, Slobodanka; Scalabrin, Simone; Hynönen, Ulla; Šušković, Jagoda; Kos, Blaženka (2018)
    Abstract S-layers represent the simplest biological membranes developed during the evolution and are one of the most abundant biopolymers on Earth. Current fundamental and applied research aim to reveal the chemical structure, morphogenesis and function of S-layer proteins (Slps). This is the first paper that describes the Slps of certain Lactobacillus brevis strain isolated from sauerkraut. The whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis of the L. brevis SF9B strain uncovered three genes encoding the putative Slps, but merely one, identified as similar to the SlpB of L. brevis ATCC 14869, was expressed. Slp-expressing SF9B cells exhibited increased survival in simulated gastrointestinal (GI) conditions and during freeze-drying. Their survival in stress conditions was additionally enhanced by microencapsulation, especially when using alginate with gelatine as a matrix. Thus prepared cells were subjected to simulated GI conditions and their mortality was only 0.28 ± 0.45 log CFU/mL. Furthermore, a correlation between the high surface hydrophobicity and the remarkable aggregative capacity of SF9B strain was established. The results indicate a prominent role of Slps in adhesion to mucin, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, and particularly to Caco-2 cells, where the removal of Slps utterly abolished the adhesiveness of SF9B cells for 7.78 ± 0.25 log CFU/mL.
  • Lundberg, Johan; Cars, Thomas; Lööv, Sven-Åke; Söderling, Jonas; Tiihonen, Jari; Leval, Amy; Gannedahl, Anna; Björkholm, Carl; Själin, Mikael; Hellner, Clara (2022)
    Objective Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent condition and a significant contributor to global disability. The vast majority of MDD is handled by primary care, but most real-life studies on MDD only include data from secondary care. The aim of this study was therefore to estimate the total clinical and societal burden of incident MDD including data from all healthcare levels in a large well-defined western European healthcare region. Methods Population-wide observational study included healthcare data from Region Stockholm, Sweden's largest region with approximately 2.4 million inhabitants. All patients in Region Stockholm having their first unipolar MDD episode between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2018, were included. The sample also included matched study population controls. Outcomes were psychiatric and non-psychiatric comorbid conditions, antidepressant therapy use, healthcare resource utilization, work loss, and all-cause mortality. Results In the study period, 137,822 patients in Region Stockholm were diagnosed with their first unipolar MDD episode. Compared with matched controls, MDD patients had a higher burden of non-psychiatric and psychiatric comorbid conditions, 3.2 times higher outpatient healthcare resource utilization and 8.6 times more work loss. MDD was also associated with a doubled all-cause mortality compared with matched controls (HR: 2.2 [95% CI: 2.0-2.4]). Conclusions The high mortality, morbidity, healthcare resource utilization, and work loss found in this study confirms that MDD is associated with individual suffering and low functioning leading to substantial costs for patients and society. These findings should motivate additional efforts in improving outcomes for MDD patients.
  • Lauper, Kim; Mongin, Denis; Iannone, Florenzo; Kristianslund, Eirik Klami; Kvien, Tore K.; Nordström, Dan; Pavelka, Karel; Pombo-Suarez, Manuel; Rotar, Ziga; Santos, Maria Jose; Codreanu, Catalin; Lukina, Galina; Courvoisier, Delphine S.; Gabay, Cem (2018)
    Objective To compare the real-word effectiveness of subcutaneous tocilizumab (TCZ-SC) and intravenous tocilizumab (TCZ-IV) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Patients with RA with TCZ from eight European registries were included. Drug retention was compared using unadjusted Kaplan-Meier and Cox models adjusted for baseline patient, disease and treatment characteristics, using a strata term for year of treatment initiation and country of registry. The proportions of patients achieving Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) remission and low disease activity (LDA) at 1 year were compared using samples matched on the same covariates and corrected for attrition using LUNDEX. Results 3448 patients were retrieved, 2414 with TCZ-IV and 1034 with TCZ-SC. Crude median retention was 3.52 years (95% CI 3.22 to 3.85) for TCZ-IV and 2.12 years for TCZ-SC (95% CI 1.88 to 2.38). In a country-stratified and year of treatment initiation-stratified, covariate-adjusted analysis, hazards of discontinuation were similar between TCZ-SC and TCZ-IV treated patients (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.09). The average adjusted CDAI change at 1 year was similar in both groups (-6.08). After matching, with 560 patients in each group, CDAI remission corrected for attrition at 1 year was also similar between TCZ-SC and TCZ-IV (10.4% in TCZ-IV vs 12.8% in TCZ-SC (difference: 2.4%, bootstrap 95% CI -2.1% to 7.6%)), but CDAI LDA was lower in TCZ-IV patients: 41.0% in TCZ-IV versus 49.1% in TCZ-SC (difference: 8.0 %; bootstrap 95% CI 2.4% to 12.4%). Conclusion With similar retention and effectiveness, TCZ-SC is an adequate alternative to TCZ-IV for RA. When possible, considering the costs of the TCZ-IV route, TCZ-SC should be the preferred mode of administration.
  • Leinonen, Heini; Kivelä, Laura; Lähdeaho, Marja-Leena; Huhtala, Heini; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle (2019)
    The prevalence and associated factors of daily life restrictions due to a gluten-free diet in adult celiac disease patients diagnosed in childhood are poorly known. We investigated these issues by collecting the medical data of 955 pediatric patients and sending questionnaires evaluating various health outcomes to the 559 patients who had reached adulthood. Of the 231 respondents, 46% reported everyday life restrictions caused by dietary treatment. Compared with those without restrictions, they more often had anemia at diagnosis (37% vs. 22%, p = 0.014), but the groups were comparable in other diagnostic features. In adulthood, patients with restrictions reported more overall symptoms (32% vs. 17%, p = 0.006), although the symptoms measured with the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale questionnaire were comparable. Despite strict dietary adherence in both groups, the experience of restrictions was associated with dietary challenges (34% vs. 9%, p <0.001), health concerns (22% vs. 13%, p = 0.050), and lower vitality scores in the Psychological General Well-Being questionnaire. The groups did not differ in their current age, socioeconomic status, family history of celiac disease, general health or health-related lifestyle, the presence of co-morbidities, or regular follow up. Our results encourage healthcare professionals to discuss the possible health concerns and dietary challenges with patients to avoid unnecessary daily life restrictions, especially when young patients start to take responsibility for their treatment.
  • Pylkkö, Tuomas; Ilina, Polina; Tammela, Päivi (2021)
    Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) causes intestinal infections leading to severe diarrhea. EPEC attaches to the host cell causing lesions to the intestinal epithelium coupled with the effacement of microvilli. In the process, actin accumulates into a pedestal-like structure under bacterial microcolonies. We designed an automated fluorescence microscopy-based screening method for discovering compounds capable of inhibiting EPEC adhesion and virulence using aurodox, a type three secretion system (T3SS) inhibitor, as a positive control. The screening assay employs an EPEC strain (2348/69) expressing a fluorescent protein and actin staining for monitoring the bacteria and their pedestals respectively, analyzing these with a custom image analysis pipeline. The assay allows for the discovery of compounds capable of preventing the formation of pathogenic actin rearrangements. These compounds may be interfering with virulence-related molecular pathways relevant for developing antivirulence leads.
  • Masip, Guiomar; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Kujala, Urho M.; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Väisänen, Karoliina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bogl, Leonie H. (2019)
    We constructed a food-based diet quality score (DQS) and examined its association with obesity measures, eating styles and nutrient intakes. Participants were 3592 individuals (764 dizygotic [DZ] and 430 monozygotic [MZ] twin pairs) from the FinnTwin16 study. The DQS (0-12 points) was constructed from a short 14 item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measures and eating styles were self-reported. Nutrient intakes were calculated from food diaries completed in a subsample of 249 individuals (45 same-sex DZ and 60 MZ twin pairs). Twins were analyzed both as individuals and as twin pairs. The DQS was inversely associated with body mass index (beta = -0.12, per one-unit increase in DQS, p <0.001), waist circumference (beta = -0.34, p <0.001), obesity (odds ratio [OR]: 0.95, p = 0.004) and abdominal obesity (OR: 0.88, p <0.001), independent of sex, age, physical activity and education. A higher DQS was associated with health-conscious eating, having breakfast, less snacking, fewer evening meals, and a higher frequency and regularity of eating. The DQS was positively correlated with the intakes of protein, fiber and magnesium and negatively correlated with the intakes of total fat, saturated fat and sucrose. Within twin pairs, most of the associations between the DQS with eating styles and some nutrients remained, but the DQS was not associated with obesity measures within twin pairs. The DQS is an easy-to-use tool for ranking adults according to diet quality and shows an association with obesity measures, eating styles and key nutrients in the expected direction.
  • Ruusuvuori, Johanna; Aaltonen, Tarja; Lonka, Eila; Salmenlinna, Inkeri; Laakso, Minna (2020)
    The quality of interaction between hearing health professionals and patients is one prominent, yet under-studied explanation for the low adherence in acquiring and using a hearing aid. This study describes two different ways of introducing hearing aid to the patients at their first visits at the hearing clinic: an inquiry asking patients opinion followed by offer, and an expert evaluation of the necessity of a hearing aid; and shows two different trajectories ensuing from these introductions. The trajectories represent two extreme ends of a continuum of practices of starting a discussion about hearing aid rehabilitation, in terms of how these practices affect patient participation in decision-making. The analysis shows how granting different degrees of deontic and epistemic rights to professionals and patients has different consequences with regard to the activity of reaching shared understanding on the treatment. The data consist of 17 video-recorded encounters at the hearing clinic. The method used is conversation analysis.
  • Elfving, P.; Puolakka, K.; Kautiainen, H.; Virta, L. J.; Pohjolainen, T.; Kaipiainen-Seppanen, O. (2016)
    The objectives of the study were to examine the initial, first-year anti-rheumatic outpatient therapy in patients with incident SLE, as well as the concomitant use of drugs for certain comorbidities, compared to the use in the general population. The Finnish nationwide register data on special reimbursements for medication costs was screened to identify the inception cohort of 566 adult SLE patients (87% females, mean age 46.5 +/- 15.9 years) over the years 2000-2007. The patients were linked to the national Drug Purchase Register. Of those, 90% had purchased at least once some disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) during the first year. Hydroxychloroquine was the most common (76%), followed by azathioprine (15%) and methotrexate (13%). With the exception of increase in mycophenolate mofetil, the proportions remained stable over the whole study period 2000-2007. Drugs for cardiovascular diseases, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism and obstructive pulmonary disease were more frequently purchased than in the sex- and age-adjusted population, with rate ratios ranging from 1.6 to 7.8. Over the years 2000-2007, almost all the patients with incident SLE in Finland started with a DMARD. Higher percentages of SLE patients were on medication for several common chronic diseases than in the population as a whole.
  • Riddle, Matthew C.; Bolli, Geremia B.; Home, Philip D.; Bergenstal, Richard M.; Ziemen, Monika; Muehlen-Bartmer, Isabel; Wardecki, Marek; Vinet, Laetitia; Jeandidier, Nathalie; Yki-Jarvinen, Hannele (2016)
    Background: Insulin glargine 300 U/mL (Gla-300) has a more constant and prolonged action profile than insulin glargine 100 U/mL and in clinical studies is associated with similar glycemic control but less hypoglycemia. Whether its effects are altered by variability of injection time was examined in two 3-month substudies. Materials and Methods: Eligible participants completing 6 months of optimized treatment with Gla-300 in EDITION 1 (n = 109) and EDITION 2 (n = 89), having a mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA(1c)) level of 7.3 % (SD 1.0 %), were randomized (1:1) to groups advised to increase variability of between-injection intervals to 24 +/- up to 3 h or to maintain fixed 24-h intervals for 3 months. Changes of HbA(1c) level and other efficacy and safety measures were assessed. Results: In the fixed-dosing group, 64% of participants reported all intervals within the 23-25-h range, compared with 15% of those advised flexible dosing. In the fixed- and flexible-dosing groups, 12% and 41%, respectively, of between-injection intervals were outside the 23-25-h range, and 2% and 16%, respectively, were outside the 21-27-h range. Least squares mean between-group difference in HbA(1c) change from baseline was 0.05 % (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.13 to 0.23); for fasting plasma glucose, 2.7 mg/dL (95% CI, -9.0 to 14.4); and for daily basal insulin dose, 0.00 U/kg (95% CI, -0.02 to 0.03). Frequencies of hypoglycemia and adverse events did not differ between groups. Conclusions: The efficacy and safety of Gla-300 demonstrated in EDITION 1 and EDITION 2 are maintained in substudies when the insulin was injected up to 3 h before or after the usual time of administration.
  • Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Trolle, Ellen; Eneroth, Hanna; Fogelholm, Mikael; Ydersbond, Trond Arild; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva (2019)
    "The Nordic diet" is an umbrella term that encompasses any interpretation that combines Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) with local Nordic foods. The five Nordic countries have collaborated on Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for forty years, including FBDGs, so their national guidelines are similar. The countries also share similar public health issues, including widespread nonconformity to the guidelines, although in different ways. The aim of this concept paper is to discuss environmental sustainability aspects of the Nordic diet, describe the status of and make suggestions for the inclusion of sustainability in future work on the Nordic diet. We exploit the sustainability-health synergy. A food intake more in line with the current FBDGs, which emphasises more plant-based and less animal-based foods, is necessary for high environmental sustainability. In turn, sustainability is an important motivator for health-promoting dietary shifts. Policy development requires long-term efforts. Since the Nordic diet can be considered a further development and improvement of old, traditional diets, there is huge potential to formulate a Nordic diet that benefits both human and planetary health. It is time for concerted engagement and actions-a new Nordic nutrition transition.
  • Laaka, Atte; Hollmen, Maria; Bachour, Adel (2021)
    Background Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) mask renewal policies vary inside and between countries. There are no independent studies on the optimal mask renewal frequency. We aimed to evaluate CPAP mask function over time in a real-life clinical setting, and to compare the results against current renewal policies. Methods Daily performance data of 1846 CPAP masks (65% nasal, 22% nasal pillows, 12% oronasal) were recorded from 450 participants (68% male, mean age 59 years) with obstructive sleep apnoea. The unintentional leak, Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index (CPAP-AHI) and usage data were exported from the CPAP device. Results Of 656 324 nights of CPAP usage, the mean renewal time was 497 days (SD 327), mean leak 5.7 L/min (SD 8.1) and CPAP-AHI 3.8 events/h (SD 3.6). The difference in mean leak between one (5.2 L/min, SD 7.5), 12 (6.0 L/min, SD 10.2) and 24 months (5.8 L/min, SD 7.5) was minimal (p=0.59). Mean CPAP-AHI remained normal and unchanged in nasal masks and pillows up to 30 months, and was highest in oronasal masks. Different mask manufacturers performed similarly. Masks' daily or total usage did not affect the results. Shifting the mask renewal policy to 24 months could reduce the mask-related cost up to 50%-88%. Conclusions Nasal masks and pillows could be used at least 2 years without significant changes in unintentional leak and CPAP-AHI. We suggest updating the mask renewal policies of nasal masks and pillows; results on oronasal masks and other manufacturers CPAP devices need further verification.
  • Sarin, Heikki V.; Taba, Nele; Fischer, Krista; Esko, Tonu; Kanerva, Noora; Moilanen, Leena; Saltevo, Juha; Joensuu, Anni; Borodulin, Katja; Männistö, Satu; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus (2019)
    Background: Food neophobia is considered a behavioral trait closely linked to adverse eating patterns and reduced dietary quality, which have been associated with increased risk of obesity and noncommunicable diseases. Objectives: In a cross-sectional and prospective study, we examined how food neophobia is associated with dietary quality, health-related biomarkers, and disease outcome incidence in Finnish and Estonian adult populations. Methods: The study was conducted based on subsamples of the Finnish DIetary, Lifestyle, and Genetic determinants of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome (DILGOM) cohort (n = 2982; age range: 25-74 y) and the Estonian Biobank cohort (n = 1109; age range: 18-83 y). The level of food neophobia was assessed using the Food Neophobia Scale, dietary quality was evaluated using the Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS), and biomarker profiles were determined using an NMR metabolomics platform. Disease outcome information was gathered from national health registries. Follow-up data on the NMR-based metabolomic profiles and disease outcomes were available in both populations. Results: Food neophobia associated significantly (adjusted P <0.05) with health-related biomarkers [e.g., omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, citrate, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein, HDL, and MUFA] in the Finnish DILGOM cohort. The significant negative association between the severity of food neophobia and omega-3 fatty acids was replicated in all cross-sectional analyses in the Finnish DILGOM and Estonian Biobank cohorts. Furthermore, food neophobia was associated with reduced dietary quality (BSDS: beta: -0.03 +/- 0.006; P = 8.04 x 10(-5)), increased fasting serum insulin (beta: 0.004 +/- 0.0013; P = 5.83 x 10(-3)), and increased risk of type 2 diabetes during the similar to 8-y follow-up (HR: 1.018 +/- 0.007; P = 0.01) in the DILGOM cohort. Conclusions: In the Finnish and Estonian adult populations, food neophobia was associated with adverse alteration of health-related biomarkers and risk factors that have been associated with an increased risk of noncommunicable diseases. We also found that food neophobia associations with omega-3 fatty acids and associated metabolites are mediated through dietary quality independent of body weight.
  • Lassale, Camille; Batty, G. David; Baghdadli, Amaria; Jacka, Felice; Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Kivimäki, Mika; Akbaraly, Tasnime (2019)
    With depression being the psychiatric disorder incurring the largest societal costs in developed countries, there is a need to gather evidence on the role of nutrition in depression, to help develop recommendations and guide future psychiatric health care. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the link between diet quality, measured using a range of predefined indices, and depressive outcomes. Medline, Embase and PsychInfo were searched up to 31st May 2018 for studies that examined adherence to a healthy diet in relation to depressive symptoms or clinical depression. Where possible, estimates were pooled using random effect meta-analysis with stratification by observational study design and dietary score. A total of 20 longitudinal and 21 cross-sectional studies were included. These studies utilized an array of dietary measures, including: different measures of adherence to the Mediterranean diet, the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and Alternative HEI (AHEI), the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, and the Dietary Inflammatory Index. The most compelling evidence was found for the Mediterranean diet and incident depression, with a combined relative risk estimate of highest vs. lowest adherence category from four longitudinal studies of 0.67 (95% CI 0.55-0.82). A lower Dietary Inflammatory Index was also associated with lower depression incidence in four longitudinal studies (relative risk 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63-0.92). There were fewer longitudinal studies using other indices, but they and cross-sectional evidence also suggest an inverse association between healthy diet and depression (e.g., relative risk 0.65; 95% CI 0.50-0.84 for HEI/AHEI). To conclude, adhering to a healthy diet, in particular a traditional Mediterranean diet, or avoiding a pro-inflammatory diet appears to confer some protection against depression in observational studies. This provides a reasonable evidence base to assess the role of dietary interventions to prevent depression.
  • Nobre, Nuno; Pereira, Marco; Roine, Risto P.; Sutinen, Jussi; Sintonen, Harri (2018)
    We examined how HIV-related self-stigma was associated with different domains of quality of life (QoL), as measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life in HIV-infected persons instrument (WHOQOL-HIV-Bref), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as measured by the generic 15D (15-dimensional measure of HRQoL), to identify the factors associated with self-stigma of people living with HIV (PLWH). The study sample included 440 patients living with HIV followed at the Infectious Disease Clinic of Helsinki University Hospital. Participants with more severe self-stigma reported significantly lower QoL and HRQoL. Male gender, cohabiting with a partner, and disclosure of HIV status were associated with less self-stigma; high education level and financial difficulties were associated with greater self-stigma. Having lived longer with HIV, being unemployed, and living alone were also predictors of self-stigma via financial difficulties. The findings suggest that self-stigma is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon that impacts the HRQoL of PLWH. Psychosocial interventions to enhance the well-being of PLWH are increasingly needed. Copyright (C) 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care