Browsing by Subject "ADIPOSITY"

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  • Bogl, Leonie H.; Kaye, Sanna M.; Ramo, Joel T.; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Jesper; Lundbom, Nina; Ortega-Alonso, Alfredo; Rissanen, Aila; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pietilainen, Kirsi H. (2016)
    Objective. To investigate how obesity, insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation link to circulating metabolites, and whether the connections are due to genetic or environmental factors. Subjects and methods. Circulating serum metabolites were determined by proton NMR spectroscopy. Data from 1368 (531 monozygotic (MZ) and 837 dizygotic (DZ)) twins were used for bivariate twin modeling to derive the genetic (r(g)) and environmental (re) correlations between waist circumference (WC) and serum metabolites. Detailed examination of the associations between fat distribution (DEXA) and metabolic health (HOMA-IR, CRP) was performed among 286 twins including 33 BMI-discordant MZ pairs (intrapair BMI difference >= 3 kg/m(2)). Results. Fat, especially in the abdominal area (i.e. WC, android fat % and android to gynoid fat ratio), together with HOMA-IR and CRP correlated significantly with an atherogenic lipoprotein profile, higher levels of branched-chain (BCAA) and aromatic amino acids, higher levels of glycoprotein, and a more saturated fatty acid profile. In contrast, a higher proportion of gynoid to total fat associated with a favorable metabolite profile. There was a significant genetic overlap between WC and several metabolites, most strongly with phenylalanine (r(g) = 0.40), glycoprotein (r(g) = 0.37), serum triglycerides (r(g) = 0.36), BCAAs (r(g) = 0.30-0.40), HDL particle diameter (r(g) = -0.33) and HDL cholesterol (r(g) = -0.30). The effect of acquired obesity within the discordant MZ pairs was particularly strong for atherogenic lipoproteins. Conclusions. A wide range of unfavorable alterations in the serum metabolome was associated with abdominal obesity, insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation. Twin modeling and obesity-discordant twin analysis suggest that these associations are partly explained by shared genes but also reflect mechanisms independent of genetic liability. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; Ooki, Syuichi; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Heikkila, Kauko; Cutler, Tessa L.; Hopper, John L.; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Fisher, Abigail; Corley, Robin P.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Tarnoki, Adam D.; LTarnoki, David; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.; Ordonana, Juan R.; Sanchez-Romera, Juan F.; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Harris, Jennifer R.; Brandt, Lngunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Saffery, Richard; Rasmussen, Finn; Tynelius, Per; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Plomin, Robert; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Rebato, Esther; Krueger, Robert F.; Mcgue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri (2017)
    Background: There is evidence that birthweight is positively associated with body mass index (BMI) in later life, but it remains unclear whether this is explained by genetic factors or the intrauterine environment. We analysed the association between birthweight and BMI from infancy to adulthood within twin pairs, which provides insights into the role of genetic and environmental individual-specific factors. Methods: This study is based on the data from 27 twin cohorts in 17 countries. The pooled data included 78 642 twin individuals (20 635 monozygotic and 18 686 same-sex dizygotic twin pairs) with information on birthweight and a total of 214 930 BMI measurements at ages ranging from 1 to 49 years. The association between birthweight and BMI was analysed at both the individual and within-pair levels using linear regression analyses. Results: At the individual level, a 1-kg increase in birthweight was linearly associated with up to 0.9 kg/m(2) higher BMI (P <0.001). Within twin pairs, regression coefficients were generally greater (up to 1.2 kg/m(2) per kg birthweight, P <0.001) than those from the individual-level analyses. Intra-pair associations between birthweight and later BMI were similar in both zygosity groups and sexes and were lower in adulthood. Conclusions: These findings indicate that environmental factors unique to each individual have an important role in the positive association between birthweight and later BMI, at least until young adulthood.
  • Korhonen, Päivi E.; Mikkola, Tuija; Kautiainen, Hannu; Eriksson, Johan G. (2021)
    High body mass index (BMI) is known to be associated with elevated blood pressure (BP). The present study aims to determine the relative importance of the two components of BMI, fat mass and lean body mass index, on BP levels. We assessed body composition with bioimpedance and performed 24 hour ambulatory BP measurements in 534 individuals (mean age 61 +/- 3 years) who had no cardiovascular medication. Fat mass index and lean mass index were calculated analogously to BMI as fat mass or lean body mass (kg) divided by the square of height (m2). Both fat mass index and lean mass index showed a positive, small to moderate relationship with all 24 hour BP components independently of age, sex, smoking, and leisure-time physical activity. There were no interaction effects between fat mass index and lean mass index on the mean BP levels. Adult lean body mass is a significant determinant of BP levels with an equal, albeit small to moderate magnitude as fat mass. Relatively high amount of muscle mass may not be beneficial to cardiovascular health.
  • Koskinen, Juhani S.; Kytö, Ville; Juonala, Markus; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Laitinen, Tomi; Tossavainen, Päivi; Jokinen, Eero; Magnussen, Costan G.; Raitakari, Olli T. (2020)
    Background and aims: Carotid plaque is a specific sign of atherosclerosis and adults with carotid plaque are at increased risk for cardiovascular outcomes. Atherosclerosis has roots in childhood and pediatric guidelines provide cut-off values for cardiovascular risk factors. However, it is unknown whether these cut-offs predict adulthood advanced atherosclerosis. Methods: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is a follow-up of children that begun in 1980 when 2653 participants with data for the present analyses were aged 3-18 years. In 2001 and 2007 follow-ups, in addition to adulthood cardiovascular risk factors, carotid ultrasound data was collected. Long-term burden, as the area under the curve, was evaluated for childhood (6-18 years) risk factors. To study the associations of guideline-based cut-offs with carotid plaque, both childhood and adult risk factors were classified according to clinical practice guidelines. Results: Carotid plaque, defined as a focal structure of the arterial wall protruding into lumen > 50% compared to adjacent intima-media thickness, was present in 88 (3.3%) participants. Relative risk for carotid plaque, when adjusted for age and sex, was 3.03 (95% CI, 1.76-5.21) for childhood dyslipidemia, 1.51 (95% CI, 0.99-2.32) for childhood elevated systolic blood pressure, and 1.93 (95% CI, 1.26-2.94) for childhood smoking. Childhood dyslipidemia and smoking remained independent predictors of carotid plaque in models additionally adjusted for adult risk factors and family history of coronary heart disease. Carotid plaque was present in less than 1% of adults with no childhood risk factors. Conclusions: Findings reinforce childhood prevention efforts and demonstrate the utility of guideline-based cutoffs in identifying children at increased risk for adulthood atherosclerosis.
  • Leppänen, Marja H.; Ray, Carola; Wennman, Heini; Alexandrou, Christina; Sääksjärvi, Katri; Koivusilta, Leena; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2019)
    Background: Recent 24-h movement guidelines for the early years established recommendations for physical activity (PA), screen time (ST), and sleep. To date, few studies have focused on compliance with meeting the guidelines and their associations with health outcomes. Thus, we aimed to investigate: 1) compliance with the 24-h movement guidelines, and 2) associations between compliance and anthropometry in Finnish preschoolers. Methods: We utilized DAGIS survey data that were collected in 2015-2016 (N = 864). PA was assessed 24 h/day over 7 days using a waist-worn ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer. ST and sleep were reported by the parents during the same 7 days. Anthropometry was assessed using body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) and waist circumference (WC, cm). Children were classified as meeting the guidelines if they averaged >= 180 min/day of PA, which consisted of >= 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity; Results: Children were physically active on average 390 (+/- 46.2) min/day and spent 86 (+/- 25.5) min/day in moderate-to-vigorous PA. They spent 76 (+/- 37.4) min/day on ST and had on average 10:21 (+/- 0:33) h:min/day of sleep. The compliance rate in meeting all three movement guidelines overall was 24%. The highest compliance rate was found for PA (85%), followed by sleep (76%) and ST (35%). Meeting guidelines separately for PA or sleep, or for both, were associated with lower WC (PA: B = -1.37, p <0.001; Sleep: B = -0.72, p = 0.009; PA + Sleep: B = -1.03, p <0.001). In addition, meeting guidelines for sleep or for both PA and sleep were associated with lower BMI (Sleep: B = -0.26, p = 0.027; PA + Sleep: B = -0.30, p = 0.007). There were no significant associations found regarding ST. Conclusions: Meeting recommendations for PA and sleep may have an important role in supporting a healthy weight status in young children. However, there is still a need to improve compliance with the 24-h movement guidelines, especially for ST.
  • Vehmeijer, Florianne O. L.; Kuepers, Leanne K.; Sharp, Gemma C.; Salas, Lucas A.; Lent, Samantha; Jima, Dereje D.; Tindula, Gwen; Reese, Sarah; Qi, Cancan; Gruzieva, Olena; Page, Christian; Rezwan, Faisal; Melton, Philip E.; Nohr, Ellen; Escaramis, Georgia; Rzehak, Peter; Heiskala, Anni; Gong, Tong; Tuominen, Samuli T.; Gao, Lu; Ross, Jason P.; Starling, Anne P.; Holloway, John W.; Yousefi, Paul; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Bergstrom, Anna; Binder, Elisabeth; Chatzi, Leda; Corpeleijn, Eva; Czamara, Darina; Eskenazi, Brenda; Ewart, Susan; Ferre, Natalia; Grote, Veit; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Haberg, Siri E.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Huen, Karen; Karlsson, Robert; Kull, Inger; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Lepeule, Johanna; Magnus, Maria C.; Maguire, Rachel L.; Molloy, Peter L.; Monnereau, Claire; Mori, Trevor A.; Oken, Emily; Räikkönen, Katri; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Ruiz-Arenas, Carlos; Sebert, Sylvain; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Verduci, Elvira; Vonk, Judith M.; Xu, Cheng-jian; Yang, Ivana; Zhang, Hongmei; Zhang, Weiming; Karmaus, Wilfried; Dabelea, Dana; Muhlhausler, Beverly S.; Breton, Carrie; Lahti, Jari; Almqvist, Catarina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Koletzko, Berthold; Vrijheid, Martine; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Huang, Rae-Chi; Arshad, Syed Hasan; Nystad, Wenche; Melen, Erik; Koppelman, Gerard H.; London, Stephanie J.; Holland, Nina; Bustamante, Mariona; Murphy, Susan K.; Hivert, Marie-France; Baccarelli, Andrea; Relton, Caroline L.; Snieder, Harold; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Felix, Janine F. (2020)
    Background DNA methylation has been shown to be associated with adiposity in adulthood. However, whether similar DNA methylation patterns are associated with childhood and adolescent body mass index (BMI) is largely unknown. More insight into this relationship at younger ages may have implications for future prevention of obesity and its related traits. Methods We examined whether DNA methylation in cord blood and whole blood in childhood and adolescence was associated with BMI in the age range from 2 to 18 years using both cross-sectional and longitudinal models. We performed meta-analyses of epigenome-wide association studies including up to 4133 children from 23 studies. We examined the overlap of findings reported in previous studies in children and adults with those in our analyses and calculated enrichment. Results DNA methylation at three CpGs (cg05937453, cg25212453, and cg10040131), each in a different age range, was associated with BMI at Bonferroni significance, P <1.06 x 10(-7), with a 0.96 standard deviation score (SDS) (standard error (SE) 0.17), 0.32 SDS (SE 0.06), and 0.32 BMI SDS (SE 0.06) higher BMI per 10% increase in methylation, respectively. DNA methylation at nine additional CpGs in the cross-sectional childhood model was associated with BMI at false discovery rate significance. The strength of the associations of DNA methylation at the 187 CpGs previously identified to be associated with adult BMI, increased with advancing age across childhood and adolescence in our analyses. In addition, correlation coefficients between effect estimates for those CpGs in adults and in children and adolescents also increased. Among the top findings for each age range, we observed increasing enrichment for the CpGs that were previously identified in adults (birth P-enrichment = 1; childhood P-enrichment = 2.00 x 10(-4); adolescence P-enrichment = 2.10 x 10(-7)). Conclusions There were only minimal associations of DNA methylation with childhood and adolescent BMI. With the advancing age of the participants across childhood and adolescence, we observed increasing overlap with altered DNA methylation loci reported in association with adult BMI. These findings may be compatible with the hypothesis that DNA methylation differences are mostly a consequence rather than a cause of obesity.
  • Lassenius, Mariann I.; Ahola, Aila J.; Harjutsalo, Valma; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik; Lehto, Markku (2016)
    Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), potent inducers of inflammation, have been associated with chronic metabolic disturbances. Obesity is linked to dyslipidemia, increased body adiposity, and endotoxemia. We investigated the cross-sectional relationships between serum LPS activity and body adiposity as well as inflammation in 242 subjects with type 1 diabetes. Body fat distribution was measured by DXA and serum LPS activity by the limulus amebocyte lysate end-point assay. Since no interaction between visceral fat mass and sex was observed, data were pooled for the subsequent analyses. LPS was independently associated with visceral fat mass, when adjusted for traditional risk factors (age, sex, kidney status, hsCRP, insulin sensitivity). In the multivariate analysis, serum LPS activity and triglyceride concentrations had a joint effect on visceral fat mass, independent of these factors alone. A combination of high LPS and high hsCRP concentrations was also observed in those with the largest visceral fat mass. In conclusion, high serum LPS activity levels were associated with visceral fat mass in subjects with type 1 diabetes strengthening its role in the development of central obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance.
  • BIOS Consortium; Early Growth Genetics EGG Conso; Alves, Alexessander Couto; De Silva, N. Maneka G.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Widen, Elisabeth (2019)
    Early childhood growth patterns are associated with adult health, yet the genetic factors and the developmental stages involved are not fully understood. Here, we combine genome-wide association studies with modeling of longitudinal growth traits to study the genetics of infant and child growth, followed by functional, pathway, genetic correlation, risk score, and colocalization analyses to determine how developmental timings, molecular pathways, and genetic determinants of these traits overlap with those of adult health. We found a robust overlap between the genetics of child and adult body mass index (BMI), with variants associated with adult BMI acting as early as 4 to 6 years old. However, we demonstrated a completely distinct genetic makeup for peak BMI during infancy, influenced by variation at the LEPR/LEPROT locus. These findings suggest that different genetic factors control infant and child BMI. In light of the obesity epidemic, these findings are important to inform the timing and targets of prevention strategies.
  • Morris, Richard W.; Taylor, Amy E.; Fluharty, Meg E.; Bjorngaard, Johan H.; Asvold, Bjorn Olav; Gabrielsen, Maiken Elvestad; Campbell, Archie; Marioni, Riccardo; Kumari, Meena; Korhonen, Tellervo; Mannisto, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Kaakinen, Marika; Cavadino, Alana; Postmus, Iris; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N.; Skaaby, Tea; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Treur, Jorien L.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Dale, Caroline; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Lahti, Jari; Palotie, Aarno; Räikkönen, Katri; McConnachie, Alex; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Wong, Andrew; Dalgard, Christine; Paternoster, Lavinia; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Tyrrell, Jessica; Horwood, John; Fergusson, David M.; Kennedy, Martin A.; Nohr, Ellen A.; Christiansen, Lene; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kuh, Diana; Watt, Graham; Eriksson, Johan G.; Whincup, Peter H.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Smith, George Davey; Lawlor, Debbie; Linneberg, Allan; Ford, Ian; Jukema, J. Wouter; Power, Chris; Hypponen, Elina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Preisig, Martin; Borodulin, Katja; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kivimaki, Mika; Smith, Blair H.; Hayward, Caroline; Romundstad, Pal R.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Munafo, Marcus R.; Sattar, Naveed (2015)
    Objectives: To investigate, using a Mendelian randomisation approach, whether heavier smoking is associated with a range of regional adiposity phenotypes, in particular those related to abdominal adiposity. Design: Mendelian randomisation meta-analyses using a genetic variant (rs16969968/rs1051730 in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene region) as a proxy for smoking heaviness, of the associations of smoking heaviness with a range of adiposity phenotypes. Participants: 148 731 current, former and neversmokers of European ancestry aged >= 16 years from 29 studies in the consortium for Causal Analysis Research in Tobacco and Alcohol (CARTA). Primary outcome measures: Waist and hip circumferences, and waist-hip ratio. Results: The data included up to 66 809 never-smokers, 43 009 former smokers and 38 913 current daily cigarette smokers. Among current smokers, for each extra minor allele, the geometric mean was lower for waist circumference by -0.40% (95% Cl -0.57% to - 0.22%), with effects on hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and body mass index (BMI) being -0.31% (95% Cl - 0.42% to -0.19), -0.08% (-0.19% to 0.03%) and - 0.74% (-0.96% to -0.51%), respectively. In contrast, among never-smokers, these effects were higher by 0.23% (0.09% to 0.36%), 0.17% (0.08% to 0.26%), 0.07% (-0.01% to 0.15%) and 0.35% (0.18% to 0.52%), respectively. When adjusting the three central adiposity measures for BMI, the effects among current smokers changed direction and were higher by 0.14% (0.05% to 0.22%) for waist circumference, 0.02% (-0.05% to 0.08%) for hip circumference and 0.10% (0.02% to 0.19%) for waist-hip ratio, for each extra minor allele. Conclusions: For a given BMI, a gene variant associated with increased cigarette consumption was associated with increased waist circumference. Smoking in an effort to control weight may lead to accumulation of central adiposity.
  • Early Growth Genetics Consortium; Vogelezang, Suzanne; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Leinonen, Jaakko T.; Widen, Elisabeth (2020)
    The genetic background of childhood body mass index (BMI), and the extent to which the well-known associations of childhood BMI with adult diseases are explained by shared genetic factors, are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of BMI in 61,111 children aged between 2 and 10 years. Twenty-five independent loci reached genome-wide significance in the combined discovery and replication analyses. Two of these, located nearNEDD4LandSLC45A3, have not previously been reported in relation to either childhood or adult BMI. Positive genetic correlations of childhood BMI with birth weight and adult BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure and type 2 diabetes were detected (R(g)ranging from 0.11 to 0.76, P-values Author summary Although twin studies have shown that body mass index (BMI) is highly heritable, many common genetic variants involved in the development of BMI have not yet been identified, especially in children. We studied associations of more than 40 million genetic variants with childhood BMI in 61,111 children aged between 2 and 10 years. We identified 25 genetic variants that were associated with childhood BMI. Two of these have not been implicated for BMI previously, located close to the genesNEDD4LandSLC45A3. We also show that the genetic background of childhood BMI overlaps with that of birth weight, adult BMI, waist-to-hip-ratio, diastolic blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and age at menarche. Our results suggest that the biological processes underlying childhood BMI largely overlap with those underlying adult BMI. However, the overlap is not complete. Additionally, the genetic backgrounds of childhood BMI and other cardio-metabolic phenotypes are overlapping. This may mean that the associations of childhood BMI and later cardio-metabolic outcomes are partially explained by shared genetics, but it could also be explained by the strong association of childhood BMI with adult BMI.
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Latvala, Antti; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo; Sugawara, Masumi; Tanaka, Mami; Matsumoto, Satoko; Aaltonen, Sari; Piirtola, Maarit; Freitas, Duarte L.; Maia, Jose A.; Oncel, Sevgi Y.; Aliev, Fazil; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Rebato, Esther; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Cutler, Tessa L.; Hopper, John L.; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Almqvist, Catarina; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E.; Mack, Thomas M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Jina; Lee, Jooyeon; Lee, Sooji; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Fisher, Abigail; Medda, Emanuela; Nistico, Lorenza; Toccaceli, Virgilia; Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Corley, Robin P.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.; Silberg, Judy L.; Maes, Hermine H.; Krueger, Robert F.; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A.; Harris, Jennifer R.; Nilsen, Thomas S.; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Franz, Carol E.; Kremen, William S.; Lyons, Michael J.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2019)
    Objective The objective of this study was to analyze how parental education modifies the genetic and environmental variances of BMI from infancy to old age in three geographic-cultural regions. Methods A pooled sample of 29 cohorts including 143,499 twin individuals with information on parental education and BMI from age 1 to 79 years (299,201 BMI measures) was analyzed by genetic twin modeling. Results Until 4 years of age, parental education was not consistently associated with BMI. Thereafter, higher parental education level was associated with lower BMI in males and females. Total and additive genetic variances of BMI were smaller in the offspring of highly educated parents than in those whose parents had low education levels. Especially in North American and Australian children, environmental factors shared by co-twins also contributed to the higher BMI variation in the low education level category. In Europe and East Asia, the associations of parental education with mean BMI and BMI variance were weaker than in North America and Australia. Conclusions Lower parental education level is associated with higher mean BMI and larger genetic variance of BMI after early childhood, especially in the obesogenic macro-environment. The interplay among genetic predisposition, childhood social environment, and macro-social context is important for socioeconomic differences in BMI.
  • Muthuri, Stella K.; Onywera, Vincent O.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Church, Timothy S.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; ISCOLE Res Grp (2016)
    Background Globally, the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children has serious implications for morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood. Various parental factors are associated with childhood overweight and physical activity. The objective of this paper was to investigate relationships between parental education or overweight, and (i) child overweight, (ii) child physical activity, and (iii) explore household coexistence of overweight, in a large international sample. Methods Data were collected from 4752 children (9-11 years) as part of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment in 12 countries around the world. Physical activity of participating children was assessed by accelerometry, and body weight directly measured. Questionnaires were used to collect parents' education level, weight, and height. Results Maternal and paternal overweight were positively associated with child overweight. Higher household coexistence of parent-child overweight was observed among overweight children compared to the total sample. There was a positive relationship between maternal education and child overweight in Colombia 1.90 (1.23-2.94) [odds ratio (confidence interval)] and Kenya 4.80 (2.21-10.43), and a negative relationship between paternal education and child overweight in Brazil 0.55 (0.33-0.92) and the USA 0.54 (0.33-0.88). Maternal education was negatively associated with children meeting physical activity guidelines in Colombia 0.53 (0.33-0.85), Kenya 0.35 (0.19-0.63), and Portugal 0.54 (0.31-0.96). Conclusions Results are aligned with previous studies showing positive associations between parental and child overweight in all countries, and positive relationships between parental education and child overweight or negative associations between parental education and child physical activity in lower economic status countries. Relationships between maternal and paternal education and child weight status and physical activity appear to be related to the developmental stage of different countries. Given these varied relationships, it is crucial to further explore familial factors when investigating child overweight and physical activity.
  • Prasad, Rashmi B.; Asplund, Olof; Shukla, Sharvari R.; Wagh, Rucha; Kunte, Pooja; Bhat, Dattatrey; Parekh, Malay; Shah, Meet; Phatak, Sanat; Karajamaki, Annemari; Datta, Anupam; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Saboo, Banshi; Ahlqvist, Emma; Groop, Leif; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S. (2022)
    Aim/hypothesis Five subgroups were described in European diabetes patients using a data driven machine learning approach on commonly measured variables. We aimed to test the applicability of this phenotyping in Indian individuals with young-onset type 2 diabetes. Methods We applied the European-derived centroids to Indian individuals with type 2 diabetes diagnosed before 45 years of age from the WellGen cohort (n = 1612). We also applied de novo k-means clustering to the WellGen cohort to validate the subgroups. We then compared clinical and metabolic-endocrine characteristics and the complication rates between the subgroups. We also compared characteristics of the WellGen subgroups with those of two young European cohorts, ANDIS (n = 962) and DIREVA (n = 420). Subgroups were also assessed in two other Indian cohorts, Ahmedabad (n = 187) and PHENOEINDY-2 (n = 205). Results Both Indian and European young-onset type 2 diabetes patients were predominantly classified into severe insulin-deficient (SIDD) and mild obesity-related (MOD) subgroups, while the severe insulin-resistant (SIRD) and mild age-related (MARD) subgroups were rare. In WellGen, SIDD (53%) was more common than MOD (38%), contrary to findings in Europeans (Swedish 26% vs 68%, Finnish 24% vs 71%, respectively). A higher proportion of SIDD compared with MOD was also seen in Ahmedabad (57% vs 33%) and in PHENOEINDY-2 (67% vs 23%). Both in Indians and Europeans, the SIDD subgroup was characterised by insulin deficiency and hyperglycaemia, MOD by obesity, SIRD by severe insulin resistance and MARD by mild metabolic-endocrine disturbances. In WellGen, nephropathy and retinopathy were more prevalent in SIDD compared with MOD while the latter had higher prevalence of neuropathy. Conclusions /interpretation Our data identified insulin deficiency as the major driver of type 2 diabetes in young Indians, unlike in young European individuals in whom obesity and insulin resistance predominate. Our results provide useful clues to pathophysiological mechanisms and susceptibility to complications in type 2 diabetes in the young Indian population and suggest a need to review management strategies.
  • Hauta-Alus, Helena H.; Holmlund-Suila, Elisa M.; Kajantie, Eero; Rosendahl, Jenni; Valkama, Saara M.; Enlund-Cerullo, Maria; Andersson, Sture; Mäkitie, Outi (2021)
    Context: The relationship between maternal and infant vitamin D and early childhood growth remains inadequately understood. Objective: This work aimed to investigate how maternal and child 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and vitamin D supplementation affect growth during the first 2 years of life. Methods: A randomized, double-blinded, single-center intervention study was conducted from pregnancy until offspring age 2 years. Altogether 812 term-born children with complete data were recruited at a maternity hospital. Children received daily vitamin D-3 supplementation of 10 mu g (group 10) or 30 mu g (group 30) from age 2 weeks to 2 years. Anthropometry and growth rate were measured at age 1 and 2 years. Results: Toddlers born to mothers with pregnancy 25(OH)D greater than 125 nmol/L were at 2 years lighter and thinner than the reference group with 25(OH)D of 50 to 74.9 nmol/L (P < .010). Mean 2-year 25(OH)D concentrations were 87 nmol/L in group 10 and 118 nmol/L in group 30 (P < .001). When group 30 was compared with group 10, difference in body size was not statistically significant (P > .053), but group 30 had slower growth in length and head circumference between 6 months and 1 year (P < .047), and more rapid growth in weight and length-adjusted weight between 1 and 2 years (P < .043). Toddlers in the highest quartile of 25(OH)D (> 121 nmol/L) were shorter (mean difference 0.2 SD score [SDS], P = .021), lighter (mean difference 0.4 SDS, P = .001), and thinner (in length-adjusted weight) (mean difference 0.4 SDS, P = .003) compared with the lowest quartile (< 81.2 nmol/L). Conclusion: Vitamin D and early childhood growth may have an inverse U-shaped relationship.