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  • European Stroke Org; Fuentes, Blanca; Ntaios, George; Putaala, Jukka; Thomas, Brenda; Turc, Guillaume; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio (2018)
    Background Hyperglycaemia is a frequent complication in acute stroke that has been shown to be independently associated with larger infarct size, haematoma growth, poor clinical outcome and mortality. This Guideline Document presents the European Stroke Organisation (ESO) Guidelines for the management of blood glucose levels in patients with acute ischemic or haemorrhagic stroke. Methods The working group identified related questions and developed its recommendations based on evidence from randomised controlled trials following the standard operating procedure of the ESO. This Guideline Document was reviewed and approved by the European Stroke Organisation Guidelines Committee and the European Stroke Organisation Executive Committee. Results We found low-quality evidence from clinical trials in ischemic or haemorrhagic stroke exploring the use of intravenous insulin aimed to achieve a tight glycaemic control with different glucose level targets and several other sources of heterogeneity. None of these trials neither the meta-analysis of them have demonstrated any significant benefit of tight glycaemic control with intravenous insulin in acute ischemic or haemorrhagic stroke patients on functional outcome or in survival and they have shown an increased risk for hypoglycaemia. Conclusions We suggest against the routine use of tight glycaemic control with intravenous insulin as a means to improve outcomes. The currently available data about the management of glycaemia in patients with acute stroke are limited and the strengths of the recommendations are therefore weak. Nevertheless, this does not prevent that hyperglycaemia in acute stroke patients could be treated as any other hospitalised patient.
  • Wu, Teddy Y.; Putaala, Jukka; Sharma, Gagan; Strbian, Daniel; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Davis, Stephen M.; Meretoja, Atte (2017)
    Background-Hyperglycemia may be associated with worse outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We assessed the association of early glycemic trajectory on ICH mortality and edema growth. Methods and Results-We included patients from the Helsinki ICH study with glucose measurements at least once between both 0 to 24 and 24 to 72 hours from onset. Hyperglycemia was defined as blood glucose >= 8 mmol/L (144 mg/dL) based on the local threshold for treatment. Glycemic trajectory was defined on maximum values 0 to 24 and 24 to 72 hours after ICH: (1) persistent normoglycemia in both epochs; (2) late hyperglycemia (only between 24 and 72 hours); (3) early hyperglycemia (only before 24 hours); and (4) persistent hyperglycemia in both epochs. Logistic regression with known predictors of outcome estimated the association of glycemic trajectory and 6-month mortality. A generalized linear model assessed the association of glycemic trajectory and interpolated 72-hour edema extension distance. A total of 576 patients met eligibility criteria, of whom 214 (37.2%) had persistent normoglycemia, 44 (7.6%) late hyperglycemia, 151 (26.2%) early hyperglycemia, and 167 (29.0%) persistent hyperglycemia. Six-month mortality was higher in the persistent (51.1%) and early (26.3%) hyperglycemia groups than the normoglycemia (19.0%) and late hyperglycemia (3.6%) groups. Persistent hyperglycemia was associated with 6-month mortality (odds ratio 3.675, 95% CI 1.989-6.792; P <0.001). Both univariate (P=0.426) and multivariable (P=0.493) generalized linear model analyses showed no association between glycemic trajectory and 72-hour edema extension distance. Conclusion-Early hyperglycemia after ICH is harmful if it is persistent. Strategies to achieve glycemic control after ICH may influence patient outcome and need to be assessed in clinical trials.