Browsing by Subject "ADMISSION"

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  • Efraim Investigators Nine; Mokart, Djamel; Darmon, Michael; Schellongowski, Peter; Valkonen, Miia; Azoulay, Elie (2020)
    Background The impact of neutropenia in critically ill immunocompromised patients admitted in a context of acute respiratory failure (ARF) remains uncertain. The primary objective was to assess the prognostic impact of neutropenia on outcomes of these patients. Secondary objective was to assess etiology of ARF according to neutropenia. Methods We performed a post hoc analysis of a prospective multicenter multinational study from 23 ICUs belonging to the Nine-I network. Between November 2015 and July 2016, all adult immunocompromised patients with ARF admitted to the ICU were included in the study. Adjusted analyses included: (1) a hierarchical model with center as random effect; (2) propensity score (PS) matched cohort; and (3) adjusted analysis in the matched cohort. Results Overall, 1481 patients were included in this study of which 165 had neutropenia at ICU admission (11%). ARF etiologies distribution was significantly different between neutropenic and non-neutropenic patients, main etiologies being bacterial pneumonia (48% vs 27% in neutropenic and non-neutropenic patients, respectively). Initial oxygenation strategy was standard supplemental oxygen in 755 patients (51%), high-flow nasal oxygen in 165 (11%), non-invasive ventilation in 202 (14%) and invasive mechanical ventilation in 359 (24%). Before adjustment, hospital mortality was significantly higher in neutropenic patients (54% vs 42%;p = 0.006). After adjustment for confounder and center effect, neutropenia was no longer associated with outcome (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.93-2.11). Similar results were observed after matching (52% vs 46%, respectively;p = 0.35) and after adjustment in the matched cohort (OR 1.04; 95% CI 0.63-1.72). Conclusion Neutropenia at ICU admission is not associated with hospital mortality in this cohort of critically ill immunocompromised patients admitted for ARF. In neutropenic patients, main ARF etiologies are bacterial and fungal infections.
  • Sykora, M.; Putaala, J.; Meretoja, A.; Tatlisumak, T.; Strbian, D. (2018)
    BackgroundBeta-blocker therapy has been suggested to have neuroprotective properties in the setting of acute stroke; however, the evidence is weak and contradictory. We aimed to examine the effects of pre-admission therapy with beta-blockers (BB) on the mortality following spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). MethodsRetrospective analysis of the Helsinki ICH Study database. ResultsA total of 1013 patients with ICH were included in the analysis. Patients taking BB were significantly older, had a higher premorbid mRS score, had more DNR orders, and more comorbidities as atrial fibrillation, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, and heart failure. After adjustment for age, pre-existing comorbidities, and prior use of antithrombotic and antihypertensive medications, no differences in in-hospital mortality (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.7), 12-month mortality (OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.9-1.9), and 3-month mortality (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.8-1.7) emerged. ConclusionPre-admission use of BB was not associated with mortality after ICH.
  • Hungarian Pancreatic Study Grp; Kui, Balazs; Pinter, Jozsef; Molontay, Roland (2022)
    Background Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a potentially severe or even fatal inflammation of the pancreas. Early identification of patients at high risk for developing a severe course of the disease is crucial for preventing organ failure and death. Most of the former predictive scores require many parameters or at least 24 h to predict the severity; therefore, the early therapeutic window is often missed. Methods The early achievable severity index (EASY) is a multicentre, multinational, prospective and observational study (ISRCTN10525246). The predictions were made using machine learning models. We used the scikit-learn, xgboost and catboost Python packages for modelling. We evaluated our models using fourfold cross-validation, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the area under the ROC curve (AUC), and accuracy metrics were calculated on the union of the test sets of the cross-validation. The most critical factors and their contribution to the prediction were identified using a modern tool of explainable artificial intelligence called SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP). Results The prediction model was based on an international cohort of 1184 patients and a validation cohort of 3543 patients. The best performing model was an XGBoost classifier with an average AUC score of 0.81 +/- 0.033 and an accuracy of 89.1%, and the model improved with experience. The six most influential features were the respiratory rate, body temperature, abdominal muscular reflex, gender, age and glucose level. Using the XGBoost machine learning algorithm for prediction, the SHAP values for the explanation and the bootstrapping method to estimate confidence, we developed a free and easy-to-use web application in the Streamlit Python-based framework (http://easy-app.org/). Conclusions The EASY prediction score is a practical tool for identifying patients at high risk for severe AP within hours of hospital admission. The web application is available for clinicians and contributes to the improvement of the model.
  • Skrifvars, Markus B.; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio (2016)
  • CardShock Investigators; Jäntti, Toni; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Parissis, John; Javanainen, Tuija; Tolppanen, Heli; Jurkko, Raija; Hongisto, Mari; Kataja, Anu; Lassus, Johan; Jurkko, Raija; Jarvinen, Kristiina; Nieminen, Tuomo (2019)
    Introduction The prevalence of hypoalbuminemia, early changes of plasma albumin (P-Alb) levels, and their effects on mortality in cardiogenic shock are unknown. Materials and methods P-Alb was measured from serial blood samples in 178 patients from a prospective multinational study on cardiogenic shock. The association of hypoalbuminemia with clinical characteristics and course of hospital stay including treatment and procedures was assessed. The primary outcome was all-cause 90-day mortality. Results Hypoalbuminemia (P-Alb < 34g/L) was very frequent (75%) at baseline in patients with cardiogenic shock. Patients with hypoalbuminemia had higher mortality than patients with normal albumin levels (48% vs. 23%, p = 0.004). Odds ratio for death at 90 days was 2.4 [95% CI 1.5–4.1] per 10 g/L decrease in baseline P-Alb. The association with increased mortality remained independent in regression models adjusted for clinical risk scores developed for cardiogenic shock (CardShock score adjusted odds ratio 2.0 [95% CI 1.1–3.8], IABP-SHOCK II score adjusted odds ratio 2.5 [95%CI 1.2–5.0]) and variables associated with hypoalbuminemia at baseline (adjusted odds ratio 2.9 [95%CI 1.2–7.1]). In serial measurements, albumin levels decreased at a similar rate between 0h and 72h in both survivors and nonsurvivors (ΔP-Alb -4.6 g/L vs. 5.4 g/L, p = 0.5). While the decrease was higher for patients with normal P-Alb at baseline (p<0.001 compared to patients with hypoalbuminemia at baseline), the rate of albumin decrease was not associated with outcome. Conclusions Hypoalbuminemia was a frequent finding early in cardiogenic shock, and P-Alb levels decreased during hospital stay. Low P-Alb at baseline was associated with mortality independently of other previously described risk factors. Thus, plasma albumin measurement should be part of the initial evaluation in patients with cardiogenic shock. Trial registration NCT01374867 at ClinicalTrials.gov.
  • Räty, Silja; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Suomalainen, Olli; Sibolt, Gerli; Tiainen, Marjaana; Valkonen, Kati; Sairanen, Tiina; Forss, Nina; Curtze, Sami (2021)
    Background: There is contradicting evidence on the outcome of emergency patients treated during weekends versus weekdays. We studied if outcome of ischemic stroke patients receiving intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) differs according to the treatment time. Methods: Our retrospective study included consecutive patients receiving IVT within 4.5 h of stroke onset between June 1995 and December 2018 at the Helsinki University Hospital. The patients were compared based on the treatment initiation either during weekdays (Monday to Friday) or weekend (Saturday and Sunday). The primary outcome was 3-month mortality and secondary outcomes comprised 3-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and incidence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH). Additional analyses studied the effect of IVT treatment according to non-office hours, time of day, and season. Results: Of the 3980 IVT-treated patients, 28.0% received treatment during weekends. Mortality was similar after weekend (10.0%) and weekday (10.6%) admissions in the multivariable regression analysis (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.59-1.03). Neither 3-month mRS (OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.86-1.12), nor the occurrence of sICH (4.2% vs 4.6%; OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.60-1.26) differed between the groups. No outcome difference was observed between the office vs non-office hours or by the time of day. However, odds for worse outcome were higher during autumn (OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.04-1.35) and winter (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.01-1.30). Conclusion: We did not discover any weekend effect for IVT-treated stroke patients. This confirms that with standardized procedures, an equal quality of care can be provided to patients requiring urgent treatment irrespective of time.
  • Tanislav, Christian; Grittner, Ulrike; Misselwitz, Bjoern; Jungehuelsing, Gerhard Jan; Enzinger, Christian; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Putaala, Jukka; Kaps, Manfred; Kropp, Peter; Rolfs, Arndt; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Fazekas, Franz; Kolodny, Edwin; Norrving, Bo (2014)
  • Pakkanen, Toni; Nurmi, Jouni; Huhtala, Heini; Silfvast, Tom (2019)
    Background: Patients with isolated traumatic brain injury (TBI) are likely to benefit from effective prehospital care to prevent secondary brain injury. Only a few studies have focused on the impact of advanced interventions in TBI patients by prehospital physicians. The primary end-point of this study was to assess the possible effect of an on-scene anaesthetist on mortality of TBI patients. A secondary end-point was the neurological outcome of these patients. Methods: Patients with severe TBI (defined as a head injury resulting in a Glasgow Coma Score of Results: The mortality data for 651 patients and neurological outcome data for 634 patients were available for primary and secondary analysis. In the primary analysis higher age (OR 1.06 CI 1.05-1.07), lower on-scene GCS (OR 0.85 CI 0.79-0.92) and the unavailability of an on-scene anaesthetist (OR 1.89 CI 1.20-2.94) were associated with higher mortality together with hypotension (OR 3.92 CI 1.08-14.23). In the secondary analysis lower age (OR 0.95 CI 0.94-0.96), a higher on-scene GCS (OR 1.21 CI 1.20-1.30) and the presence of an on-scene anaesthetist (OR 1.75 CI 1.09-2.80) were demonstrated to be associated with good patient outcomes while hypotension (OR 0.19 CI 0.04-0.82) was associated with poor outcome. Conclusion: Prehospital on-scene anaesthetist treating severe TBI patients is associated with lower mortality and better neurological outcome.
  • Räty, Silja; Silvennoinen, K.; Tatlisumak, T. (2018)
    ObjectivesOccipital ischemic strokes typically cause homonymous visual field defects, for which means of rehabilitation are limited. Intravenous thrombolysis is increasingly and successfully used for their acute treatment. However, recognition of strokes presenting with mainly visual field defects is challenging for both patients and healthcare professionals. We studied prehospital pathways of occipital stroke patients with mainly visual symptoms to define obstacles in their early recognition. Materials & methodsThis observational, retrospective, registry-based study comprises occipital stroke patients with isolated visual symptoms treated at the neurological emergency department of Helsinki University Central Hospital in 2010-2015. We analyzed their prehospital pathways, including time from symptom onset to admission at the neurological emergency department (ODT), the number of points of care, the percentage of patients with ODT4.5hours, and factors associated with delay. ResultsAmong 245 patients, only 20.8% arrived within 4.5hours and 6.5% received IV thrombolysis. Delayed arrival was most often due to patients' late contact to health care. Of the patients, 27.3% arrived through at least two points of care, and differential diagnostics to ophthalmologic disorders proved particularly challenging. ODT4.5hours was associated with EMS utilization, direct arrival, and atrial fibrillation; a visit at an ophthalmologist and initial misdiagnosis were associated with ODT>4.5hours. After multivariable analysis, only direct arrival predicted ODT4.5hours. ConclusionsOccipital stroke patients with visual symptoms contact health care late, are inadequately recognized, and present with complex prehospital pathways. Consequently, they are often ineligible for IV thrombolysis. This presents a missed opportunity for preventing permanent visual field defects.
  • Manderbacka, Kristiina; Arffman, Martti; Satokangas, Markku; Keskimäki, Ilmo (2019)
    Objectives A persistent finding in research concerning healthcare and hospital use in Western countries has been regional variation in the medical practices. The aim of the current study was to examine trends in the regional variation of avoidable hospitalisations, that is, hospitalisations due to conditions treatable in ambulatory care in Finland in 1996–2013 and the influence of different healthcare levels on them.Setting Use of hospital inpatient care in 1996–2013 among the total population in Finland.Participants Altogether 1 931 012 hospital inpatient care episodes among all persons residing in Finland identified from administrative registers in Finland in 1996−2013 and alive in 1 January 1996.Outcome measures We examined hospitalisations due to avoidable causes including vaccine-preventable hospitalisations, hospitalisations due to complications of chronic conditions and acute conditions treatable in ambulatory care. We calculated annual age-adjusted rates per 10 000 person-years. Multilevel models were used for studying time trends in regional variation.Results There was a steep decline in avoidable hospitalisation rates during the study period. The decline occurred almost exclusively in hospitalisations due to chronic conditions, which diminished by about 60%. The overall correlation between hospital district intercepts and slopes in time was −0.46 (p&lt;0.05) among men and −0.20 (ns) among women. Statistically highly significant diminishing variation was found in hospitalisations due to chronic conditions among both men (−0.90) and women (−0.91). The variation was mainly distributed to the hospital district level.Conclusions The results suggest that chronic conditions are managed better in primary care in the whole country than before. Further research is needed on whether this is the case or whether this has more to do with supply of hospital care.
  • Tolvi, Morag; Tuominen-Salo, Hanna; Paavola, Mika; Mattila, Kimmo; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Lehtonen, Lasse (2020)
    Background While previous studies have evaluated the effect of some patient characteristics (e.g. gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class and comorbidity) on outcome in orthopedic and hand day surgery, more detailed information on anesthesia related factors has previously been lacking. Our goal was to investigate the perioperative factors that affect overstay, readmission and contact after day surgery in order to find certain patient profiles more prone to problemed outcomes after day surgery. Methods We examined orthopedic and hand day surgery at an orthopedic day surgery unit of Helsinki University Hospital. Patient data of all adult orthopedic and hand day surgery patients (n = 542) over a 3-month period (January 1 - March 31, 2015) operated on at the unit were collected retrospectively using the hospital's surgery database. These data comprised anesthesia and patient records with a follow-up period of 30 days post-operation. Patients under the age of 16 and patients not eligible for day surgery were excluded. Patient records were searched for an outcome of overstay, readmission or contact with the emergency room or policlinic. Pearson chi-square test, Fischer's exact test and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyze the effect of various perioperative factors on postoperative outcome. Results Various patient and anesthesia related factors were examined for their significance in the outcomes of overstay, readmission or contact. Female gender (p = 0.043), total amount of fentanyl (p = 0.00), use of remifentanil (p = 0.036), other pain medication during procedure (p = 0.005) and administration of antiemetic medication (p = 0.048) emerged as statistically significant on outcome after day surgery. Conclusions Overstay and readmission in orthopedic and hand day surgery were clearly connected with female patients undergoing general anesthesia and needing larger amounts of intraoperative opioids. By favoring local and regional anesthesia, side effects of general anesthesia, as well as recovery time, will decrease.
  • Jokela, Markus; Batty, G. David; Vahtera, Jussi; Elovainio, Marko; Kivimaki, Mika (2013)
  • Vuorinen, Anna-Leena; Leppanen, Juha; Kaijanranta, Hannu; Kulju, Minna; Helio, Tiina; van Gils, Mark; Lahteenmaki, Jaakko (2014)
  • Tolvi, Morag; Mattila, Kimmo; Haukka, Jari; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Lehtonen, Lasse (2020)
    Background The weekend effect is the phenomenon of a patient's day of admission affecting their risk for mortality. Our study reviews the situation at six secondary hospitals in the greater Helsinki area over a 14-year period by specialty, in order to examine the effect of centralization of services on the weekend effect. Methods Of the 28,591,840 patient visits from the years 2000-2013 in our hospital district, we extracted in-patients treated only in secondary hospitals who died during their hospital stay or within 30 days of discharge. We categorized patients based on the type of each admission, namely elective versus emergency, and according to the specialty of their clinical service provider and main diagnosis. Results A total of 456,676 in-patients (292,399 emergency in-patients) were included in the study, with 17,231 deaths in-hospital or within 30 days of discharge. A statistically significant weekend effect was observed for in-hospital and 30-day post-discharge mortality among emergency patients for 1 of 7 specialties. For elective patients, a statistically significant weekend effect was visible in in-hospital mortality for 4 of 8 specialties and in 30-day post-discharge mortality for 3 of 8 specialties. Surgery, internal medicine, and gynecology and obstetrics were most susceptible to this phenomenon. Conclusions A weekend effect was present for the majority of specialties for elective patients, indicating a need for guidelines for these admissions. More disease-specific research is necessary to find the diagnoses, which suffer most from the weekend effect and adjust staffing accordingly.