Browsing by Subject "ADOLESCENCE"

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  • Mannerström, Rasmus; Hietajärvi, Lauri; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2021)
    It has been suggested that dual-cycle models of identity formation do not fit well with Erikson’s identity theory and the identity status paradigm due to 1) contradictory statuses, 2) problems with discerning past exploration and 3) ambiguity or limitations of the life domains covered. The present study extended the Dimensions for Identity Development Scale (DIDS) with three additional dimensions suggested previously, examined identity profiles and their transitions over time, their links with psychological well-being and what life domain was associated with “future plans” (N=1294; T1: age=17, 60% female; T2: age=18, 65% female). The results showed that 1) the eight-dimensional model fit the data well longitudinally; 2) six previously reported profiles emerged at both time points with expected links to psychological well-being; 3) as previously speculated, individuals in the (early) closure status had undertaken identity exploration in the past; 4) the previously encountered high commitment-high exploration status (i.e., searching moratorium) seems to be “superficially committed”; and 5) future plans are commonly associated with work life/occupation. Future research would benefit from employing qualitative research to better understand the subjective meanings attached to high commitment-high exploration and by developing new ways to account for quality and different levels of commitment.
  • Piirtola, Maarit; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri; Svedberg, Pia; Korhonen, Tellervo; Ropponen, Annina (2017)
    To investigate longitudinal associations of smoking and a change in smoking status with leisure-time physical inactivity. In addition, to control whether familial confounding (genetics and shared environment) influences the associations. Data were based on the population-based Finnish Adult Twin Cohort of 5254 twin individuals born in 1945-1957 (41% men) and who participated in all four surveys over a 35-year follow-up (1975-2011). Logistic and conditional logistic regression models with multiple covariates were used for analyses. Compared to never-smokers, long-term daily smokers (1975-1990) had the highest likelihood for both long-term inactivity and to change into inactive by 2011. Recurrent smoking was associated with long-term inactivity. Instead, in comparison to persistent daily smokers, quitting smoking decreased the likelihood of becoming physically inactive at leisure time. The associations remained in the analyses which accounted for multiple covariates and/or familial confounding. Daily smoking increases the likelihood of remaining or becoming physically inactive over the decades. Our results emphasize not only the importance of preventing smoking initiation, but also to support early smoking cessation in promotion of lifelong physical activity.
  • Salmela, Jatta Helena; Mauramo, Elina; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Kanerva, Noora (2019)
    Objective: Childhood disadvantage is associated with a higher risk of adult obesity, but little is known about its associations with body mass index (BMI) trajectories during adulthood. This study aimed first to identify adulthood BMI trajectories, and second to investigate how childhood disadvantage is associated with trajectory group membership. Methods: Data from the Helsinki Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study of initially 40- to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki in Finland, were used. The baseline survey was conducted in 2000–2002, and similar follow-up surveys in 2007, 2012, and 2017. Based on self-reported BMI, participants’ (n =5,266; 83% women) BMI trajectories, including their retrospectively reported BMI at the age of 25 years, were examined. Data on childhood disadvantage, including parental education and 7 types of childhood adversity (their own serious illness; parental divorce, death, mental disorder, or alcohol problems; economic difficulties at home; and peer group bullying) before the age of 16 years, were obtained from the baseline survey. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify BMI trajectories, and multinomial logistic regression to analyze the odds for trajectory group membership for the disadvantage variables. Results: Four ascending BMI trajectories in women and men were found: persistent normal weight (trajectory 1; women 35% and men 25%), normal weight to overweight (trajectory 2; women 41% and men 48%), normal weight to class I obesity (trajectory 3; women 19% and men 23%) and overweight to class II obesity (trajectory 4; women 5% and men 4%). Compared to trajectory 1, women with multiple adversities and repetitive peer bullying in childhood had greater odds of belonging to trajectories 3 and 4, whereas men with parental alcohol problems had greater odds of belonging to trajectory 4. For women and men, a low level of parental education was associated with a higher-level BMI trajectory. Conclusions: Low parental education for both genders, multiple adversities and repetitive peer bullying in childhood among women, and parental alcohol problems among men increased the odds of developing obesity during adulthood. Further studies are needed to clarify how gender differences modify the effects of childhood disadvantage on adult BMI trajectories.
  • Lounassalo, Irinja; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Kankaanpaeae, Anna; Tolvanen, Asko; Palomäki, Sanna; Salin, Kasper; Fogelholm, Mikael; Yang, Xiaolin; Pahkala, Katja; Rovio, Suvi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli; Tammelin, Tuija H. (2019)
    A physically active lifestyle and a diet rich in vegetables and fruits have a central role in promoting health. This study examined the associations between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) trajectories and fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) from childhood to middle age. The data were drawn from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with six age cohorts. Participants were 9 to 18 years (n = 3536; 51% females) at baseline in 1980 and 33 to 48 years at the last follow-up in 2011. LTPA and FVC were self-reported. LTPA trajectories were identified using latent profile analyses, after which the mean differences in FVC across the trajectories were studied. Active, low-active, decreasingly and increasingly active trajectories were identified for both genders. An additional trajectory describing inactivity was identified for females. Those who were persistently active or increased their LTPA had higher FVC at many ages when compared to their inactive or low-active counterparts (p <0.05). In females prior to age 42 and in males prior to age 24, FVC was higher at many ages in those with decreasing activity than in their inactive or low-active counterparts (p <0.05). The development of LTPA and FVC from childhood to middle age seem to occur in tandem.
  • Kiiski, Ville O; Salava, Alexander; Susitaival, Päivikki; Barnhill, Satu; Remitz, Anita; Heliövaara, Markku (2022)
    Background The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has increased, but studies in adult or elderly populations are sparse. Methods We investigated 12-month and lifetime prevalences of AD in the Finnish adult population ≥30 years of age and analyzed living environment factors, socioeconomic factors, lifestyle-related factors, and serum vitamin D levels for their associations with AD in a national health examination survey. Results The lifetime prevalence was 21.9% and 12-month prevalence 10.1%. The highest prevalence (lifetime 28.6%, 12-month 15.4%) was seen in subjects 30-39 years of age. Prevalence decreased with age. Subjects with highly educated parents were more likely to have active AD, though there was no effect of higher education in subjects themselves. Younger age and being an ex-smoker were associated with active AD. Female sex and daily smoking increased the risk in subjects 30-49 years of age. There was no dose– response relationship to serum vitamin D levels and no association with the living environment. Conclusions Our data show that the number of adult patients with atopic dermatitis has grown and prevalence numbers of AD in Finnish adults are among the highest reported. Together with the aging of the society, the burden of AD is not limited to childhood.
  • Merikukka, Marko; Ristikari, Tiina; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Gissler, Mika; Laaksonen, Mikko (2018)
    Background: Mental disorders can affect work ability and lead to early exit from the labour market through disability pension. Aims: This study aimed to identify childhood determinants of psychiatric disability pension in early adulthood. Methods: The 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort includes a complete census of children born in a single year. The children were followed up from birth until 31 December 2012 using official registers maintained by the Finnish authorities. Risk factors for disability pension were examined in the full 1987 cohort (N = 58,739) and among children who had received mental health care (N = 9,599). Odds ratios were calculated for disability pension due to all mental disorders and separately for schizophrenia, depressive and anxiety and other mental and behavioural disorders in association with childhood determinants. Results: Altogether, 1.4% of cohort members had retired due to mental disorders in 2003-2012. In the full 1987 cohort, female sex, parental divorce and social assistance, both mother's and father's psychiatric care and mother's psychiatric disability pension increased the risk for disability pension due to mental disorders. Among children who had received mental health care, risk factors for psychiatric disability pension were father's psychiatric care and mother's psychiatric disability pension. Conclusion: Childhood determinants were related to the risk of psychiatric disability pension before the age of 25. The risk factors varied by the diagnosis of the disability pension. Using knowledge of this study's risk factors should enable the identification of adolescents and young adults in general population and especially in the mental health care population who are at greatest risk of receipt of psychiatric disability pension.
  • Tu, Zhen; Cao, Hancheng; Lagerspetz, Eemil; Fan, Yali; Flores, Huber; Tarkoma, Sasu; Nurmi, Petteri; Li, Yong (2021)
    In the past decade, mobile app usage has played an important role in our daily life. Existing studies have shown that app usage is intrinsically linked with, among others, demographics, social and economic factors. However, due to data limitations, most of these studies have a short time span and treat users in a static manner. To date, no study has shown whether changes in socioeconomic status or other demographics are reflected in long-term app usage behavior. In this paper, we contribute by presenting the first ever long-term study of individual mobile app usage dynamics and how app usage behavior of individuals is influenced by changes in socioeconomic demographic factors over time. Through a novel app dataset we collected, from which we extracted records of 1608 long-term users with more than 3-year app usage and their detailed socioeconomic attributes, we verify the stable correlation between user app usage and user socioeconomic attributes over time and identify a number of representative app usage patterns in connection with specific user attributes. On the basis, we analyze the long-term app usage dynamics and reveal that there is significant evolution in long-term app usage that 60–70% of users change their app usage patterns during the duration of more than 3 years. We further discover a variety of app pattern change modes and demonstrate that the long-term app usage behavior change reflects corresponding transition in socioeconomic attributes, such as change of civil status, family size, transition in job or economic status.
  • Tarro, Saija; Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Vahtera, Jussi; Pentti, Jaana; Lagström, Hanna (2022)
    A good quality diet in childhood is important for optimal growth as well as for long-term health. It is not well established how eating behaviors affect overall diet quality in childhood. Moreover, very few studies have considered the association of diet quality and a neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood. Our aim was to investigate how diet quality is associated with eating behaviors and neighborhood disadvantage and their interaction in preschool age children in Finland. The participants were from the Steps to Healthy Development Study at age 2 y (n = 780) and 5 y (n = 653). Diet quality was measured with a short questionnaire on habitual food consumption and eating behavior was assessed with the child eating behavior questionnaire to indicate the child's eating style regarding food approach and food avoidance dimensions. Information on neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage were obtained from the statistics Finland grid database. We found that diet quality was higher at 5 years compared to 2 years of age (p < 0.001). Food approach subscale, enjoyment of food, was positively associated with the diet quality (p < 0.001 for 2 and 5 y) while subscale desire to drink was negatively associated with the diet quality (p = 0.001 for 2 and 5 y). Food avoidance was negatively associated with the diet quality both at 2 and at 5 years of age (p < 0.001). A higher neighborhood disadvantage was negatively associated with the diet quality at the age of 2 years (p = 0.02), but not at the age of 5 years. Eating behavior had similar associations with diet quality both in affluent and deprived neighborhoods. Our results suggest that both the eating behavior and neighborhood disadvantage are, already in the early age, important factors when considering children's diet quality.
  • Vepsalainen, Henna; Korkalo, Liisa; Mikkila, Vera; Lehto, Reetta; Ray, Carola; Nissinen, Kaija; Skaffari, Essi; Fogelholm, Mikael; Koivusilta, Leena; Roos, Eva; Erkkola, Maijaliisa (2018)
    Objective: To study the associations between home food availability and dietary patterns among pre-school children. Design: Cross-sectional study in which parents of the participating children filled in an FFQ and reported how often they had certain foods in their homes. We derived dietary pattern scores using principal component analysis, and composite scores describing the availability of fruits and vegetables as well as sugar-enriched foods in the home were created for each participant. We used multilevel models to investigate the associations between availability and dietary pattern scores. Setting: The DAGIS study, Finland. Subjects: The participants were 864 Finnish 3-6-year-old children recruited from sixty-six pre-schools. The analyses included 711 children with sufficient data. Results: We identified three dietary patterns explaining 16.7% of the variance. The patterns were named 'sweets-and-treats' (high loadings of e.g. sweet biscuits, chocolate, ice cream), 'health-conscious' (high loadings of e.g. nuts, natural yoghurt, berries) and 'vegetables-and-processed meats' (high loadings of e.g. vegetables, cold cuts, fruit). In multivariate models, the availability of fruits and vegetables was inversely associated with the sweets-and-treats pattern (beta = -0.05, P <0.01) and positively associated with the health-conscious (beta = 0.07, P <0.01) and vegetables-and-processed meats patterns (beta = 0.06, P <0.01). The availability of sugar-enriched foods was positively associated with the sweets-and-treats pattern (beta = 0.10, P <0.01) and inversely associated with the health-conscious pattern (beta = -0.03, P <0.01). Conclusions: Considering dietary patterns, the availability of sugar-enriched foods in the home seems to have a stronger role than that of fruits and vegetables. Parents should restrict the availability of unhealthy foods in the home.
  • Torvik, Fartein Ask; Flato, Martin; McAdams, Tom A.; Colman, Ian; Silventoinen, Karri; Stoltenberg, Camilla (2021)
    Purpose: On average, boys have lower academic achievement than girls. We investigated whether the timing of puberty is associated with academic achievement, and whether later puberty among boys contributes to the sex difference in academic achievement. Method: Examination scores at age 16 were studied among 13,477 British twins participating in the population-based Twins Early Development Study. A pubertal development scale, a height based proxy of growth spurt, and age at menarche were used as indicators of puberty. Associations between puberty, sex, and academic achievement were estimated in phenotypic mediation models and biometric twin models. Results: Earlier puberty was associated with higher academic achievement both in boys and girls. The exception was early age at menarche in girls, which associated with lower academic achievement. More than half of the sex differences in academic achievement could be linked to sex differences in pubertal development, but part of this association appeared to be rooted in prepubertal differences. The biometric twin modelling indicated that the association between puberty and academic achievement was due to shared genetic risk factors. Genetic influences on pubertal development accounted for 7%-8% of the phenotypic variation in academic achievement. Conclusions: Pubertal maturation relates to the examination scores of boys and of girls. This can give genes related to pubertal maturation an influence on outcomes in education and beyond. Sex differences in pubertal maturation can explain parts of the sex difference in academic achievement. Grading students when they are immature may not accurately measure their academic potential. (c) 2021 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • Pitkänen, Joonas; Remes, Hanna; Aaltonen, Mikko; Martikainen, Pekka (2019)
    Introduction Previous studies suggest that childhood experience of parental adversities increases the risk of subsequent offspring self-harm, but studies on distinct paternal and maternal characteristics are few and it remains unclear how these interact with childhood social position. The study aims to assess whether paternal and maternal adversities have different associations with offspring self-harm in adolescence and young adulthood. Interaction by offspring gender and childhood income are investigated, as well as cumulative effects of multiple adversities. Methods The study uses administrative register data on a 20% random sample of Finnish households with children aged 0–14 years in 2000. We follow children born in 1986–1998 (n=155 855) from their 13th birthday until 2011. Parental substance abuse, psychiatric disorders, criminality and hospitalisations due to interpersonal violence or self-harm are used to predict offspring self-harm with Cox proportional hazards models. Results The results show a clear increase in the risk of self-harm among those exposed to maternal or paternal adversities with HRs between 1.5 and 5.4 among boys and 1.7 and 3.9 among girls. The excess risks hold for every measure of maternal and paternal adversities after adjusting for childhood income and parental education. Evidence was found suggesting that low income, accumulation of adversity and female gender may exacerbate the consequences of adversities. Conclusions Our findings suggest that both parents’ adversities increase the risk of self-harm and that multiple experiences of parental adversities in childhood are especially harmful, regardless of parent gender. Higher levels of childhood income can protect from the negative consequences of adverse experiences.
  • Lindfors, Pirjo; Minkkinen, Jaana; Rimpelä, Arja; Hotulainen, Risto (2018)
    Research on the associations between family and school social capital, school burnout and academic achievement in adolescence is scarce and the results are inconclusive. We examined if family and school social capital at the age of 13 predicts lower school burnout and better academic achievement when graduating at the age of 16. Using data from 4467 Finnish adolescents from 117 schools and 444 classes a three-level multilevel analysis was executed. School social capital, the positive and supportive relationships between students and teachers, predicted lower school burnout and better academic achievement among students. Classmates' family social capital had also significance for students' academic achievement. Our results suggest that building school social capital is an important aspect of school health and education policies and practices.
  • Poikolainen, Kari; Aalto-Setala, Terhi; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Marttunen, Mauri; Lönnqvist, Jouko (2004)
    Background: Evidence on the relation between fear of war and mental health is insufficient. We carried out a prospective cohort study to find out whether fear of nuclear war is related to increased risk of common mental disorders. Methods: Within two months preceding the outbreak of Persian Gulf War in January 1991, 1518 adolescents [mean age 16.8 years, SD 0.9] filled in a self-administered questionnaire. Of the 1493 respondents, 47% gave their written informed consent to participate in the follow-up study. There were no material differences between those who chose to respond anonymously and those who volunteered to give their name and address for the follow-up study. In 1995, the response to the follow-up questionnaire was 92%. Common mental disorders were assessed by 36-item version of the General Health Questionnaire [GHQ]. A score 5 or higher was considered to indicate caseness. We excluded 23 cases which had used mental health services in the year 1991 or earlier and two cases with deficient responses to GHQ. This left 626 subjects for analysis [400 women]. Results: After adjusting for significant mental health risk factors in logistic regression analysis, the risk for common mental disorders was found to be significantly related to the increasing frequency of fear for nuclear war, high scores of trait anxiety and high scores of immature defense style. Elevated risk was confined to the group reporting fear of nuclear war once a week or more often [ odds ratio 2.05; 95% confidence interval 1.29-3.27]. Conclusion: Frequent fear of nuclear war in adolescents seems to be an indicator for an increased risk for common mental disorders and deserves serious attention.
  • Dubois, Lise; Diasparra, Maikol; Bedard, Brigitte; Kaprio, Jaakko; Fontaine-Bisson, Benedicte; Tremblay, Richard; Boivin, Michel; Perusse, Daniel (2013)
  • Ip, Hill F.; van der Laan, Camiel M.; Krapohl, Eva M. L.; Brikell, Isabell; Sanchez-Mora, Cristina; Nolte, Ilja M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Bolhuis, Koen; Palviainen, Teemu; Zafarmand, Hadi; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Gordon, Scott; Zayats, Tetyana; Aliev, Fazil; Jiang, Chang; Wang, Carol A.; Saunders, Gretchen; Karhunen, Ville; Hammerschlag, Anke R.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Border, Richard; Peterson, Roseann E.; Prinz, Joseph A.; Thiering, Elisabeth; Seppala, Ilkka; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Day, Felix R.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Allegrini, Andrea G.; Rimfeld, Kaili; Chen, Qi; Lu, Yi; Martin, Joanna; Soler Artigas, Maria; Rovira, Paula; Bosch, Rosa; Espanol, Gemma; Ramos Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Neumann, Alexander; Ensink, Judith; Grasby, Katrina; Morosoli, Jose J.; Tong, Xiaoran; Marrington, Shelby; Middeldorp, Christel; Scott, James G.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna; Shabalin, Andrey A.; Corley, Robin; Evans, Luke M.; Sugden, Karen; Alemany, Silvia; Sass, Laerke; Vinding, Rebecca; Ruth, Kate; Tyrrell, Jess; Davies, Gareth E.; Ehli, Erik A.; Hagenbeek, Fiona A.; De Zeeuw, Eveline; Van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; Larsson, Henrik; Snieder, Harold; Verhulst, Frank C.; Amin, Najaf; Whipp, Alyce M.; Korhonen, Tellervo; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Rose, Richard J.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela; Haavik, Jan; Harris, Jennifer R.; Helgeland, Oyvind; Johansson, Stefan; Knudsen, Gun Peggy S.; Njolstad, Pal Rasmus; Lu, Qing; Rodriguez, Alina; Henders, Anjali K.; Mamun, Abdullah; Najman, Jackob M.; Brown, Sandy; Hopfer, Christian; Krauter, Kenneth; Reynolds, Chandra; Smolen, Andrew; Stallings, Michael; Wadsworth, Sally; Wall, Tamara L.; Silberg, Judy L.; Miller, Allison; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Havdahl, Alexandra; Magnus, Per; Raitakari, Olli T.; Perry, John R. B.; Llop, Sabrina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Bonnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Sunyer, Jordi; Lehtimaki, Terho; Arseneault, Louise; Standl, Marie; Heinrich, Joachim; Boden, Joseph; Pearson, John; Horwood, L. John; Kennedy, Martin; Poulton, Richie; Eaves, Lindon J.; Maes, Hermine H.; Hewitt, John; Copeland, William E.; Costello, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Gail M.; Wray, Naomi; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Whitehouse, Andrew; Pennell, Craig E.; Klump, Kelly L.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Dick, Danielle M.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Kaprio, Jaakko; Tiemeier, Henning; Davey Smith, George; Hartman, Catharina A.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Casas, Miquel; Ribases, Marta; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lundstrom, Sebastian; Plomin, Robert; Bartels, Meike; Nivard, Michel G.; Boomsma, Dorret I. (2021)
    Childhood aggressive behavior (AGG) has a substantial heritability of around 50%. Here we present a genome-wide association metaanalysis (GWAMA) of childhood AGG, in which all phenotype measures across childhood ages from multiple assessors were included. We analyzed phenotype assessments for a total of 328 935 observations from 87 485 children aged between 1.5 and 18 years, while accounting for sample overlap. We also meta-analyzed within subsets of the data, i.e., within rater, instrument and age. SNP-heritability for the overall meta-analysis (AGGoverall) was 3.31% (SE= 0.0038). We found no genome-wide significant SNPs for AGG(overall). The gene-based analysis returned three significant genes: ST3GAL3 (P= 1.6E-06), PCDH7 (P= 2.0E-06), and IPO13 (P= 2.5E-06). All three genes have previously been associated with educational traits. Polygenic scores based on our GWAMA significantly predicted aggression in a holdout sample of children (variance explained = 0.44%) and in retrospectively assessed childhood aggression (variance explained = 0.20%). Genetic correlations (rg) among rater-specific assessment of AGG ranged from r(g)= 0.46 between self- and teacher-assessment to r(g)d= 0.81 between mother- and teacher-assessment. We obtained moderate-to-strong rgs with selected phenotypes from multiple domains, but hardly with any of the classical biomarkers thought to be associated with AGG. Significant genetic correlations were observed with most psychiatric and psychological traits (range r(g): 0.19-1.00), except for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Aggression had a negative genetic correlation (r(g)=-0.5) with cognitive traits and age at first birth. Aggression was strongly genetically correlated with smoking phenotypes (range |r(g)| : 0.46-0.60). The genetic correlations between aggression and psychiatric disorders were weaker for teacher-reported AGG than for mother- and self-reported AGG. The current GWAMA of childhood aggression provides a powerful tool to interrogate the rater-specific genetic etiology of AGG.
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Su, Jinni; Pulkkinen, Lea; Barr, Peter; Rose, Richard J.; Dick, Danielle M.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2019)
    We analyzed how the effects of genetic and environmental factors on the perceptions of family interaction change from early to late adolescence. The data were collected by postal surveys on Finnish twins (N=4808) at 12, 14 and 17years of age and analyzed using genetic twin modeling. Additive genetic factors explained a modest share of the variation in perceived relational support (a(2)=0.30 in boys and 0.18 in girls) and relational tensions (a(2)=0.13 and 0.14, respectively) at 12years of age, with the proportions becoming larger through 17years of age (a(2)=0.53 in boys and 0.49 in girls for relational support; a(2)=0.35 in boys and 0.33 in girls for relational tensions). Simultaneously, the role of environment shared by co-twins decreased. These findings suggest that the associations between perceived family interaction and other factors in adulthood should be interpreted with caution, because they partly reflect genetic background, whereas in childhood, they may provide more reliable information on parental characteristics.
  • Berdal, Elias Kjolseth; Wollum, Arnt Erik Karlsen; Hollund, Ingrid Marie Husby; Iversen, Johanne Marie; Kajantie, Eero; Evensen, Kari Anne I. (2022)
    Background Preterm birth with very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight < 1500 g) is associated with health problems later in life. How VLBW individuals perceive their physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is important to understand their putative burden of disease. Previous studies have shown mixed results, and longitudinal studies into adulthood have been requested. This study aimed to investigate differences in HRQoL between preterm VLBW and term born individuals at 32 years of age, and to study changes in HRQoL from 20 to 32 years. Methods In a geographically based longitudinal study, 45 VLBW and 68 term born control participants completed the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) at 32 years of age. Data from three previous timepoints was also available (20, 23 and 28 years of age). The SF-36 yields eight domain scores as well as a physical and a mental component summary. Between-group differences in these variables were investigated. We also performed subgroup analyses excluding individuals with disabilities, i.e., cerebral palsy and/or low estimated intelligence quotient. Results At 32 years of age, the physical component summary was 5.1 points lower (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.6 to 1.6), and the mental component summary 4.1 points lower (95% CI: 8.4 to - 0.3) in the VLBW group compared with the control group. For both physical and mental component summaries there was an overall decline in HRQoL from 20 to 32 years of age in the VLBW group. When we excluded individuals with disabilities (n = 10), group differences in domain scores at 32 years were reduced, but physical functioning, bodily pain, general health, and role-emotional scores remained lower in the VLBW subgroup without disabilities compared with the control group. Conclusion We found that VLBW individuals reported lower HRQoL than term born controls at 32 years of age, and that HRQoL declined in the VLBW group from 20 to 32 years of age. This was in part, but not exclusively explained by VLBW individuals with disabilities.
  • Volanen, S-M.; Lassander, M.; Hankonen, N.; Santalahti, P.; Hintsanen, M.; Simonsen, N.; Raevuori, A.; Mullola, S.; Vahlberg, T.; But, A.; Suominen, S. (2020)
    Background Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBIs) have shown promising effects on mental health among children and adolescents, but high-quality studies examining the topic are lacking. The present study assessed the effects of MBI on mental health in school-setting in an extensive randomised controlled trial. Methods Finnish school children and adolescents (N=3519), aged 12-15 years (6th to 8th graders), from 56 schools were randomized into a 9 week MBI group, and control groups with a relaxation program or teaching as usual. The primary outcomes were resilience, socio-emotional functioning, and depressive symptoms at baseline, at completion of the programs at 9 weeks (T9), and at follow-up at 26 weeks (T26). Results Overall, mindfulness did not show more beneficial effects on the primary outcomes compared to the controls except for resilience for which a positive intervention effect was found at T9 in all participants (β=1.18, SE 0.57, p=0.04) as compared to the relaxation group. In addition, in gender and grade related analyses, MBI lowered depressive symptoms in girls at T26 (β=-0.49, SE 0.21, p=0.02) and improved socio-emotional functioning at T9(β=-1.37, SE 0.69, p=0.049) and at T26 (β=-1.71, SE 0.73, p=0.02) among 7th graders as compared to relaxation. Limitations The inactive control group was smaller than the intervention and active control groups, reducing statistical power. Conclusions A short 9-week MBI in school-setting provides slight benefits over a relaxation program and teaching as usual. Future research should investigate whether embedding regular mindfulness-based practice in curriculums could intensify the effects.
  • Vuoksimaa, Eero; Rose, Richard J.; Pulkkinen, Lea; Palviainen, Teemu; Rimfeld, Kaili; Lundström, Sebastian; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina; Hendriks, Anne; de Zeeuw, Eveline L.; Plomin, Robert; Lichtenstein, Paul; Boomsma, Dorret; Kaprio, Jaakko (2021)
    Background To conduct a comprehensive assessment of the association between aggression and academic performance in compulsory education. Method We studied aggression and academic performance in over 27,000 individuals from four European twin cohorts participating in the ACTION consortium (Aggression in Children: Unraveling gene-environment interplay to inform Treatment and InterventiON strategies). Individual level data on aggression at ages 7-16 were assessed by three instruments (Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, Multidimensional Peer Nomination Inventory, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) including parental, teacher and self-reports. Academic performance was measured with teacher-rated grade point averages (ages 12-14) or standardized test scores (ages 12-16). Random effect meta-analytical correlations with academic performance were estimated for parental ratings (in all four cohorts) and self-ratings (in three cohorts). Results All between-family analyses indicated significant negative aggression-academic performance associations with correlations ranging from -.06 to -.33. Results were similar across different ages, instruments and raters and either with teacher-rated grade point averages or standardized test scores as measures of academic performance. Meta-analytical r's were -.20 and -.23 for parental and self-ratings, respectively. In within-family analyses of all twin pairs, the negative aggression-academic performance associations were statistically significant in 14 out of 17 analyses (r = -.17 for parental- and r = -.16 for self-ratings). Separate analyses in monozygotic (r = -.07 for parental and self-ratings), same-sex dizygotic (r's = -.16 and -.17 for parental and self-ratings) and opposite-sex dizygotic (r's = -.21 and -.19 for parental and self-ratings) twin pairs suggested partial confounding by genetic effects. Conclusions There is a robust negative association between aggression and academic performance in compulsory education. Part of these associations were explained by shared genetic effects, but some evidence of a negative association between aggression and academic performance remained even in within-family analyses of monozygotic twin pairs.
  • Laamanen, Petra; Kiuru, Noona; Flykt, Marjo; Vanska, Mervi; Hietanen, Jari K.; Peltola, Mikko J.; Kurkela, Enni; Poikkeus, Piia; Tiitinen, Aila; Lindblom, Jallu (2022)
    Facial emotion recognition (FER) is a fundamental element in human interaction. It begins to develop soon after birth and is important in achieving developmental tasks of middle childhood, such as developing mutual friendships and acquiring social rules of peer groups. Despite its importance, FER research during middle childhood continues to be rather limited. Moreover, research is ambiguous on how the quality of one's early social-emotional environment shapes FER development, and longitudinal studies spanning from infancy to later development are scarce. In this study, we examine how the cohesive, authoritarian, disengaged and enmeshed family system types, assessed during pregnancy and infancy, predict children's FER accuracy and interpretative biases towards happiness, fear, anger and sadness at the age of 10 years (N = 79). The results demonstrated that children from disengaged families (i.e., highly distressed relationships) show superior FER accuracy to those from cohesive families (i.e., harmonious and stable relationships). Regarding interpretative biases, children from cohesive families showed a greater fear bias compared to children from disengaged families. Our findings suggest that even in a relatively low-risk population, variation in the quality of children's early family relationships may shape children's subsequent FER development, perhaps as an evolution-based adaptation to their social-emotional environment.