Browsing by Subject "ADOLESCENCE"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 26
  • Mannerström, Rasmus; Hietajärvi, Lauri; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2021)
    It has been suggested that dual-cycle models of identity formation do not fit well with Erikson’s identity theory and the identity status paradigm due to 1) contradictory statuses, 2) problems with discerning past exploration and 3) ambiguity or limitations of the life domains covered. The present study extended the Dimensions for Identity Development Scale (DIDS) with three additional dimensions suggested previously, examined identity profiles and their transitions over time, their links with psychological well-being and what life domain was associated with “future plans” (N=1294; T1: age=17, 60% female; T2: age=18, 65% female). The results showed that 1) the eight-dimensional model fit the data well longitudinally; 2) six previously reported profiles emerged at both time points with expected links to psychological well-being; 3) as previously speculated, individuals in the (early) closure status had undertaken identity exploration in the past; 4) the previously encountered high commitment-high exploration status (i.e., searching moratorium) seems to be “superficially committed”; and 5) future plans are commonly associated with work life/occupation. Future research would benefit from employing qualitative research to better understand the subjective meanings attached to high commitment-high exploration and by developing new ways to account for quality and different levels of commitment.
  • Piirtola, Maarit; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri; Svedberg, Pia; Korhonen, Tellervo; Ropponen, Annina (2017)
    To investigate longitudinal associations of smoking and a change in smoking status with leisure-time physical inactivity. In addition, to control whether familial confounding (genetics and shared environment) influences the associations. Data were based on the population-based Finnish Adult Twin Cohort of 5254 twin individuals born in 1945-1957 (41% men) and who participated in all four surveys over a 35-year follow-up (1975-2011). Logistic and conditional logistic regression models with multiple covariates were used for analyses. Compared to never-smokers, long-term daily smokers (1975-1990) had the highest likelihood for both long-term inactivity and to change into inactive by 2011. Recurrent smoking was associated with long-term inactivity. Instead, in comparison to persistent daily smokers, quitting smoking decreased the likelihood of becoming physically inactive at leisure time. The associations remained in the analyses which accounted for multiple covariates and/or familial confounding. Daily smoking increases the likelihood of remaining or becoming physically inactive over the decades. Our results emphasize not only the importance of preventing smoking initiation, but also to support early smoking cessation in promotion of lifelong physical activity.
  • Salmela, Jatta Helena; Mauramo, Elina; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Kanerva, Noora (2019)
    Objective: Childhood disadvantage is associated with a higher risk of adult obesity, but little is known about its associations with body mass index (BMI) trajectories during adulthood. This study aimed first to identify adulthood BMI trajectories, and second to investigate how childhood disadvantage is associated with trajectory group membership. Methods: Data from the Helsinki Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study of initially 40- to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki in Finland, were used. The baseline survey was conducted in 2000–2002, and similar follow-up surveys in 2007, 2012, and 2017. Based on self-reported BMI, participants’ (n =5,266; 83% women) BMI trajectories, including their retrospectively reported BMI at the age of 25 years, were examined. Data on childhood disadvantage, including parental education and 7 types of childhood adversity (their own serious illness; parental divorce, death, mental disorder, or alcohol problems; economic difficulties at home; and peer group bullying) before the age of 16 years, were obtained from the baseline survey. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify BMI trajectories, and multinomial logistic regression to analyze the odds for trajectory group membership for the disadvantage variables. Results: Four ascending BMI trajectories in women and men were found: persistent normal weight (trajectory 1; women 35% and men 25%), normal weight to overweight (trajectory 2; women 41% and men 48%), normal weight to class I obesity (trajectory 3; women 19% and men 23%) and overweight to class II obesity (trajectory 4; women 5% and men 4%). Compared to trajectory 1, women with multiple adversities and repetitive peer bullying in childhood had greater odds of belonging to trajectories 3 and 4, whereas men with parental alcohol problems had greater odds of belonging to trajectory 4. For women and men, a low level of parental education was associated with a higher-level BMI trajectory. Conclusions: Low parental education for both genders, multiple adversities and repetitive peer bullying in childhood among women, and parental alcohol problems among men increased the odds of developing obesity during adulthood. Further studies are needed to clarify how gender differences modify the effects of childhood disadvantage on adult BMI trajectories.
  • Lounassalo, Irinja; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Kankaanpaeae, Anna; Tolvanen, Asko; Palomäki, Sanna; Salin, Kasper; Fogelholm, Mikael; Yang, Xiaolin; Pahkala, Katja; Rovio, Suvi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli; Tammelin, Tuija H. (2019)
    A physically active lifestyle and a diet rich in vegetables and fruits have a central role in promoting health. This study examined the associations between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) trajectories and fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) from childhood to middle age. The data were drawn from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with six age cohorts. Participants were 9 to 18 years (n = 3536; 51% females) at baseline in 1980 and 33 to 48 years at the last follow-up in 2011. LTPA and FVC were self-reported. LTPA trajectories were identified using latent profile analyses, after which the mean differences in FVC across the trajectories were studied. Active, low-active, decreasingly and increasingly active trajectories were identified for both genders. An additional trajectory describing inactivity was identified for females. Those who were persistently active or increased their LTPA had higher FVC at many ages when compared to their inactive or low-active counterparts (p <0.05). In females prior to age 42 and in males prior to age 24, FVC was higher at many ages in those with decreasing activity than in their inactive or low-active counterparts (p <0.05). The development of LTPA and FVC from childhood to middle age seem to occur in tandem.
  • Merikukka, Marko; Ristikari, Tiina; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Gissler, Mika; Laaksonen, Mikko (2018)
    Background: Mental disorders can affect work ability and lead to early exit from the labour market through disability pension. Aims: This study aimed to identify childhood determinants of psychiatric disability pension in early adulthood. Methods: The 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort includes a complete census of children born in a single year. The children were followed up from birth until 31 December 2012 using official registers maintained by the Finnish authorities. Risk factors for disability pension were examined in the full 1987 cohort (N = 58,739) and among children who had received mental health care (N = 9,599). Odds ratios were calculated for disability pension due to all mental disorders and separately for schizophrenia, depressive and anxiety and other mental and behavioural disorders in association with childhood determinants. Results: Altogether, 1.4% of cohort members had retired due to mental disorders in 2003-2012. In the full 1987 cohort, female sex, parental divorce and social assistance, both mother's and father's psychiatric care and mother's psychiatric disability pension increased the risk for disability pension due to mental disorders. Among children who had received mental health care, risk factors for psychiatric disability pension were father's psychiatric care and mother's psychiatric disability pension. Conclusion: Childhood determinants were related to the risk of psychiatric disability pension before the age of 25. The risk factors varied by the diagnosis of the disability pension. Using knowledge of this study's risk factors should enable the identification of adolescents and young adults in general population and especially in the mental health care population who are at greatest risk of receipt of psychiatric disability pension.
  • Tu, Zhen; Cao, Hancheng; Lagerspetz, Eemil; Fan, Yali; Flores, Huber; Tarkoma, Sasu; Nurmi, Petteri; Li, Yong (2021)
    In the past decade, mobile app usage has played an important role in our daily life. Existing studies have shown that app usage is intrinsically linked with, among others, demographics, social and economic factors. However, due to data limitations, most of these studies have a short time span and treat users in a static manner. To date, no study has shown whether changes in socioeconomic status or other demographics are reflected in long-term app usage behavior. In this paper, we contribute by presenting the first ever long-term study of individual mobile app usage dynamics and how app usage behavior of individuals is influenced by changes in socioeconomic demographic factors over time. Through a novel app dataset we collected, from which we extracted records of 1608 long-term users with more than 3-year app usage and their detailed socioeconomic attributes, we verify the stable correlation between user app usage and user socioeconomic attributes over time and identify a number of representative app usage patterns in connection with specific user attributes. On the basis, we analyze the long-term app usage dynamics and reveal that there is significant evolution in long-term app usage that 60–70% of users change their app usage patterns during the duration of more than 3 years. We further discover a variety of app pattern change modes and demonstrate that the long-term app usage behavior change reflects corresponding transition in socioeconomic attributes, such as change of civil status, family size, transition in job or economic status.
  • Vepsalainen, Henna; Korkalo, Liisa; Mikkila, Vera; Lehto, Reetta; Ray, Carola; Nissinen, Kaija; Skaffari, Essi; Fogelholm, Mikael; Koivusilta, Leena; Roos, Eva; Erkkola, Maijaliisa (2018)
    Objective: To study the associations between home food availability and dietary patterns among pre-school children. Design: Cross-sectional study in which parents of the participating children filled in an FFQ and reported how often they had certain foods in their homes. We derived dietary pattern scores using principal component analysis, and composite scores describing the availability of fruits and vegetables as well as sugar-enriched foods in the home were created for each participant. We used multilevel models to investigate the associations between availability and dietary pattern scores. Setting: The DAGIS study, Finland. Subjects: The participants were 864 Finnish 3-6-year-old children recruited from sixty-six pre-schools. The analyses included 711 children with sufficient data. Results: We identified three dietary patterns explaining 16.7% of the variance. The patterns were named 'sweets-and-treats' (high loadings of e.g. sweet biscuits, chocolate, ice cream), 'health-conscious' (high loadings of e.g. nuts, natural yoghurt, berries) and 'vegetables-and-processed meats' (high loadings of e.g. vegetables, cold cuts, fruit). In multivariate models, the availability of fruits and vegetables was inversely associated with the sweets-and-treats pattern (beta = -0.05, P <0.01) and positively associated with the health-conscious (beta = 0.07, P <0.01) and vegetables-and-processed meats patterns (beta = 0.06, P <0.01). The availability of sugar-enriched foods was positively associated with the sweets-and-treats pattern (beta = 0.10, P <0.01) and inversely associated with the health-conscious pattern (beta = -0.03, P <0.01). Conclusions: Considering dietary patterns, the availability of sugar-enriched foods in the home seems to have a stronger role than that of fruits and vegetables. Parents should restrict the availability of unhealthy foods in the home.
  • Pitkänen, Joonas; Remes, Hanna; Aaltonen, Mikko; Martikainen, Pekka (2019)
    Introduction Previous studies suggest that childhood experience of parental adversities increases the risk of subsequent offspring self-harm, but studies on distinct paternal and maternal characteristics are few and it remains unclear how these interact with childhood social position. The study aims to assess whether paternal and maternal adversities have different associations with offspring self-harm in adolescence and young adulthood. Interaction by offspring gender and childhood income are investigated, as well as cumulative effects of multiple adversities. Methods The study uses administrative register data on a 20% random sample of Finnish households with children aged 0–14 years in 2000. We follow children born in 1986–1998 (n=155 855) from their 13th birthday until 2011. Parental substance abuse, psychiatric disorders, criminality and hospitalisations due to interpersonal violence or self-harm are used to predict offspring self-harm with Cox proportional hazards models. Results The results show a clear increase in the risk of self-harm among those exposed to maternal or paternal adversities with HRs between 1.5 and 5.4 among boys and 1.7 and 3.9 among girls. The excess risks hold for every measure of maternal and paternal adversities after adjusting for childhood income and parental education. Evidence was found suggesting that low income, accumulation of adversity and female gender may exacerbate the consequences of adversities. Conclusions Our findings suggest that both parents’ adversities increase the risk of self-harm and that multiple experiences of parental adversities in childhood are especially harmful, regardless of parent gender. Higher levels of childhood income can protect from the negative consequences of adverse experiences.
  • Lindfors, Pirjo; Minkkinen, Jaana; Rimpelä, Arja; Hotulainen, Risto (2018)
    Research on the associations between family and school social capital, school burnout and academic achievement in adolescence is scarce and the results are inconclusive. We examined if family and school social capital at the age of 13 predicts lower school burnout and better academic achievement when graduating at the age of 16. Using data from 4467 Finnish adolescents from 117 schools and 444 classes a three-level multilevel analysis was executed. School social capital, the positive and supportive relationships between students and teachers, predicted lower school burnout and better academic achievement among students. Classmates' family social capital had also significance for students' academic achievement. Our results suggest that building school social capital is an important aspect of school health and education policies and practices.
  • Poikolainen, Kari; Aalto-Setala, Terhi; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Marttunen, Mauri; Lönnqvist, Jouko (2004)
    Background: Evidence on the relation between fear of war and mental health is insufficient. We carried out a prospective cohort study to find out whether fear of nuclear war is related to increased risk of common mental disorders. Methods: Within two months preceding the outbreak of Persian Gulf War in January 1991, 1518 adolescents [mean age 16.8 years, SD 0.9] filled in a self-administered questionnaire. Of the 1493 respondents, 47% gave their written informed consent to participate in the follow-up study. There were no material differences between those who chose to respond anonymously and those who volunteered to give their name and address for the follow-up study. In 1995, the response to the follow-up questionnaire was 92%. Common mental disorders were assessed by 36-item version of the General Health Questionnaire [GHQ]. A score 5 or higher was considered to indicate caseness. We excluded 23 cases which had used mental health services in the year 1991 or earlier and two cases with deficient responses to GHQ. This left 626 subjects for analysis [400 women]. Results: After adjusting for significant mental health risk factors in logistic regression analysis, the risk for common mental disorders was found to be significantly related to the increasing frequency of fear for nuclear war, high scores of trait anxiety and high scores of immature defense style. Elevated risk was confined to the group reporting fear of nuclear war once a week or more often [ odds ratio 2.05; 95% confidence interval 1.29-3.27]. Conclusion: Frequent fear of nuclear war in adolescents seems to be an indicator for an increased risk for common mental disorders and deserves serious attention.
  • Dubois, Lise; Diasparra, Maikol; Bedard, Brigitte; Kaprio, Jaakko; Fontaine-Bisson, Benedicte; Tremblay, Richard; Boivin, Michel; Perusse, Daniel (2013)
  • Ip, Hill F.; van der Laan, Camiel M.; Krapohl, Eva M. L.; Brikell, Isabell; Sanchez-Mora, Cristina; Nolte, Ilja M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Bolhuis, Koen; Palviainen, Teemu; Zafarmand, Hadi; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Gordon, Scott; Zayats, Tetyana; Aliev, Fazil; Jiang, Chang; Wang, Carol A.; Saunders, Gretchen; Karhunen, Ville; Hammerschlag, Anke R.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Border, Richard; Peterson, Roseann E.; Prinz, Joseph A.; Thiering, Elisabeth; Seppala, Ilkka; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Day, Felix R.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Allegrini, Andrea G.; Rimfeld, Kaili; Chen, Qi; Lu, Yi; Martin, Joanna; Soler Artigas, Maria; Rovira, Paula; Bosch, Rosa; Espanol, Gemma; Ramos Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Neumann, Alexander; Ensink, Judith; Grasby, Katrina; Morosoli, Jose J.; Tong, Xiaoran; Marrington, Shelby; Middeldorp, Christel; Scott, James G.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna; Shabalin, Andrey A.; Corley, Robin; Evans, Luke M.; Sugden, Karen; Alemany, Silvia; Sass, Laerke; Vinding, Rebecca; Ruth, Kate; Tyrrell, Jess; Davies, Gareth E.; Ehli, Erik A.; Hagenbeek, Fiona A.; De Zeeuw, Eveline; Van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; Larsson, Henrik; Snieder, Harold; Verhulst, Frank C.; Amin, Najaf; Whipp, Alyce M.; Korhonen, Tellervo; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Rose, Richard J.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela; Haavik, Jan; Harris, Jennifer R.; Helgeland, Oyvind; Johansson, Stefan; Knudsen, Gun Peggy S.; Njolstad, Pal Rasmus; Lu, Qing; Rodriguez, Alina; Henders, Anjali K.; Mamun, Abdullah; Najman, Jackob M.; Brown, Sandy; Hopfer, Christian; Krauter, Kenneth; Reynolds, Chandra; Smolen, Andrew; Stallings, Michael; Wadsworth, Sally; Wall, Tamara L.; Silberg, Judy L.; Miller, Allison; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Havdahl, Alexandra; Magnus, Per; Raitakari, Olli T.; Perry, John R. B.; Llop, Sabrina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Bonnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Sunyer, Jordi; Lehtimaki, Terho; Arseneault, Louise; Standl, Marie; Heinrich, Joachim; Boden, Joseph; Pearson, John; Horwood, L. John; Kennedy, Martin; Poulton, Richie; Eaves, Lindon J.; Maes, Hermine H.; Hewitt, John; Copeland, William E.; Costello, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Gail M.; Wray, Naomi; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Whitehouse, Andrew; Pennell, Craig E.; Klump, Kelly L.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Dick, Danielle M.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Kaprio, Jaakko; Tiemeier, Henning; Davey Smith, George; Hartman, Catharina A.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Casas, Miquel; Ribases, Marta; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lundstrom, Sebastian; Plomin, Robert; Bartels, Meike; Nivard, Michel G.; Boomsma, Dorret I. (2021)
    Childhood aggressive behavior (AGG) has a substantial heritability of around 50%. Here we present a genome-wide association metaanalysis (GWAMA) of childhood AGG, in which all phenotype measures across childhood ages from multiple assessors were included. We analyzed phenotype assessments for a total of 328 935 observations from 87 485 children aged between 1.5 and 18 years, while accounting for sample overlap. We also meta-analyzed within subsets of the data, i.e., within rater, instrument and age. SNP-heritability for the overall meta-analysis (AGGoverall) was 3.31% (SE= 0.0038). We found no genome-wide significant SNPs for AGG(overall). The gene-based analysis returned three significant genes: ST3GAL3 (P= 1.6E-06), PCDH7 (P= 2.0E-06), and IPO13 (P= 2.5E-06). All three genes have previously been associated with educational traits. Polygenic scores based on our GWAMA significantly predicted aggression in a holdout sample of children (variance explained = 0.44%) and in retrospectively assessed childhood aggression (variance explained = 0.20%). Genetic correlations (rg) among rater-specific assessment of AGG ranged from r(g)= 0.46 between self- and teacher-assessment to r(g)d= 0.81 between mother- and teacher-assessment. We obtained moderate-to-strong rgs with selected phenotypes from multiple domains, but hardly with any of the classical biomarkers thought to be associated with AGG. Significant genetic correlations were observed with most psychiatric and psychological traits (range r(g): 0.19-1.00), except for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Aggression had a negative genetic correlation (r(g)=-0.5) with cognitive traits and age at first birth. Aggression was strongly genetically correlated with smoking phenotypes (range |r(g)| : 0.46-0.60). The genetic correlations between aggression and psychiatric disorders were weaker for teacher-reported AGG than for mother- and self-reported AGG. The current GWAMA of childhood aggression provides a powerful tool to interrogate the rater-specific genetic etiology of AGG.
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Su, Jinni; Pulkkinen, Lea; Barr, Peter; Rose, Richard J.; Dick, Danielle M.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2019)
    We analyzed how the effects of genetic and environmental factors on the perceptions of family interaction change from early to late adolescence. The data were collected by postal surveys on Finnish twins (N=4808) at 12, 14 and 17years of age and analyzed using genetic twin modeling. Additive genetic factors explained a modest share of the variation in perceived relational support (a(2)=0.30 in boys and 0.18 in girls) and relational tensions (a(2)=0.13 and 0.14, respectively) at 12years of age, with the proportions becoming larger through 17years of age (a(2)=0.53 in boys and 0.49 in girls for relational support; a(2)=0.35 in boys and 0.33 in girls for relational tensions). Simultaneously, the role of environment shared by co-twins decreased. These findings suggest that the associations between perceived family interaction and other factors in adulthood should be interpreted with caution, because they partly reflect genetic background, whereas in childhood, they may provide more reliable information on parental characteristics.
  • Volanen, S-M.; Lassander, M.; Hankonen, N.; Santalahti, P.; Hintsanen, M.; Simonsen, N.; Raevuori, A.; Mullola, S.; Vahlberg, T.; But, A.; Suominen, S. (2020)
    Background Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBIs) have shown promising effects on mental health among children and adolescents, but high-quality studies examining the topic are lacking. The present study assessed the effects of MBI on mental health in school-setting in an extensive randomised controlled trial. Methods Finnish school children and adolescents (N=3519), aged 12-15 years (6th to 8th graders), from 56 schools were randomized into a 9 week MBI group, and control groups with a relaxation program or teaching as usual. The primary outcomes were resilience, socio-emotional functioning, and depressive symptoms at baseline, at completion of the programs at 9 weeks (T9), and at follow-up at 26 weeks (T26). Results Overall, mindfulness did not show more beneficial effects on the primary outcomes compared to the controls except for resilience for which a positive intervention effect was found at T9 in all participants (β=1.18, SE 0.57, p=0.04) as compared to the relaxation group. In addition, in gender and grade related analyses, MBI lowered depressive symptoms in girls at T26 (β=-0.49, SE 0.21, p=0.02) and improved socio-emotional functioning at T9(β=-1.37, SE 0.69, p=0.049) and at T26 (β=-1.71, SE 0.73, p=0.02) among 7th graders as compared to relaxation. Limitations The inactive control group was smaller than the intervention and active control groups, reducing statistical power. Conclusions A short 9-week MBI in school-setting provides slight benefits over a relaxation program and teaching as usual. Future research should investigate whether embedding regular mindfulness-based practice in curriculums could intensify the effects.
  • Böckerman, Petri; Hyytinen, Ari; Kaprio, Jaakko; Maczulskij, Terhi (2018)
    This paper examines the links between risky health behaviors and labor market success. We provide new evidence on the joint relationships between the most prominent forms of risky health behavior - alcohol consumption, smoking and physical inactivity - and long-term labor market outcomes. We use twin data for Finnish men and women linked to register-based individual information on earnings and labor market attachment. The twin data allow us to account for shared family and environmental factors and to measure risky health behaviors in 1975 and 1981. The long-term labor market outcomes were measured in adulthood as an average over the period 1990-2009. The sample sizes are 2156 and 2498 twins, for men and women, respectively. We find that being both a smoker and a heavy drinker in early adulthood is negatively related to long-term earnings and employment later in life, especially for men. We conclude that how and why risky health behaviors cluster and how that affects individual level outcomes call for more attention.
  • Einiö, Elina; Hiltunen, Elina; Martikainen, Pekka; Korhonen, Kaarina (2020)
    Background: Men's age at first birth may negatively or positively affect alcohol-related morbidity and mortality, although little evidence is available. Methods: We used register data of over 22,000 brothers to analyze the associations between age at first birth and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality from the age of 35 until the age of 60 or 72. We employed conventional Cox models and inter-sibling models, which allowed adjustment for unobserved social and genetic characteristics shared by brothers. Results: The findings show that men's age at first birth was inversely associated with alcohol-related morbidity and mortality, independent of unobserved characteristics shared by brothers and of observed demographic confounders. Men who had their first child late at 35-45 years experienced lower alcohol-related morbidity and mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.57, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.43, 0.75) than men who had their first child at 25-29. Men who had their first child before age 20 had the highest morbidity and mortality among all fathers (HR = 1.36, 95 % CI = 1.09, 1.69), followed by men who had their child at 20-24 (HR = 1.12, 95 % CI = 1.00, 1.25). Conclusions: The results imply that the inverse association between men's age at first birth and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality is not driven by familial characteristics.
  • Sirola, Anu; Kaakinen, Markus; Savolainen, Iina; Paek, Hye-Jin; Zych, Izabela; Oksanen, Atte (2021)
    Social media tends to gather users around social cliques consisting of similar-minded individuals and shared identities. These online group processes can have significant influence on user behavior, which is alarming when considering risky behaviors such as gambling. This study examined how online clique involvement predicts young people's interest in gambling content and following observed group norms on social media. Survey respondents were 15-25-year-olds from Finland (n = 1200), the United States (n = 1212), South Korea (n = 1192) and Spain (n = 1212). A self-reported measure of online clique involvement and a gambling-related social media vignette experiment were utilized. The results show that online clique involvement was related to higher interest in gambling content. Content liked by a majority gathered more interest, indicating conformity to a group norm. This finding was especially true among participants with past involvement in online cliques, and the association was strongest in South Korea. The tendency to participate in online clique behavior creates a potentially risky setting when encountering online gambling content, because it may accentuate the effect of observed group norms. Interacting with gambling content increases the visibility of such content due to algorithmic filtering technologies, which can fuel gambling-related intentions and behaviors, and normalize gambling.
  • Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Hakulinen, Christian; Lipsanen, Jari; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Hintsanen, Mirka; Savelieva, Kateryna; Serlachius, Anna; Magnussen, Costan G.; Sabin, Matthew A.; Burgner, David P.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Jokinen, Eero; Ronnemaa, Tapani; Mikkila, Vera; Jula, Antti; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli; Juonala, Markus (2017)
    Introduction: Type 2 diabetes is a public health concern, but psychosocial factors that may protect against the disease are unknown. This study examines whether a positive psychosocial environment in childhood is associated with lower risk for Type 2 diabetes in adulthood or healthier glucose trajectories over the life course, and whether BMI mediates the associations. Methods: A cohort of 3,596 Finnish children was followed into adulthood over 32 years. An overall positive psychosocial score, consisting of six subdomains, was measured at study baseline (1980). Relative risk ratios and multilevel growth curve modeling were used to examine associations of the psychosocial score with Type 2 diabetes (2012) and glucose trajectories (1986-2012). The mediating effect by BMI was examined using mediation analysis. The analyses were conducted between June 2015 and January 2016. Results: There was a 21% decrease in the rate of Type 2 diabetes (relative risk ratio, 0.79; 95% CI = 0.66, 0.94) for each 1-SD increase in the positive psychosocial score after adjustment for childhood cardiovascular risk factors and dietary behaviors. Adult BMI mediated 52% and weight gain mediated 25% of the association. The growth curve model showed healthier glucose trajectories (age X psychosocial score interaction, b = -0.01; p = 0.010) for participants with higher versus lower positive psychosocial score in childhood. Conclusions: Positive psychosocial environment in childhood seems to have beneficial influences on the risk for Type 2 diabetes over the life span. RCTs will be required to see if interventions directed at early-life circumstances are warranted. (C) 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Rottensteiner, Mirva; Makela, Sara; Bogl, Leonie H.; Tormakangas, Timo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M. (2017)
    Purpose: The benefits of physical activity (PA) in preventing abdominal obesity are well recognized, but the role of different sport disciplines remains open. We aimed, therefore, to investigate how participation in different sport disciplines, and the number and types of sports engaged in are associated with waist circumference (WC) in young adulthood. Methods: This population-based cohort study comprised 4027 Finnish twin individuals (1874 men), with a mean age of 34 y (32-37), who answered a survey, including self-measured WC. We extracted the number and identified the types (aerobic, power, and mixed) of the different sport disciplines respondents reported participating in. Results: The number of sport disciplines participated in was inversely associated with WC, the linear decrease averaging 1.38cm (95% CI 1.10-1.65) per each additional sport discipline. The result persisted after adjustment for the main covariates, such as volume of PA and diet quality. Among dizygotic twin pairs discordant for sports participation (0-2 vs. 5 or more disciplines), the mean within-pair difference in WC was 4.8cm (95% CI 0.4-9.1) for men and 11.2cm (95% CI 4.4-18.0) for women; among discordant monozygotic pairs, no differences were observed. In men, all three types of sports were individually associated with smaller WC, while in women, only mixed and power sports showed this association. Conclusions: Participation in several sport disciplines and sport types was associated with smaller WC among young adults in their mid-30s. Shared genetic background may explain some of the associations.
  • Ranta, Mette; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2018)
    A key developmental task in young adulthood is acquiring financial capability (Serido, Shim, & Tang, 2013), meaning competent financial management skills and the responsibilities that these involve. This study extends previous research on the theoretical model of the development of financial capability, including financial confidence (or financial self-efficacy) and financial behavior as factors contributing to subjective and financial well-being. It is part of the Finnish Educational Transitions Studies (FinEdu) longitudinal research project. Participants were 418 young adults aged 24–25 at Time 1 and 26–27 at Time 2. Path and mediation models and Structural Equation Modeling following a modified theoretical model of financial capability were estimated. The results support the theoretical model of financial capability among young adults in Finland. The study complements previous research by investigating the associations between subjective financial situation and financial capability and their respective mediation effects over time.