Browsing by Subject "ADULT HEIGHT"

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  • Mardones, Francisco; Arnaiz, Pilar; Pacheco, Paz; Dominguez, Angelica; Villarroel, Luis; Eriksson, Johan G.; Barja, Salesa; Farias, Marcelo; Castillo, Oscar (2014)
  • Palmu, Samuel; Rehunen, Simo; Kautiainen, Hannu; Eriksson, Johan G.; Korhonen, Päivi E. (2019)
    Background: The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is standardized globally with a uniform glucose load of 75 g to all adults irrespective of body size. An inverse association between body height and 2-hour postload plasma glucose (2hPG) has been demonstrated. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between body surface area (BSA) and plasma glucose values during an OGTT. Methods: An OGTT was performed on 2659 individuals at increased cardiovascular risk aged between 45 and 70 years of age, who had not previously been diagnosed with diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Their BSA was calculated according to the Mosteller formula. Study subjects were divided into five BSA levels corresponding to 12.5, 25, 25, 25, and 12.5% of the total distribution. Findings: When adjusted for age, sex, waist circumference, alcohol intake, current smoking, and leisure-time physical activity, BSA level showed an inverse linear relationship with the 2hPG in all categories of glucose tolerance (p for linearity <0.001). Moreover, the smaller the adjusted BSA of the study person, the higher the proportion of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes based on 2hPG in the OGTT. Interpretation: Body size has a considerable impact on the findings from a standardized OGTT. Smaller persons are more likely to be diagnosed as glucose intolerant than relatively larger sized individuals. Research in context: Evidence before this study. We searched PubMed using the MeSH terms "glucose tolerance test", "body surface area", "body height", "body size", "glucose tolerance", "insulin resistance", "blood glucose" and "diabetes mellitus" on March 10, 2019 without language restrictions. We also used Cited Reference Search in Web of Science for relevant articles. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is standardized globally with a uniform glucose load of 75 g to all adults irrespective of body size. An inverse association between body height and 2-hour postload plasma glucose (2hPG) has been demonstrated. Several studies have shown that 2hPG predicts all-cause mortality better than elevated fasting glucose. However, body height or body surface area are not usually adjusted in epidemiological studies. It is well known that short adult stature is a risk factor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Added value of this study. This is the first study to assess the relationship of body surface area and 2hPG in a typical primary care population at increased cardiovascular risk. Body surface area has a considerable impact on the result of a standardized OGTT. Smaller individuals are more likely to be diagnosed as glucose intolerant than relatively larger sized individuals. Implications of all the available evidence. There is a possibility that the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes made by an OGTT is a false positive result in a relatively small individual, and a false negative result in a relatively larger individual. Association of 2hPG concentrations and mortality may be influenced by body size as confounding factor. Given that the OGTT is a time and effort consuming test both for patients and laboratory personnel, validity of the OGTT for different body sizes should be reconsidered. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • European Soc Paediat Nephrology; Chronic Kidney Dis Mineral Bone D; Dialysis & Transplantat Workin (2019)
    Achieving normal growth is one of the most challenging problems in the management of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (GH) promotes longitudinal growth and likely enables children with CKD and short stature to reach normal adult height. Here, members of the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology (ESPN) CKD-Mineral and Bone Disorder (MBD), Dialysis and Transplantation working groups present clinical practice recommendations for the use of GH in children with CKD on dialysis and after renal transplantation. These recommendations have been developed with input from an external advisory group of paediatric endocrinologists, paediatric nephrologists and patient representatives. We recommend that children with stage 3-5 CKD or on dialysis should be candidates for GH therapy if they have persistent growth failure, defined as a height below the third percentile for age and sex and a height velocity below the twenty-fifth percentile, once other potentially treatable risk factors for growth failure have been adequately addressed and provided the child has growth potential. In children who have received a kidney transplant and fulfil the above growth criteria, we recommend initiation of GH therapy 1 year after transplantation if spontaneous catch-up growth does not occur and steroid-free immunosuppression is not a feasible option. GH should be given at dosages of 0.045-0.05 mg/kg per day by daily subcutaneous injections until the patient has reached their final height or until renal transplantation. In addition to providing treatment recommendations, a cost-effectiveness analysis is provided that might help guide decision-making.
  • Boman, N; Fernandez-Luque, L; Koledova, E; Kause, M; Lapatto, R (2021)
    Background: A range of factors can reduce the effectiveness of treatment prescribed for the long-term management of chronic health conditions, such as growth disorders. In particular, prescription medications may not achieve the positive outcomes expected because approximately half of patients adhere poorly to the prescribed treatment regimen. Methods: Adherence to treatment has previously been assessed using relatively unreliable subjective methods, such as patient self-reporting during clinical follow-up, or counting prescriptions filled or vials returned by patients. Here, we report on a new approach, the use of electronically recorded objective evidence of date, time, and dose taken which was obtained through a comprehensive eHealth ecosystem, based around the easypod (TM) electromechanical auto-injection device and web-based connect software. The benefits of this eHealth approach are also illustrated here by two case studies, selected from the Finnish cohort of the easypod (TM) Connect Observational Study (ECOS), a 5-year, open-label, observational study that enrolled children from 24 countries who were being treated with growth hormone (GH) via the auto-injection device. Results: Analyses of data from 9314 records from the easypod (TM) connect database showed that, at each time point studied, a significantly greater proportion of female patients had high adherence (>= 85%) than male patients (2849/3867 [74%] vs 3879/5447 [71%]; P < 0.001). Furthermore, more of the younger patients (< 10 years for girls, < 12 years for boys) were in the high adherence range (P < 0.001). However, recursive partitioning of data from ECOS identified subgroups with lower adherence to GH treatment - children who performed the majority of injections themselves at an early age (similar to 8 years) and teenagers starting treatment aged >= 14 years. Conclusions: The data and case studies presented herein illustrate the importance of adherence to GH therapy and how good growth outcomes can be achieved by following treatment as described. They also show how the device, software, and database ecosystem can complement normal clinical follow-up by providing HCPs with reliable information about patient adherence between visits and also providing researchers with real-world evidence of adherence and growth outcomes across a large population of patients with growth disorders treated with GH via the easypod (TM) device.
  • McQuillan, Ruth; Eklund, Niina; Pirastu, Nicola; Kuningas, Maris; McEvoy, Brian P.; Esko, Tonu; Corre, Tanguy; Davies, Gail; Kaakinen, Marika; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Kristiansson, Kati; Havulinna, Aki S.; Gogele, Martin; Vitart, Veronique; Tenesa, Albert; Aulchenko, Yurii; Hayward, Caroline; Johansson, Asa; Boban, Mladen; Ulivi, Sheila; Robino, Antonietta; Boraska, Vesna; Igl, Wilmar; Wild, Sarah H.; Zgaga, Lina; Amin, Najaf; Theodoratou, Evropi; Polasek, Ozren; Girotto, Giorgia; Lopez, Lorna M.; Sala, Cinzia; Lahti, Jari; Laatikainen, Tiina; Prokopenko, Inga; Kals, Mart; Viikari, Jorma; Yang, Jian; Pouta, Anneli; Estrada, Karol; Hofman, Albert; Freimer, Nelson; Martin, Nicholas G.; Kahonen, Mika; Milani, Lili; Heliovaara, Markku; Räikkönen, Katri; Widen, Elisabeth; Koskinen, Seppo; Eriksson, Johan G.; Perola, Markus; ROHgen Consortium (2012)
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Aaltonen, Sari; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Ning, Feng; Ji, Fuling; Pang, Zengchang; Ordonana, Juan R.; Sanchez-Romera, Juan F.; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A.; Eley, Thalia C.; Gregory, Alice M.; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Plomin, Robert; Oncel, Sevgi Y.; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H.; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A.; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L.; Maia, Jose Antonio; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Hong, Changhee; Chong, Youngsook; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E.; Mack, Thomas M.; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Maes, Hermine H.; Cutler, Tessa L.; Hopper, John L.; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Aslan, Anna K. Dahl; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkila, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E.; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L.; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F.; Mcgue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Franz, Carol E.; Kremen, William S.; Lyons, Michael J.; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G.; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Rasmussen, Finn; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2015)
    For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m(2)) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.