Browsing by Subject "ADULTHOOD"

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  • Elovainio, Marko; Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T. (2020)
    We modeled early psychosocial risks as a network of interconnected variables to study their associations with later depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic outcomes. The participants were a nationally representative sample of 2580 men and women aged 3-18 years in 1980. Their parents reported the psychosocial risks in 1980, including the following: (1) child-specific life events, (2) parental health behavior, (3) parental socioeconomic status, and (4) parental psychological problems. Adulthood depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic outcomes were measured in 2007-2012. The most central risks (most number of connections to other risks) were socioeconomic risks that also predicted health outcomes more consistently than others.
  • Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Almqvist, Catarina; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Bogl, Leonie H.; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Rebato, Esther; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Fisher, Abigail; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Ooki, Syuichi; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; Brescianini, Sonia; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Cutler, Tessa L.; Hopper, John L.; Krueger, Robert F.; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Saffery, Richard; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Plomin, Robert; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri (2018)
    It is well established that boys are born heavier and longer than girls, but it remains unclear whether birth size in twins is affected by the sex of their co-twin. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 21 twin cohorts in 15 countries derived from the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), including 67,850 dizygotic twin individuals. Linear regression analyses showed that boys having a co-twin sister were, on average, 31 g (95%Cl 18 to 45) heavier and 0.16 cm (95%CI 0.045 to 0.274) longer than those with a co-twin brother. In girls, birth size was not associated (5 g birth weight; 95%Cl -8 to -18 and -0.089 cm birth length; 95% CI -0.202 to 0.025) with the sex of the co-twin. Gestational age was slightly shorter in boy-boy pairs than in boy-girl and girl-girl pairs. When birth size was standardized by gestational age, the magnitude of the associations was attenuated in boys, particularly for birth weight. In conclusion, boys with a co-twin sister are heavier and longer at birth than those with a co-twin brother. However, these differences are modest and partly explained by a longer gestation in the presence of a co-twin sister.
  • Hakala, JO; Pahkala, K; Juonala, M; Salo, P; Kahonen, M; Hutri-Kahonen, N; Lehtimaki, T; Laitinen, TP; Jokinen, E; Taittonen, L; Tossavainen, P; Viikari, JSA; Raitakari, OT; Rovio, SP (2021)
    Background: Cardiovascular risk factors, such as high blood pressure, adverse serum lipids, and elevated body mass index in midlife, may harm cognitive performance. It is important to note that longitudinal accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors since childhood may be associated with cognitive performance already since childhood, but the previous evidence is scarce. We studied the associations of cardiovascular risk factors from childhood to midlife, their accumulation, and midlife cognitive performance. Methods: From 1980, a population-based cohort of 3596 children (3-18 years of age) have been repeatedly followed up for 31 years. Blood pressure, serum lipids, and body mass index were assessed in all follow-ups. Cardiovascular risk factor trajectories from childhood to midlife were identified using latent class growth mixture modeling. Cognitive testing was performed in 2026 participants 34 to 49 years of age using a computerized test. The associations of the cardiovascular risk factor trajectories and cognitive performance were studied for individual cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular risk factor accumulation. Results: Consistently high systolic blood pressure (beta=-0.262 SD [95% CI, -0.520 to -0.005]) and serum total cholesterol (beta=-0.214 SD [95% CI, -0.365 to -0.064]) were associated with worse midlife episodic memory and associative learning compared with consistently low values. Obesity since childhood was associated with worse visual processing and sustained attention (beta=-0.407 SD [95% CI, -0.708 to -0.105]) compared with normal weight. An inverse association was observed for the cardiovascular risk factor accumulation with episodic memory and associative learning (P for trend=0.008; 3 cardiovascular risk factors: beta=-0.390 SD [95% CI, -0.691 to -0.088]), with visual processing and sustained attention (P for trend Conclusions: Longitudinal elevated systolic blood pressure, high serum total cholesterol, and obesity from childhood to midlife were inversely associated with midlife cognitive performance. It is important to note that the higher the number of cardiovascular risk factors, the worse was the observed cognitive performance. Therefore, launching preventive strategies against cardiovascular risk factors beginning from childhood might benefit primordial promotion of cognitive health in adulthood.
  • Rovio, Suvi P.; Pihlman, Jukka; Pahkala, Katja; Juonala, Markus; Magnussen, Costan G.; Pitkänen, Niina; Ahola-Olli, Ari; Salo, Pia; Kähönen, Mika; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi; Taittonen, Leena; Tossavainen, Päivi; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Olli T. (2020)
    We studied whether exposure to parental smoking in childhood/adolescence is associated with midlife cognitive function, leveraging data from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. A population-based cohort of 3,596 children/adolescents aged 3-18 years was followed between 1980 and 2011. In 2011, cognitive testing was performed on 2,026 participants aged 34-49 years using computerized testing. Measures of secondhand smoke exposure in childhood/adolescence consisted of parental self-reports of smoking and participants' serum cotinine levels. Participants were classified into 3 exposure groups: 1) no exposure (nonsmoking parents, cotinine 1.0 ng/mL). Analyses adjusted for sex, age, family socioeconomic status, polygenic risk score for cognitive function, adolescent/adult smoking, blood pressure, and serum total cholesterol level. Compared with the nonexposed, participants exposed to nonhygienic parental smoking were at higher risk of poor (lowest quartile) midlife episodic memory and associative learning (relative risk (RR) = 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.75), and a weak association was found for short-term and spatial working memory (RR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.58). Associations for those exposed to hygienic parental smoking were nonsignificant (episodic memory and associative learning: RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.54; short-term and spatial working memory: RR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.85, 1.34). We conclude that avoiding childhood/adolescence secondhand smoke exposure promotes adulthood cognitive function.
  • Mikkola, T. M.; von Bonsdorff, M. B.; Osmond, C.; Salonen, M. K.; Kajantie, E.; Cooper, C.; Valimaki, M. J.; Eriksson, J. G. (2017)
    We examined the associations between childhood growth and bone properties among women at early old age. Early growth in height predicted greater bone area and higher bone mineral mass. However, information on growth did not improve prediction of bone properties beyond that predicted by body size at early old age. We examined the associations between body size at birth and childhood growth with bone area, bone mineral content (BMC), and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in early old age. A subgroup of women (n = 178, mean 60.4 years) from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934-1944, participated in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of the lumbar spine and hip. Height and weight at 0, 2, 7, and 11 years, obtained from health care records, were reconstructed into conditional variables representing growth velocity independent of earlier growth. Weight was adjusted for corresponding height. Linear regression models were adjusted for multiple confounders. Birth length and growth in height before 7 years of age were positively associated with femoral neck area (p <0.05) and growth in height at all age periods studied with spine bone area (p <0.01). Growth in height before the age of 7 years was associated with BMC in the femoral neck (p <0.01) and birth length and growth in height before the age of 7 years were associated with BMC in the spine (p <0.05). After entering adult height into the models, nearly all associations disappeared. Weight gain during childhood was not associated with bone area or BMC, and aBMD was not associated with early growth. Optimal growth in height in girls is important for obtaining larger skeleton and consequently higher bone mass. However, when predicting bone mineral mass among elderly women, information on early growth does not improve prediction beyond that predicted by current height and weight.
  • Nuutinen, Teija; Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Roos, Eva; Villberg, Jari; Tynjala, Jorma (2017)
    To examine how clusters of energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs), including sleep related factors, were associated with overweight among adolescents. In Finland, 4262 adolescents, aged 13-15, participated in the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The adolescents completed questionnaires assessing EBRBs [sleep duration, discrepancy and quality, physical activity (PA), screen time, junk food, fruit, and vegetable intake] and height and weight. Clusters were identified with kappa-means cluster analysis and their associations with overweight with logistic regression analyses. Common clusters for boys and girls were labelled "Healthy lifestyle" and "High screen time, unhealthy lifestyle". In addition, the cluster "Low/moderate screen time, unhealthy lifestyle" was identified among boys, and the cluster "Poor sleep, unhealthy lifestyle" among girls. Only girls in the cluster "High screen time, unhealthy lifestyle" were at increased risk for overweight. Girls, whose EBRB was characterized by high screen time and low PA, but not with poor sleep, were at increased risk for overweight. Future studies should examine ways to promote PA among adolescent girls with high interest in screen-based activities.
  • Hale, Jo Mhairi; Schneider, Daniel C.; Mehta, Neil K.; Myrskylä, Mikko (2020)
    Prior studies have analyzed the burden of cognitive impairment, but often use potentially biased prevalence-based methods or measure only years lived with impairment, without estimating other relevant metrics. We use the Health and Retirement Study (1998–2014; n = 29,304) and the preferred incidence-based Markov-chain models to assess three key measures of the burden of cognitive impairment: lifetime risk, mean age at onset, and number of years lived impaired. We analyze both mild and severe cognitive impairment (dementia) and gender, racial/ethnic, and educational variation in impairment. Our results paint a multi-dimensional picture of cognitive health, presenting the first comprehensive analysis of the burden of cognitive impairment for the U.S. population age 50 and older. Approximately two out of three Americans experience some level of cognitive impairment at an average age of approximately 70 years. For dementia, lifetime risk for women (men) is 37% (24%) and mean age at onset 83 (79) years. Women can expect to live 4.2 years with mild impairment and 3.2 with dementia, men 3.5 and 1.8 years. A critical finding is that for the most advantaged groups (i.e., White and/or higher educated), cognitive impairment is both delayed and compressed toward the very end of life. In contrast, despite the shorter lives of disadvantaged subgroups (Black and/or lower educated), they experience a younger age of onset, higher lifetime risk, and more years cognitively impaired. For example, men with at least an Associate degree have 21% lifetime dementia risk, compared to 35% among men with less than high school education. White women have 6 years of cognitively-impaired life expectancy, compared to 12 and 13 years among Black women and Latinas. These educational and racial/ethnic gradients highlight the very uneven burden of cognitive impairment. Further research is required to identify the mechanisms driving these disparities in cognitive impairment.
  • Sebert, Sylvain; Lowry, Estelle; Aumuller, Nicole; Bermudez, Mercedes G.; Bjerregaard, Lise G.; de Rooij, Susanne R.; De Silva, Maneka; El Marroun, Hanan; Hummel, Nadine; Juola, Teija; Mason, Giacomo; Much, Daniela; Oliveros, Elena; Poupakis, Stavros; Rautio, Nina; Schwarzfischer, Phillipp; Tzala, Evangelia; Uhl, Olaf; van de Beek, Cornelieke; Vehmeijer, Florianne; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Wasenius, Niko; Webster, Claire; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Miettunen, Jouko; Baker, Jennifer L.; Campoy, Cristina; Conti, Gabriella; Eriksson, Johan G.; Hummel, Sandra; Jaddoe, Vincent; Koletzko, Berthold; Lewin, Alex; Rodriguez-Palermo, Maria; Roseboom, Tessa; Rueda, Ricardo; Evans, Jayne; Felix, Janine F.; Prokopenko, Inga; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta (2019)
  • Rintala, Risto J. (2016)
    Persistent cloaca remains a challenge for pediatric surgeons and urologists. Reconstructive surgery of cloacal malformations aims to repair the anorectum, urinary tract, and genital organs, and achieve fecal and urinary continence as well as functional genital tract capable for sexual activity and pregnancy. Unfortunately, even in most experienced hands these goals are not always accomplished. The endpoint of the functional development of bowel, urinary, and genital functions is the completion of patient's growth and sexual maturity. It is unlikely that there will be any significant functional improvement beyond these time points. About half of the patients with cloaca attain fecal and urinary continence after their growth period. The remaining half stay clean or dry by adjunctive measures such as bowel management by enemas or ACE channel, and continent urinary diversion or intermittent catheterization. Problems related to genital organs such as obstructed menstruations, amenorrhea, and introitus stenosis are common and often require secondary surgery. Encouragingly, most adolescent and adult patients are capable of sexual life despite often complex vaginal primary and secondary reconstructions. Also, cloacal malformation does not preclude pregnancies, although they still are quite rare. Pregnant patients with cloaca require special care and follow-up to guarantee uncomplicated pregnancy and preservation of anorectal and urinary functions. Cesarean section is recommended for cloaca patients. The self-reported quality of life of cloaca patients appears to be comparable to that of female patients with less complex anorectal malformations. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Tarro, Saija; Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Vahtera, Jussi; Pentti, Jaana; Lagström, Hanna (2022)
    A good quality diet in childhood is important for optimal growth as well as for long-term health. It is not well established how eating behaviors affect overall diet quality in childhood. Moreover, very few studies have considered the association of diet quality and a neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood. Our aim was to investigate how diet quality is associated with eating behaviors and neighborhood disadvantage and their interaction in preschool age children in Finland. The participants were from the Steps to Healthy Development Study at age 2 y (n = 780) and 5 y (n = 653). Diet quality was measured with a short questionnaire on habitual food consumption and eating behavior was assessed with the child eating behavior questionnaire to indicate the child's eating style regarding food approach and food avoidance dimensions. Information on neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage were obtained from the statistics Finland grid database. We found that diet quality was higher at 5 years compared to 2 years of age (p < 0.001). Food approach subscale, enjoyment of food, was positively associated with the diet quality (p < 0.001 for 2 and 5 y) while subscale desire to drink was negatively associated with the diet quality (p = 0.001 for 2 and 5 y). Food avoidance was negatively associated with the diet quality both at 2 and at 5 years of age (p < 0.001). A higher neighborhood disadvantage was negatively associated with the diet quality at the age of 2 years (p = 0.02), but not at the age of 5 years. Eating behavior had similar associations with diet quality both in affluent and deprived neighborhoods. Our results suggest that both the eating behavior and neighborhood disadvantage are, already in the early age, important factors when considering children's diet quality.
  • Yang, Xiaolin; Kaseva, Kaisa; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Kankaanpää, Anna; Telama, Risto; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Tammelin, Tuija (2017)
    We examined associations between childhood temperamental activity, physical activity (PA), and television (TV) viewing over a 30-year period. The participants (1220 boys and 1237 girls) were aged 3, 6, 9, and 12 years in 1980 and were followed until 2011. Temperamental activity was evaluated by participants' mothers at baseline. The PA was assessed based on maternal ratings of the child from ages 3 to 6 and via self-report age from the age of 9 across all measurements. TV viewing was assessed using self-reports taken from 2001 to 2011. The associations between temperamental activity and the level and change of PA and TV viewing were determined using linear growth modeling stratified by gender and age group. High temperamental activity assessed from ages 9 to 12 was associated with high levels of childhood PA in both genders, but with a steeper decline in PA levels during the first 9 years of follow-up in boys. High temperamental activity assessed from ages 3 to 6 was associated with the decline of PA from childhood to youth in girls. High childhood temperamental activity was associated with decreased levels of PA in adulthood in men, but not in women. The associations between childhood temperamental activity and TV viewing during adulthood seemed to be positive but not consistently significant in all age and gender groups. High temperamental activity may contribute to the development of a physically inactive lifestyle. More evidence is needed with regard to gender differences among participants in similar study settings.
  • Laukkanen, Matti; Hakko, Helina; Riipinen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa (2016)
    We examined whether adolescents' family structure associate with depression in a clinical sample of 508 adolescents (age 13-17 years) treated in psychiatric hospital between April 2001 and March 2006. Psychiatric disorders of adolescents were based on the K-SADS-PL-interview. Adolescents with depression were characterized by a single parent family background (58 %), but less commonly by a child welfare placement (37 %). Depression in adolescents was significantly related to female gender and a single parent family background, but less significantly related to comorbid psychotic or conducts disorders. The association between family structure and depression presents a challenge to mental health services. Early screening for depression in adolescents admitted for psychiatric treatment from "at risk" family types is important to enhance their future wellbeing and coping strategies.
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Su, Jinni; Pulkkinen, Lea; Barr, Peter; Rose, Richard J.; Dick, Danielle M.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2019)
    We analyzed how the effects of genetic and environmental factors on the perceptions of family interaction change from early to late adolescence. The data were collected by postal surveys on Finnish twins (N=4808) at 12, 14 and 17years of age and analyzed using genetic twin modeling. Additive genetic factors explained a modest share of the variation in perceived relational support (a(2)=0.30 in boys and 0.18 in girls) and relational tensions (a(2)=0.13 and 0.14, respectively) at 12years of age, with the proportions becoming larger through 17years of age (a(2)=0.53 in boys and 0.49 in girls for relational support; a(2)=0.35 in boys and 0.33 in girls for relational tensions). Simultaneously, the role of environment shared by co-twins decreased. These findings suggest that the associations between perceived family interaction and other factors in adulthood should be interpreted with caution, because they partly reflect genetic background, whereas in childhood, they may provide more reliable information on parental characteristics.
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Maia, José; Jelenkovic, Aline; Pereira, Sara; Gouveia, Élvio; Antunes, António; Thomis, Martine; Lefevre, Johan; Kaprio, Jaakko; Freitas, Duarte (2021)
    Objectives To analyze the influence of genetic and environmental factors on the variation in somatotype, physical fitness, and their mutual associations. Methods Twins from 214 pairs (87 monozygotic) of the Autonomous Region of Madeira, Portugal, from 3 to 18 years of age (51% girls) were assessed in anthropometry and physical fitness tests. We estimated endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy based on anthropometric measures and physical fitness using the Eurofit test battery. Two age categories were analyzed: children (3-11 years) and adolescents (12-18 years). Genetic and environmental variations were estimated using quantitative genetic twin modeling. Results No genetic sex differences were found, thus boys and girls were pooled in all genetic analyses. Heritability estimates were high for somatotype (a(2)= 0.80-0.93), physical fitness traits (a(2)= 0.67-0.83), and largely similar in children and adolescents. Positive correlations were found for ectomorphy with motor ability and cardiorespiratory endurance as well as for endomorphy and mesomorphy with muscular strength (r= 0.25-0.37). In contrast, negative associations were found for ectomorphy with muscular strength, as well as for endomorphy and mesomorphy with motor ability and cardiorespiratory endurance (-0.46 to -0.26). Twin modeling indicated that these associations were explained mostly by genetic factors in common to the two associated traits (84% or more). Conclusions Associations between somatotype and physical fitness tests are mainly explained by common genetic background in children and adolescents. Therefore, interventions in youth should consider that a child's performance in physical fitness tests partly reflects their inherited physique.
  • Böckerman, Petri; Hyytinen, Ari; Kaprio, Jaakko; Maczulskij, Terhi (2018)
    This paper examines the links between risky health behaviors and labor market success. We provide new evidence on the joint relationships between the most prominent forms of risky health behavior - alcohol consumption, smoking and physical inactivity - and long-term labor market outcomes. We use twin data for Finnish men and women linked to register-based individual information on earnings and labor market attachment. The twin data allow us to account for shared family and environmental factors and to measure risky health behaviors in 1975 and 1981. The long-term labor market outcomes were measured in adulthood as an average over the period 1990-2009. The sample sizes are 2156 and 2498 twins, for men and women, respectively. We find that being both a smoker and a heavy drinker in early adulthood is negatively related to long-term earnings and employment later in life, especially for men. We conclude that how and why risky health behaviors cluster and how that affects individual level outcomes call for more attention.
  • Torres, Andres F. Castro; Batyra, Ewa; Myrskylä, Mikko (2022)
    The relationship between levels of social and economic inequality and demographic changes remains poorly documented, particularly for fertility. Covering a period from 1986 to 2018, this paper documents a positive country-level association between income inequality and the dispersion of first birth schedules among women from 88 countries of the Global South. This association is driven by a dual dynamic of the decreasing mean age at first birth among a shrinking group of women who transition to motherhood early, and the increasing mean age at first birth and rising heterogeneity in the timing of childbearing among a group of first birth delayers. We show that this association is strongest in countries where the total fertility rate is below 2.5 children per woman. We argue that differential opportunities for accessing quality education, formal labor markets, and migration are potential drivers of the rising heterogeneity in the ages at which women transition to childbearing. These results highlight the importance of examining societal and demographic processes jointly and clearly indicate that more and better-quality data on social and economic inequality are needed.
  • Savelieva, Kateryna; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Merjonen, Päivi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Juonala, Markus; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa (2017)
    Intergenerational continuity in parenting quality has been demonstrated but the mechanisms underlying this continuity are less understood. This study investigated whether the offspring personality and years of education mediate the continuity in qualities of the parent-child relationship and whether offspring personality moderates this association. The sample comprised 1308 Finnish offspring (G2; 62% female) and their mothers (G1). G1 (Mean age = 37.7) reported self-perceived qualities of the parent-child relationship in terms of emotional warmth and acceptance towards G2 aged 3-18 years in 1980. Thirty-two years later, once having become parents themselves, G2 (Mean age = 42.9) self-rated their own qualities of the parent-child relationship towards their children using the same scales. Between these follow-ups, G2 self-rated their personality (consisting of temperament and character traits) using the Temperament and Character Inventory and reported years of education. Results indicated that G2 character traits-Self-directedness and Cooperativeness-partially mediated the intergenerational continuity in self-perceived emotional warmth and explained 16% of this association. No mediating role of G2 temperament traits was found (all ps > .240). Character traits accounted for the indirect association better than education in a multiple mediator model. Moreover, no moderating role of either temperament or character traits was found (all psaEuroe.064). Study findings show that warm and accepting qualities of the parent-child relationship in childhood are related to offspring character traits that reflect personality maturity in adulthood, which in turn would predict their own positive parent-child relationship later in life.
  • Savelieva, Kateryna; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Jokela, Markus; Lipsanen, Jari; Merjonen, Päivi; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T.; Hintsanen, Mirka (2017)
    We examined the intergenerational transmission of parent-child relationship qualities in a population-based Finnish sample of 1418 participants (G2) and their mothers (G1). At baseline, G1 (Mage=38) reported qualities of the parent-child relationship in terms of emotional warmth and acceptance towards G2 (age range 3-18). After 28years, G2 (Mage=39) rated the qualities of the parent-child relationship regarding their own children using the same questionnaire. Emotional warmth and acceptance were transmitted across generations even after controlling for demographic and family characteristics in both generations. The transmission was stronger for emotional warmth than acceptance. For emotional warmth, intergenerational transmission was stronger for men than women. The findings provide evidence for the long-term transmission of parenting quality across generations.
  • Einiö, Elina; Hiltunen, Elina; Martikainen, Pekka; Korhonen, Kaarina (2020)
    Background: Men's age at first birth may negatively or positively affect alcohol-related morbidity and mortality, although little evidence is available. Methods: We used register data of over 22,000 brothers to analyze the associations between age at first birth and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality from the age of 35 until the age of 60 or 72. We employed conventional Cox models and inter-sibling models, which allowed adjustment for unobserved social and genetic characteristics shared by brothers. Results: The findings show that men's age at first birth was inversely associated with alcohol-related morbidity and mortality, independent of unobserved characteristics shared by brothers and of observed demographic confounders. Men who had their first child late at 35-45 years experienced lower alcohol-related morbidity and mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.57, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.43, 0.75) than men who had their first child at 25-29. Men who had their first child before age 20 had the highest morbidity and mortality among all fathers (HR = 1.36, 95 % CI = 1.09, 1.69), followed by men who had their child at 20-24 (HR = 1.12, 95 % CI = 1.00, 1.25). Conclusions: The results imply that the inverse association between men's age at first birth and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality is not driven by familial characteristics.
  • Kontro, Titta Katariina; Sarna, Seppo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M. (2018)
    Background There is conflicting evidence on the associations between participation in vigorous sports, health habits, familial factors and subsequent mortality. We investigated all-cause mortality and health-related behaviour among former elite athletes and their brothers. Methods The mortality of Finnish male former elite athletes, who had represented Finland between 1920 and 1965 (n=900) and their age-matched brothers (n=900), was followed from the time when athlete started an elite athlete career until 31 December 2015. The age-adjusted HRs were calculated by a paired Cox proportional hazards model. In 2001, surviving participants (n=199 athletes and n=199 age-matched brothers) reported their self-rated health (SRH), physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking habits in the questionnaire. Results During the total follow-up period, 1296 deaths (72% of the cohort) occurred. The age-adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality in former athletes was 0.75 (95% CI 0.65 to 0.87, P Conclusions Former elite athletes are more physically active, smoke less, have better self-rated health and live longer than their brothers. Genetic differences between athletes and brothers, aerobic training for endurance elite sports and a healthier lifestyle may all contribute to reduced mortality.