Browsing by Subject "ADULTHOOD"

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  • Elovainio, Marko; Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T. (2020)
    We modeled early psychosocial risks as a network of interconnected variables to study their associations with later depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic outcomes. The participants were a nationally representative sample of 2580 men and women aged 3-18 years in 1980. Their parents reported the psychosocial risks in 1980, including the following: (1) child-specific life events, (2) parental health behavior, (3) parental socioeconomic status, and (4) parental psychological problems. Adulthood depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic outcomes were measured in 2007-2012. The most central risks (most number of connections to other risks) were socioeconomic risks that also predicted health outcomes more consistently than others.
  • Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Almqvist, Catarina; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Bogl, Leonie H.; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Rebato, Esther; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Fisher, Abigail; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Ooki, Syuichi; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; Brescianini, Sonia; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Cutler, Tessa L.; Hopper, John L.; Krueger, Robert F.; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Saffery, Richard; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Plomin, Robert; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri (2018)
    It is well established that boys are born heavier and longer than girls, but it remains unclear whether birth size in twins is affected by the sex of their co-twin. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 21 twin cohorts in 15 countries derived from the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), including 67,850 dizygotic twin individuals. Linear regression analyses showed that boys having a co-twin sister were, on average, 31 g (95%Cl 18 to 45) heavier and 0.16 cm (95%CI 0.045 to 0.274) longer than those with a co-twin brother. In girls, birth size was not associated (5 g birth weight; 95%Cl -8 to -18 and -0.089 cm birth length; 95% CI -0.202 to 0.025) with the sex of the co-twin. Gestational age was slightly shorter in boy-boy pairs than in boy-girl and girl-girl pairs. When birth size was standardized by gestational age, the magnitude of the associations was attenuated in boys, particularly for birth weight. In conclusion, boys with a co-twin sister are heavier and longer at birth than those with a co-twin brother. However, these differences are modest and partly explained by a longer gestation in the presence of a co-twin sister.
  • Mikkola, T. M.; von Bonsdorff, M. B.; Osmond, C.; Salonen, M. K.; Kajantie, E.; Cooper, C.; Valimaki, M. J.; Eriksson, J. G. (2017)
    We examined the associations between childhood growth and bone properties among women at early old age. Early growth in height predicted greater bone area and higher bone mineral mass. However, information on growth did not improve prediction of bone properties beyond that predicted by body size at early old age. We examined the associations between body size at birth and childhood growth with bone area, bone mineral content (BMC), and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in early old age. A subgroup of women (n = 178, mean 60.4 years) from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934-1944, participated in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of the lumbar spine and hip. Height and weight at 0, 2, 7, and 11 years, obtained from health care records, were reconstructed into conditional variables representing growth velocity independent of earlier growth. Weight was adjusted for corresponding height. Linear regression models were adjusted for multiple confounders. Birth length and growth in height before 7 years of age were positively associated with femoral neck area (p <0.05) and growth in height at all age periods studied with spine bone area (p <0.01). Growth in height before the age of 7 years was associated with BMC in the femoral neck (p <0.01) and birth length and growth in height before the age of 7 years were associated with BMC in the spine (p <0.05). After entering adult height into the models, nearly all associations disappeared. Weight gain during childhood was not associated with bone area or BMC, and aBMD was not associated with early growth. Optimal growth in height in girls is important for obtaining larger skeleton and consequently higher bone mass. However, when predicting bone mineral mass among elderly women, information on early growth does not improve prediction beyond that predicted by current height and weight.
  • Nuutinen, Teija; Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Roos, Eva; Villberg, Jari; Tynjala, Jorma (2017)
    To examine how clusters of energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs), including sleep related factors, were associated with overweight among adolescents. In Finland, 4262 adolescents, aged 13-15, participated in the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The adolescents completed questionnaires assessing EBRBs [sleep duration, discrepancy and quality, physical activity (PA), screen time, junk food, fruit, and vegetable intake] and height and weight. Clusters were identified with kappa-means cluster analysis and their associations with overweight with logistic regression analyses. Common clusters for boys and girls were labelled "Healthy lifestyle" and "High screen time, unhealthy lifestyle". In addition, the cluster "Low/moderate screen time, unhealthy lifestyle" was identified among boys, and the cluster "Poor sleep, unhealthy lifestyle" among girls. Only girls in the cluster "High screen time, unhealthy lifestyle" were at increased risk for overweight. Girls, whose EBRB was characterized by high screen time and low PA, but not with poor sleep, were at increased risk for overweight. Future studies should examine ways to promote PA among adolescent girls with high interest in screen-based activities.
  • Hale, Jo Mhairi; Schneider, Daniel C.; Mehta, Neil K.; Myrskylä, Mikko (2020)
    Prior studies have analyzed the burden of cognitive impairment, but often use potentially biased prevalence-based methods or measure only years lived with impairment, without estimating other relevant metrics. We use the Health and Retirement Study (1998–2014; n = 29,304) and the preferred incidence-based Markov-chain models to assess three key measures of the burden of cognitive impairment: lifetime risk, mean age at onset, and number of years lived impaired. We analyze both mild and severe cognitive impairment (dementia) and gender, racial/ethnic, and educational variation in impairment. Our results paint a multi-dimensional picture of cognitive health, presenting the first comprehensive analysis of the burden of cognitive impairment for the U.S. population age 50 and older. Approximately two out of three Americans experience some level of cognitive impairment at an average age of approximately 70 years. For dementia, lifetime risk for women (men) is 37% (24%) and mean age at onset 83 (79) years. Women can expect to live 4.2 years with mild impairment and 3.2 with dementia, men 3.5 and 1.8 years. A critical finding is that for the most advantaged groups (i.e., White and/or higher educated), cognitive impairment is both delayed and compressed toward the very end of life. In contrast, despite the shorter lives of disadvantaged subgroups (Black and/or lower educated), they experience a younger age of onset, higher lifetime risk, and more years cognitively impaired. For example, men with at least an Associate degree have 21% lifetime dementia risk, compared to 35% among men with less than high school education. White women have 6 years of cognitively-impaired life expectancy, compared to 12 and 13 years among Black women and Latinas. These educational and racial/ethnic gradients highlight the very uneven burden of cognitive impairment. Further research is required to identify the mechanisms driving these disparities in cognitive impairment.
  • Sebert, Sylvain; Lowry, Estelle; Aumuller, Nicole; Bermudez, Mercedes G.; Bjerregaard, Lise G.; de Rooij, Susanne R.; De Silva, Maneka; El Marroun, Hanan; Hummel, Nadine; Juola, Teija; Mason, Giacomo; Much, Daniela; Oliveros, Elena; Poupakis, Stavros; Rautio, Nina; Schwarzfischer, Phillipp; Tzala, Evangelia; Uhl, Olaf; van de Beek, Cornelieke; Vehmeijer, Florianne; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Wasenius, Niko; Webster, Claire; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Miettunen, Jouko; Baker, Jennifer L.; Campoy, Cristina; Conti, Gabriella; Eriksson, Johan G.; Hummel, Sandra; Jaddoe, Vincent; Koletzko, Berthold; Lewin, Alex; Rodriguez-Palermo, Maria; Roseboom, Tessa; Rueda, Ricardo; Evans, Jayne; Felix, Janine F.; Prokopenko, Inga; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta (2019)
  • Rintala, Risto J. (2016)
    Persistent cloaca remains a challenge for pediatric surgeons and urologists. Reconstructive surgery of cloacal malformations aims to repair the anorectum, urinary tract, and genital organs, and achieve fecal and urinary continence as well as functional genital tract capable for sexual activity and pregnancy. Unfortunately, even in most experienced hands these goals are not always accomplished. The endpoint of the functional development of bowel, urinary, and genital functions is the completion of patient's growth and sexual maturity. It is unlikely that there will be any significant functional improvement beyond these time points. About half of the patients with cloaca attain fecal and urinary continence after their growth period. The remaining half stay clean or dry by adjunctive measures such as bowel management by enemas or ACE channel, and continent urinary diversion or intermittent catheterization. Problems related to genital organs such as obstructed menstruations, amenorrhea, and introitus stenosis are common and often require secondary surgery. Encouragingly, most adolescent and adult patients are capable of sexual life despite often complex vaginal primary and secondary reconstructions. Also, cloacal malformation does not preclude pregnancies, although they still are quite rare. Pregnant patients with cloaca require special care and follow-up to guarantee uncomplicated pregnancy and preservation of anorectal and urinary functions. Cesarean section is recommended for cloaca patients. The self-reported quality of life of cloaca patients appears to be comparable to that of female patients with less complex anorectal malformations. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Yang, Xiaolin; Kaseva, Kaisa; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Kankaanpää, Anna; Telama, Risto; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Tammelin, Tuija (2017)
    We examined associations between childhood temperamental activity, physical activity (PA), and television (TV) viewing over a 30-year period. The participants (1220 boys and 1237 girls) were aged 3, 6, 9, and 12 years in 1980 and were followed until 2011. Temperamental activity was evaluated by participants' mothers at baseline. The PA was assessed based on maternal ratings of the child from ages 3 to 6 and via self-report age from the age of 9 across all measurements. TV viewing was assessed using self-reports taken from 2001 to 2011. The associations between temperamental activity and the level and change of PA and TV viewing were determined using linear growth modeling stratified by gender and age group. High temperamental activity assessed from ages 9 to 12 was associated with high levels of childhood PA in both genders, but with a steeper decline in PA levels during the first 9 years of follow-up in boys. High temperamental activity assessed from ages 3 to 6 was associated with the decline of PA from childhood to youth in girls. High childhood temperamental activity was associated with decreased levels of PA in adulthood in men, but not in women. The associations between childhood temperamental activity and TV viewing during adulthood seemed to be positive but not consistently significant in all age and gender groups. High temperamental activity may contribute to the development of a physically inactive lifestyle. More evidence is needed with regard to gender differences among participants in similar study settings.
  • Laukkanen, Matti; Hakko, Helina; Riipinen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa (2016)
    We examined whether adolescents' family structure associate with depression in a clinical sample of 508 adolescents (age 13-17 years) treated in psychiatric hospital between April 2001 and March 2006. Psychiatric disorders of adolescents were based on the K-SADS-PL-interview. Adolescents with depression were characterized by a single parent family background (58 %), but less commonly by a child welfare placement (37 %). Depression in adolescents was significantly related to female gender and a single parent family background, but less significantly related to comorbid psychotic or conducts disorders. The association between family structure and depression presents a challenge to mental health services. Early screening for depression in adolescents admitted for psychiatric treatment from "at risk" family types is important to enhance their future wellbeing and coping strategies.
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Su, Jinni; Pulkkinen, Lea; Barr, Peter; Rose, Richard J.; Dick, Danielle M.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2019)
    We analyzed how the effects of genetic and environmental factors on the perceptions of family interaction change from early to late adolescence. The data were collected by postal surveys on Finnish twins (N=4808) at 12, 14 and 17years of age and analyzed using genetic twin modeling. Additive genetic factors explained a modest share of the variation in perceived relational support (a(2)=0.30 in boys and 0.18 in girls) and relational tensions (a(2)=0.13 and 0.14, respectively) at 12years of age, with the proportions becoming larger through 17years of age (a(2)=0.53 in boys and 0.49 in girls for relational support; a(2)=0.35 in boys and 0.33 in girls for relational tensions). Simultaneously, the role of environment shared by co-twins decreased. These findings suggest that the associations between perceived family interaction and other factors in adulthood should be interpreted with caution, because they partly reflect genetic background, whereas in childhood, they may provide more reliable information on parental characteristics.
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Maia, José; Jelenkovic, Aline; Pereira, Sara; Gouveia, Élvio; Antunes, António; Thomis, Martine; Lefevre, Johan; Kaprio, Jaakko; Freitas, Duarte (2021)
    Objectives To analyze the influence of genetic and environmental factors on the variation in somatotype, physical fitness, and their mutual associations. Methods Twins from 214 pairs (87 monozygotic) of the Autonomous Region of Madeira, Portugal, from 3 to 18 years of age (51% girls) were assessed in anthropometry and physical fitness tests. We estimated endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy based on anthropometric measures and physical fitness using the Eurofit test battery. Two age categories were analyzed: children (3-11 years) and adolescents (12-18 years). Genetic and environmental variations were estimated using quantitative genetic twin modeling. Results No genetic sex differences were found, thus boys and girls were pooled in all genetic analyses. Heritability estimates were high for somatotype (a(2)= 0.80-0.93), physical fitness traits (a(2)= 0.67-0.83), and largely similar in children and adolescents. Positive correlations were found for ectomorphy with motor ability and cardiorespiratory endurance as well as for endomorphy and mesomorphy with muscular strength (r= 0.25-0.37). In contrast, negative associations were found for ectomorphy with muscular strength, as well as for endomorphy and mesomorphy with motor ability and cardiorespiratory endurance (-0.46 to -0.26). Twin modeling indicated that these associations were explained mostly by genetic factors in common to the two associated traits (84% or more). Conclusions Associations between somatotype and physical fitness tests are mainly explained by common genetic background in children and adolescents. Therefore, interventions in youth should consider that a child's performance in physical fitness tests partly reflects their inherited physique.
  • Böckerman, Petri; Hyytinen, Ari; Kaprio, Jaakko; Maczulskij, Terhi (2018)
    This paper examines the links between risky health behaviors and labor market success. We provide new evidence on the joint relationships between the most prominent forms of risky health behavior - alcohol consumption, smoking and physical inactivity - and long-term labor market outcomes. We use twin data for Finnish men and women linked to register-based individual information on earnings and labor market attachment. The twin data allow us to account for shared family and environmental factors and to measure risky health behaviors in 1975 and 1981. The long-term labor market outcomes were measured in adulthood as an average over the period 1990-2009. The sample sizes are 2156 and 2498 twins, for men and women, respectively. We find that being both a smoker and a heavy drinker in early adulthood is negatively related to long-term earnings and employment later in life, especially for men. We conclude that how and why risky health behaviors cluster and how that affects individual level outcomes call for more attention.
  • Savelieva, Kateryna; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Merjonen, Päivi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Juonala, Markus; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa (2017)
    Intergenerational continuity in parenting quality has been demonstrated but the mechanisms underlying this continuity are less understood. This study investigated whether the offspring personality and years of education mediate the continuity in qualities of the parent-child relationship and whether offspring personality moderates this association. The sample comprised 1308 Finnish offspring (G2; 62% female) and their mothers (G1). G1 (Mean age = 37.7) reported self-perceived qualities of the parent-child relationship in terms of emotional warmth and acceptance towards G2 aged 3-18 years in 1980. Thirty-two years later, once having become parents themselves, G2 (Mean age = 42.9) self-rated their own qualities of the parent-child relationship towards their children using the same scales. Between these follow-ups, G2 self-rated their personality (consisting of temperament and character traits) using the Temperament and Character Inventory and reported years of education. Results indicated that G2 character traits-Self-directedness and Cooperativeness-partially mediated the intergenerational continuity in self-perceived emotional warmth and explained 16% of this association. No mediating role of G2 temperament traits was found (all ps > .240). Character traits accounted for the indirect association better than education in a multiple mediator model. Moreover, no moderating role of either temperament or character traits was found (all psaEuroe.064). Study findings show that warm and accepting qualities of the parent-child relationship in childhood are related to offspring character traits that reflect personality maturity in adulthood, which in turn would predict their own positive parent-child relationship later in life.
  • Savelieva, Kateryna; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Jokela, Markus; Lipsanen, Jari; Merjonen, Päivi; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T.; Hintsanen, Mirka (2017)
    We examined the intergenerational transmission of parent-child relationship qualities in a population-based Finnish sample of 1418 participants (G2) and their mothers (G1). At baseline, G1 (Mage=38) reported qualities of the parent-child relationship in terms of emotional warmth and acceptance towards G2 (age range 3-18). After 28years, G2 (Mage=39) rated the qualities of the parent-child relationship regarding their own children using the same questionnaire. Emotional warmth and acceptance were transmitted across generations even after controlling for demographic and family characteristics in both generations. The transmission was stronger for emotional warmth than acceptance. For emotional warmth, intergenerational transmission was stronger for men than women. The findings provide evidence for the long-term transmission of parenting quality across generations.
  • Einiö, Elina; Hiltunen, Elina; Martikainen, Pekka; Korhonen, Kaarina (2020)
    Background: Men's age at first birth may negatively or positively affect alcohol-related morbidity and mortality, although little evidence is available. Methods: We used register data of over 22,000 brothers to analyze the associations between age at first birth and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality from the age of 35 until the age of 60 or 72. We employed conventional Cox models and inter-sibling models, which allowed adjustment for unobserved social and genetic characteristics shared by brothers. Results: The findings show that men's age at first birth was inversely associated with alcohol-related morbidity and mortality, independent of unobserved characteristics shared by brothers and of observed demographic confounders. Men who had their first child late at 35-45 years experienced lower alcohol-related morbidity and mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.57, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.43, 0.75) than men who had their first child at 25-29. Men who had their first child before age 20 had the highest morbidity and mortality among all fathers (HR = 1.36, 95 % CI = 1.09, 1.69), followed by men who had their child at 20-24 (HR = 1.12, 95 % CI = 1.00, 1.25). Conclusions: The results imply that the inverse association between men's age at first birth and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality is not driven by familial characteristics.
  • Kontro, Titta Katariina; Sarna, Seppo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M. (2018)
    Background There is conflicting evidence on the associations between participation in vigorous sports, health habits, familial factors and subsequent mortality. We investigated all-cause mortality and health-related behaviour among former elite athletes and their brothers. Methods The mortality of Finnish male former elite athletes, who had represented Finland between 1920 and 1965 (n=900) and their age-matched brothers (n=900), was followed from the time when athlete started an elite athlete career until 31 December 2015. The age-adjusted HRs were calculated by a paired Cox proportional hazards model. In 2001, surviving participants (n=199 athletes and n=199 age-matched brothers) reported their self-rated health (SRH), physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking habits in the questionnaire. Results During the total follow-up period, 1296 deaths (72% of the cohort) occurred. The age-adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality in former athletes was 0.75 (95% CI 0.65 to 0.87, P Conclusions Former elite athletes are more physically active, smoke less, have better self-rated health and live longer than their brothers. Genetic differences between athletes and brothers, aerobic training for endurance elite sports and a healthier lifestyle may all contribute to reduced mortality.
  • Lindberg, Nina; Miettunen, Jouko; Heiskala, Anni; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu (2017)
    Background: The mortality rate of young offenders is high. Furthermore, mortality in young offenders is associated with psychiatric and substance use disorders. The primary aim of this national register-based follow-up study was to investigate the mortality rate of Finnish delinquents who underwent a forensic psychiatric examination between 1980 and 2010. As delinquency is not a solid entity, we further aimed to compare the risk of premature death among different subgroups of the delinquents; violent versus non-violent offenders, offenders with alcohol use disorders versus those with no such diagnoses, offenders with schizophrenia spectrum disorders versus conduct-and personality-disordered offenders, under-aged versus young adult offenders, and, finally, boys versus girls. Methods: We collected the forensic psychiatric examination reports of all 15- to 19-year-old offenders who were born in Finland and had undergone the examination between 1.1.1980 and 31.12.2010 (n = 606) from the archives of the National Institute of Health and Welfare and retrospectively reviewed them. For each delinquent, four age-, gender- and place of birth-matched controls were randomly selected from the Central Population Register (n = 2424). The delinquents and their controls were followed until the end of 2015. The median follow-up time was 23.9 years (interquartile range 15.3-29.5). We obtained the mortality data from the causes of death register. Deaths attributable to a disease or an occupational disease were considered natural, and those attributable to an accident, suicide or homicide were considered unnatural. Results: By the end of the follow-up period, 22.1% (n = 134) of the delinquents and 3.4% (n = 82) of their controls had died (OR 8.11, 95% CI 6.05-10.86, p <0.001). Among boys, 22.0% (n = 121) of the delinquents and 3.7% (n = 81) of the controls had died (OR 7.38, 95% CI 5.46-9.95, p <0.001). Male delinquents' risk of unnatural death was almost 11-fold, of natural death more than twofold, and of unclear death more than fourfold compared to that of their controls. No girls had natural or unclear deaths, but 23.6% (n = 13) of the delinquents and 0.5% (n = 1) of the controls had died due to unnatural causes (OR 67.79, 95% CI 8.63-532.00, p <0.001). The violent delinquents' risk of premature death was twice that of the non-violent delinquents. The other comparisons demonstrated no statistically significant differences between subgroups. Conclusions: Even though the Finnish correction system prefers psychiatric treatment and rehabilitation over criminal sanctions, and the national health care system offers developmental-phase-specific psychiatric care, the mortality rate of delinquents, especially of those with a history of violent offences, is high. The excess mortality of offenders can be regarded as a specific public-health inequity that calls for more effective intervention procedures than those used thus far.
  • Loman, Tina; Lallukka, Tea; Laaksonen, Mikko; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero (2013)
  • Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Tabak, Adam G.; Halonen, Jaana I.; Vineis, Paolo; Pentti, Jaana; Pahkala, Katja; Rovio, Suvi; Viikari, Jorma; Kahonen, Mika; Juonala, Markus; Ferrie, Jane E.; Stringhini, Silvia; Raitakari, Olli T. (2018)
    Background Neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked to increased diabetes risk, but little is known about differences in risk factors in childhood and adulthood in those with high and low neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage, or about the association between long-term neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and incidence of diabetes in adulthood. We used data from the prospective, population-based Young Finns Study to address these questions. Methods We did a nationwide population-based cohort study in Finland using data from The Young Finns Study, which included 3467 participants aged 6-18 years followed up for over 30 years via eight repeated biomedical examinations and linkage to electronic health records. Participants were also linked to national grid data on neighbourhood disadvantage via their residential address from age 6-48 years. We used these data to examine differences in ten risk factors (dietary habits, physical activity, daily smoking, body-mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting HDL cholesterol, fasting triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, and homoeostasis model assessment insulin sensitivity) from childhood (6-21 years) to adulthood (22-48 years) among individuals with high (>= 0.5 SD above the national mean) and low (0.5 SD below the national mean) neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage, and the association of cumulative neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage with six cardiometabolic risk factors (obesity, high waist circumference, fatty liver, hypertension, carotid plaque, and left ventricle mass index) and diabetes by middle age (22-48 years). We used logistic and linear regression analyses to assess the effects of neighbourhood disadvantage on cardiometabolic and diabetes risk, controlling for potential confounders (age, sex, and individual socioeconomic disadvantage). Findings We included data for 3002 individuals with risk factor assessment in childhood and adulthood. Of whom, 2048 underwent a clinical examination during the last follow-up at age 33-48 years. Differences in risk factors by neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage at the beginning of follow-up were small, but large differences emerged over the follow-up. High neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage was characterised by decreased fruit and vegetable intake as early as age 6 years, decreased physical activity, and increased prevalence of daily smoking from adolescence (12 years) onwards, and decreased homoeostasis model assessment insulin sensitivity and increased fasting glucose and insulin concentration from early adulthood (27 years; all p Interpretation Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas can shape health in childhood and adulthood. Neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with differences in health risks across the life course, including detrimental lifestyle factors from childhood and adolescence onwards and worse glucose metabolism from early adulthood. By middle age, cumulative neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk factors and increased incidence of diabetes. Copyright (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Lahteela, Kati; Kunnas, Tarja; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Mononen, Nina; Taittonen, Leena; Laitinen, Tomi; Kettunen, Johannes; Juonala, Markus; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Kahonen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma S.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Nikkari, Seppo T. (2012)