Browsing by Subject "AGE"

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  • DAGIS Consortium Grp (2018)
    Validated methodological aids for food quantification are needed for the accurate estimation of food consumption. Our objective was to assess the validity of an age-specific food picture book, which contains commonly eaten foods among Finnish children, for parents and early educators in estimating food portion sizes. The food picture book was developed to assist in portion size estimation when filling in food records in the Increased health and wellbeing in preschools (DAGIS) study. All ninety-five food pictures in the book, each containing three or four different portion sizes, were evaluated at real-time sessions. Altogether, seventy-three parents and 107 early educators or early education students participated. Each participant evaluated twenty-three or twenty-four portions by comparing presented pre-weighed food portions against the corresponding picture from the food picture book. Food portions were not consumed by participants. The total proportion of correct estimations varied from 36% (cottage cheese) to 100% (fish fingers). Among the food groups, nearly or over 90% of the estimations were correct for bread, pastries and main courses (piece products' such as meatballs and chicken nuggets). Soups, porridges, salads and grated and fresh vegetables were least correctly estimated (
  • He, Liang; Pitkaniemi, Janne; Silventoinen, Karri; Sillanpaa, Mikko J. (2017)
    Estimating dynamic effects of age on the genetic and environmental variance components in twin studies may contribute to the investigation of gene-environment interactions, and may provide more insights into more accurate and powerful estimation of heritability. Existing parametric models for estimating dynamic variance components suffer from various drawbacks such as limitation of predefined functions. We present ACEt, an R package for fast estimating dynamic variance components and heritability that may change with respect to age or other moderators. Building on the twin models using penalized splines, ACEt provides a unified framework to incorporate a class of ACE models, in which each component can be modeled independently and is not limited by a linear or quadratic function. We demonstrate that ACEt is robust against misspecification of the number of spline knots, and offers a refined resolution of dynamic behavior of the genetic and environmental components and thus a detailed estimation of age-specific heritability. Moreover, we develop resampling methods for testing twin models with different variance functions including splines, log-linearity and constancy, which can be easily employed to verify various model assumptions. We evaluated the type I error rate and statistical power of the proposed hypothesis testing procedures under various scenarios using simulated datasets. Potential numerical issues and computational cost were also assessed through simulations. We applied the ACEt package to a Finnish twin cohort to investigate age-specific heritability of body mass index and height. Our results show that the age-specific variance components of these two traits exhibited substantially different patterns despite of comparable estimates of heritability. In summary, the ACEt R package offers a useful tool for the exploration of age-dependent heritability and model comparison in twin studies.
  • Sauna-aho, Oili; BjelogrlicLaakso, Nina; Rautava, Päivi; Arvio, Maria (2020)
    Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability. The aim of our longitudinal study was to describe ageing-related cognitive changes in men with FXS. Method A neuropsychologist determined the raw scores (RSs) of 19 men with FXS twice with the Leiter International Performance Scale at an average interval of 22 years. The ages of the participants at baseline ranged from 16 to 50 (mean 27) years. Results At follow-up, the RSs improved in two men, remained the same in two men and declined in 15 men. Overall, the RS of the study group deteriorated by an average 4 points in RSs (p <.001). Conclusion Cognitive ageing in men with FXS started earlier than that in men in the general population; in many cases, cognitive ageing in men with FXS began before middle age, usually without any medical or other underlying cause.
  • Saraceni, Francesco; Labopin, Myriam; Forcade, Edouard; Kroeger, Nicolaus; Socie, Gerard; Niittyvuopio, Riitta; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Labussiere-Wallet, Helene; Blaise, Didier; Choi, Goda; Byrne, Jenny L.; Guillerm, Gaelle; Marchand, Tony; Esteve, Jordi; Bazarbachi, Ali; Savani, Bipin; Olivieri, Attilio; Nagler, Arnon; Mohty, Mohamad (2021)
    Limited data are currently available on the outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) with a reduced performance status. We herein present the results of a registry study on 2,936 AML patients undergoing allo-SCT in first remission (CR1) with a Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score less than or equal to 80%. Two-year leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS) and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-free, and relapse-free survival (GRFS) rates were 54%, 59%, and 41%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, patients with a KPS score = 80% had lower non-relapse mortality (NRM) and superior OS in comparison to patients with a KPS score
  • Rantalainen, Ville; Lahti, Jari; Kajantie, Eero; Tienari, Pentti; Eriksson, Johan G.; Raikkonen, Katri (2019)
    We tested if the epsilon 4 major isoform of the APOE gene and rs405509 and rs440446 promoter and intron-1 polymorphisms predicted risk of any dementia or Alzheimer's disease with diagnoses derived from the Hospital Discharge and Causes of Death Registers in 1453 participants of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. We used Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for sex, year of birth, maximum lifetime occupational status and education, and diagnoses of stroke, coronary heart disease, mood disorders, and depressive symptoms. APOE epsilon 4 predicted higher risk of any dementia (hazard ratios >3.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.76, 7.70) across all statistical models, and when adjusted for rs405509 and rs440446. The number of minor alleles in rs405509 or rs440446 was not associated with dementia risk (hazard ratios
  • TRIGR Investigators; Pacaud, Daniele; Nucci, Anita M.; Cuthbertson, David; Becker, Dorothy J.; Virtanen, Suvi M.; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael (2021)
    Aims/hypothesis The aim of this work was to examine the relationship between family history of type 1 diabetes, birthweight, growth during the first 2 years and development of multiple beta cell autoantibodies in children with a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes and HLA-conferred disease susceptibility. Methods In a secondary analysis of the Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR), clinical characteristics and development of beta cell autoantibodies were compared in relation to family history of type 1 diabetes (mother vs father vs sibling) in 2074 children from families with a single affected family member. Results Multiple autoantibodies (>= 2 of 5 measured) developed in 277 (13%) children: 107 (10%), 114 (16%) and 56 (18%) born with a mother, father or sibling with type 1 diabetes, respectively (p <0.001). The HR for time to multiple autoimmunity was 0.54 (95% CI 0.39, 0.75) in offspring of affected mothers (n = 107/1046,p <0.001) and 0.81 (95% CI 0.59, 1.11) (n = 114/722,p = 0.19) in offspring of affected fathers, compared with participants with a sibling with type 1 diabetes (comparator groupn = 56/306). The time to the first autoantibody present (to insulin, GAD, tyrosine phosphatase-related insulinoma-associated 2 molecules, islet cell or zinc transporter 8) was similar in the three groups. Height velocity (zscore/year) in the first 24 months was independently associated with developing multiple antibodies in the total cohort (HR 1.31 [95% CI 1.01, 1.70],p = 0.04). A higher birthweight in children born to an affected mother vs affected father or an affected sibling was not related to the risk of multiple autoimmunity. Conclusions/interpretation The risk of developing multiple autoantibodies was lower in children with maternal type 1 diabetes. For the whole group, this risk of developing multiple autoantibodies was independent of birthweight but was greater in those with increased height velocity during the first 2 years of life. However, the risk associated with paternal type 1 diabetes was not linked to differences in birthweight or early growth.
  • Leinonen, Jaakko T.; Surakka, Ida; Havulinna, Aki S.; Kettunen, Johannes; Luoto, Riitta; Salomaa, Veikko; Widen, Elisabeth (2012)
  • Tucker, P; Harma, M; Ojajarvi, A; Kivimaki, M; Leineweber, C; Oksanen, T; Salo, P; Vahtera, J (2021)
  • Virtanen, Suvi; Sidorchuck, Anna; Fernández de la Cruz, Lorena; Brander, Gustaf; Lichtenstein, Paul; Latvala, Antti; Mataix-Cols, David (2021)
    BACKGROUND: It remains unclear if individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) or chronic tic disorder (CTD) have an elevated risk of subsequent substance misuse. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, we investigated the association between ICD diagnoses of TS/CTD and substance misuse outcomes, accounting for psychiatric comorbidity and familial factors. The cohort included all individuals living in Sweden at any time between January 1, 1973, and December 31, 2013. Substance misuse outcomes were defined as an ICD code of substance use-related disorder or cause of death, or as a substance use-related criminal conviction in the nationwide registers. RESULTS: The cohort included 14,277,199 individuals, of whom 7832 had a TS/CTD diagnosis (76.3% men). TS/CTD was associated with an increased risk of any subsequent substance misuse outcomes (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 3.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.94-3.29), including alcohol-related disorder (aHR, 3.45; 95% CI, 3.19-3.72), drug-related disorder (aHR, 6.84; 95% CI, 6.32-7.40), substance-related criminal convictions (aHR, 2.56; 95% CI, 2.36-2.77), and substance-related death (aHR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.83-3.52). Excluding psychiatric comorbidities had little effect on the magnitude of the associations, with the exception of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, which attenuated the risk of any substance misuse outcomes (aHR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.82-2.19). The risk of any substance misuse outcomes in individuals with TS/CTD was substantially attenuated but remained significant when compared with their unaffected siblings (aHR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.53-1.97). CONCLUSIONS: TS/CTD were associated with various types of subsequent substance misuse outcomes, independently of psychiatric comorbidity and familial factors shared between siblings. Screening for drug and alcohol use should become part of the standard clinical routines, particularly in patients with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
  • Salmela, Jatta Helena; Mauramo, Elina; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Kanerva, Noora (2019)
    Objective: Childhood disadvantage is associated with a higher risk of adult obesity, but little is known about its associations with body mass index (BMI) trajectories during adulthood. This study aimed first to identify adulthood BMI trajectories, and second to investigate how childhood disadvantage is associated with trajectory group membership. Methods: Data from the Helsinki Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study of initially 40- to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki in Finland, were used. The baseline survey was conducted in 2000–2002, and similar follow-up surveys in 2007, 2012, and 2017. Based on self-reported BMI, participants’ (n =5,266; 83% women) BMI trajectories, including their retrospectively reported BMI at the age of 25 years, were examined. Data on childhood disadvantage, including parental education and 7 types of childhood adversity (their own serious illness; parental divorce, death, mental disorder, or alcohol problems; economic difficulties at home; and peer group bullying) before the age of 16 years, were obtained from the baseline survey. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify BMI trajectories, and multinomial logistic regression to analyze the odds for trajectory group membership for the disadvantage variables. Results: Four ascending BMI trajectories in women and men were found: persistent normal weight (trajectory 1; women 35% and men 25%), normal weight to overweight (trajectory 2; women 41% and men 48%), normal weight to class I obesity (trajectory 3; women 19% and men 23%) and overweight to class II obesity (trajectory 4; women 5% and men 4%). Compared to trajectory 1, women with multiple adversities and repetitive peer bullying in childhood had greater odds of belonging to trajectories 3 and 4, whereas men with parental alcohol problems had greater odds of belonging to trajectory 4. For women and men, a low level of parental education was associated with a higher-level BMI trajectory. Conclusions: Low parental education for both genders, multiple adversities and repetitive peer bullying in childhood among women, and parental alcohol problems among men increased the odds of developing obesity during adulthood. Further studies are needed to clarify how gender differences modify the effects of childhood disadvantage on adult BMI trajectories.
  • Grundström, Jenna; Konttinen, Hanna; Berg, Noora; Kiviruusu, Olli (2021)
    The aim of this study was to assess the associations between relationship status and mental well-being in four different phases during the life course, and to identify whether relationship quality moderated these associations. We used a broader concept of relationship status (instead of marital status) and also included the positive dimension of mental health. Participants in a Finnish cohort study were followed up at ages 22 (N = 1,656), 32 (N = 1,471), 42 (N = 1,334), and 52 (N = 1,159). Measures in all study panels covered relationship status (marriage, cohabitation, dating, single and divorced/widowed), Short Beck Depression Inventory (S-BDI), self-esteem (seven items) and relationship quality (six items). Analyses were carried out using linear regression. Compared to marriage, being single or being divorced/widowed were associated with depressive symptoms at every age in men. For women, in turn, being single - but not being divorced/widowed - was associated with depressive symptoms. Among men, being single or being divorced/widowed were also associated with lower self-esteem at age 32, 42 and 52, but in women, only one association between lower self-esteem and being single was found at age 32. Of the age stages, the age 32 is highlighted in men, at which point all relationship statuses were risk factors compared to marriage. There were only few indications of the moderating role of the relationship quality. Compared to marriage, being single or being divorced/widowed were quite consistently associated with poorer mental well-being during the life course, especially among men. For dating and cohabiting the associations were more fragmented depending on age and gender; particularly among women, these relationship statuses tended not to differ from marriage in terms of mental well-being. These observations on mental well-being across five relationship statuses are important in our contemporary society, where the number of marriages is decreasing, and other forms of relationships are becoming more common.
  • Mikkola, Tuija M; Salonen, Minna K; Kajantie, Eero; Kautiainen, Hannu; Eriksson, Johan G (2020)
    Circulating amino acids are potential markers of body composition. Previous studies are mainly limited to middle age and focus on either fat or lean mass, thereby ignoring overall body composition. We investigated the associations of fat and lean body mass with circulating amino acids in older men and women. We studied 594 women and 476 men from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (age 62–74 years). Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to indicate two main body compartments by fat (fat mass/height2) and lean mass indices (lean mass/height2), dichotomized based on sex-specific medians. Eight serum amino acids were quantified using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. General linear models were adjusted for age, smoking, and fasting glucose. Higher lean mass index (LMI) was associated with higher concentrations of branched-chain amino acids in both sexes (p ≤ .001). In men, LMI was also positively associated with tyrosine (p = .006) and inversely with glycine (p < .001). Higher fat mass index was associated with higher concentrations of all branched-chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine and tyrosine), and alanine in both sexes (p ≤ .008). Associations between body composition and amino acids are largely similar in older men and women. The associations are largely similar to those previously observed in younger adults.
  • Lounassalo, Irinja; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Kankaanpaeae, Anna; Tolvanen, Asko; Palomäki, Sanna; Salin, Kasper; Fogelholm, Mikael; Yang, Xiaolin; Pahkala, Katja; Rovio, Suvi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli; Tammelin, Tuija H. (2019)
    A physically active lifestyle and a diet rich in vegetables and fruits have a central role in promoting health. This study examined the associations between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) trajectories and fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) from childhood to middle age. The data were drawn from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with six age cohorts. Participants were 9 to 18 years (n = 3536; 51% females) at baseline in 1980 and 33 to 48 years at the last follow-up in 2011. LTPA and FVC were self-reported. LTPA trajectories were identified using latent profile analyses, after which the mean differences in FVC across the trajectories were studied. Active, low-active, decreasingly and increasingly active trajectories were identified for both genders. An additional trajectory describing inactivity was identified for females. Those who were persistently active or increased their LTPA had higher FVC at many ages when compared to their inactive or low-active counterparts (p <0.05). In females prior to age 42 and in males prior to age 24, FVC was higher at many ages in those with decreasing activity than in their inactive or low-active counterparts (p <0.05). The development of LTPA and FVC from childhood to middle age seem to occur in tandem.
  • Twardziok, Monika; Schroder, Paul C.; Krusche, Johanna; Casaca, Vera I.; Illi, Sabina; Bock, Andreas; Loss, Georg J.; Kabesch, Michael; Toncheva, Antoaneta A.; Roduit, Caroline; Depner, Martin; Genuneit, Jon; Renz, Harald; Roponen, Marjut; Weber, Juliane; Braun-Fahrlander, Charlotte; Riedler, Josef; Lauener, Roger; Vuitton, Dominique Angele; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Pekkanen, Juha; von Mutius, Erika; Schaub, Bianca; PASTURE Study Grp; Hyvarinen, Anne; Karvonen, Anne M.; Kirjavainen, Pirkka V.; Remes, Sami; Kaulek, Vincent; Dalphin, Marie-Laure; Ege, Markus; Pfefferle, Petra I.; Doekes, Gert (2017)
    Several studies report an important role of CD8(+) cytotoxic T-cells in atopy. Farm children show protection against atopy development, partly explained by CD4(+) T-cell subtypes. Additional effects of CD8(+) T-cells are unknown being investigated in this study within the PASTURE/EFRAIM birth cohort in PBMCs from farming and non-farming 6-year-old (N = 76) German children. CD3(+) CD8(+) CD25(+) T-cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Genotyping of 17q21 locus-SNPs associated with childhood asthma was performed. No differences in CD8(+) T-cell subsets were seen between farmers and non-farmers regardless of asthma. Among farm children, asthmatics displayed increased CD3(+) CD8(low)(CD25(+)) T-cells compared to non-asthmatics. Asthmatic farm children exhibited a lower PI-induced stimulatory capacity of CD3(+) CD8(low)(CD25(+)) cells and a lower IFN-gamma secretion than non-asthmatic farm children. Among farm children with GSDMB and ORMDL3 risk alleles, asthmatics displayed higher CD3(+) CD8(low) cells than non-asthmatics. Our data indicates a specific role of CD8(low) T-cells in asthmatic farm children. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Kilpeläinen, Tommi; Julku, Ulrika; Svarcbahs, Reinis; Myöhänen, Timo (2019)
    Alpha-synuclein (aSyn) is the main component of Lewy bodies, the histopathological marker in Parkinson's disease (PD), and point mutations and multiplications of the aSyn coding SNCA gene correlate with early onset PD. Therefore, various transgenic mouse models overexpressing native or point-mutated aSyn have been developed. Although these models show highly increased aSyn expression they rarely capture dopaminergic cell loss and show a behavioural phenotype only at old age, whereas SNCA mutations are risk factors for PD with earlier onset. The aim of our study was to re-characterize a transgenic mouse strain carrying both A30P and A53T mutated human aSyn. Our study revealed decreased locomotor activity for homozygous transgenic mice starting from 3 months of age which was different from previous studies with this mouse strain that had behavioural deficits starting only after 7-9 months. Additionally, we found a decreased amphetamine response in locomotor activity and decreased extracellular dopaminergic markers in the striatum and substantia nigra with significantly elevated levels of aSyn oligomers. In conclusion, homozygous transgenic A30P*A53T aSyn mice capture several phenotypes of PD with early onset and could be a useful tool for aSyn studies.
  • Sillanpää, Elina; Laakkonen, Eija K.; Vaara, Elina; Rantanen, Taina; Kovanen, Vuokko; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ollikainen, Miina (2018)
    Background: Biomarkers of biological aging - DNA methylation age (DNAm age) and leukocyte telomere length (LTL)-correlate strongly with chronological age across the life course. It is, however, unclear how these measures of cellular wear and tear are associated with muscle strength and functional capacity, which are known to decline with older age and are associated with mortality. We investigated if DNAm age and LTL were associated with body composition and physical functioning by examining 48 monozygotic twin sisters. Methods: White blood cell DNAm age (predicted years) was calculated from Illumina 450 k BeadChip methylation data using an online calculator. DNAm age acceleration was defined from the residuals derived from a linear regression model of DNAm age on chronological age. LTL was measured by qPCR. Total body percentage of fat and lean mass were estimated using bioimpedance. Physical functioning was measured by grip strength, knee extension strength and by 10 m maximal walking speed test. Results: In all participants, DNAm age (58.4 +/- 6.6) was lower than chronological age (61.3 +/- 5.9 years). Pairwise correlations of monozygotic co-twins were high for DNAm age (0.88, 95% CI 0.79, 0.97), age acceleration (0.68, 95% CI 0.30, 0.85) and LTL (0.77, 95% CI 0.60, 0.94). Increased age acceleration i.e. faster epigenetic aging compared to chronological age was associated with lower grip strength (beta = -5.3 SE 1.9 p = 0.011), but not with other measures of physical functioning or body composition. LTL was not associated with body composition or physical functioning. Conclusions: To conclude, accelerated DNAm age is associated with lower grip strength, a biomarker known to be associated with physiological aging, and which predicts decline in physical functioning and mortality. Further studies may clarify whether epigenetic aging explains the decline in muscle strength with aging or whether DNAm age just illustrates the progress of aging.
  • Virtanen, Suvi; Kaprio, Jaakko; Viken, Richard; Rose, Richard J.; Latvala, Antti (2019)
    Aims To estimate birth cohort effects on alcohol consumption and abstinence in Finland and to test differences between birth cohorts in genetic and environmental sources of variation in Finnish adult alcohol use. Design The Older Finnish Twin Cohort longitudinal survey study 1975-2011. Setting Finland. Participants A total of 26 121 same-sex twins aged 18-95 years (full twin pairs at baseline n = 11 608). Measurements Outcome variables were the quantity of alcohol consumption (g/month) and abstinence (drinking zero g/month). Predictor variables were 10-year birth cohort categories and socio-demographic covariates. In quantitative genetic models, two larger cohorts (born 1901-20 and 1945-57) were compared. Findings Multi-level models in both sexes indicated higher levels of alcohol consumption in more recent birth cohorts and lower levels in earlier cohorts, compared with twins born 1921-30 (all P < 0.003). Similarly, compared with twins born 1921-30, abstaining was more common in earlier and less common in more recent cohorts (all P < 0.05), with the exception of men born 1911-20. Birth cohort differences in the genetic and environmental variance components in alcohol consumption were found: heritability was 21% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0-56%] in the earlier-born cohort of women [mean age 62.8, standard deviation (SD) = 5.3] and 51% (95% CI = 36-56%) in a more recent cohort (mean age 60.2, SD = 3.7) at the age of 54-74. For men, heritability was 39% (95% CI = 27-45%) in both cohorts. In alcohol abstinence, environmental influences shared between co-twins explained a large proportion of variation in the earlier-born cohort (43%, 95% CI = 23-63%), whereas non-shared environmental (54%, 95% CI = 39-72%) and additive genetic influences (40%, 95% CI = 13-61%) were more important among more recent cohorts of men and women. Conclusion The contribution of genetic and environmental variability to variability in alcohol consumption in the Finnish population appears to vary by birth cohort.
  • Granholm, Camilla (2016)
    This article presents a qualitative study of ICT use among Finnish young people attending training programmes for youth outside employment and education. The data come from six focus group interviews and three individual interviews, as well as a single focus group interview with involved supervisors. The data was analyzed using McQuail's (1983) theory regarding the motives for individual media use. The results show that the young people use ICT primarily for entertainment, but their use is diverse. Young people choose the tools and dimensions for interaction that best fulfill their needs, blending together ingredients from both online and offline sources. Unlike previous research, young people in this study stated that they prefer talking to someone face-to-face about severe (health-related or emotional) problems. If social and youth services want to meet young people on their own terms, both online and offline services are needed.
  • Masalin, Senja; Rönö, Kristiina; Kautiainen, Hannu; Gissler, Mika; Eriksson, Johan G.; Laine, Merja K. (2019)
    AimsTo assess the relationship between body surface area (BSA) at birth and future risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).MethodsThis is an observational cohort study from Vantaa, Finland. The cohort included 1548 Finnish primiparous women, aged 15-28 years, without pre-existing diabetes, who gave birth 2009-2015. All women were born full-term and had complete information about their birth weight and length, from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Additional data for the study were provided by individual patient health records and Statistics Finland. Study participants were divided into five levels (I-V) according to BSA at birth, based on normal distribution.ResultsThere was an inverse association between BSA at birth and risk for GDM (p=0.015 for linearity, after adjustments for age, educational attainment, pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking). The odds ratio (OR) for GDM in level V, with the largest BSA at birth, compared with level I, with the smallest BSA at birth, was 0.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.83]; adjusted for age, educational attainment, pre-pregnancy body mass index and smoking. The OR for GDM was 0.8 (95% CI 0.68-0.95, p=0.009) for each one standard deviation increase in BSA at birth, adjusted for the same confounders. BSA at birth correlated with adult anthropometry: correlation coefficients were r=0.16 (95% CI 0.11-0.21) for weight, r=0.31 (95% CI 0.26-0.35) for height, and r=0.06 (95% CI 0.01-0.11) for BMI.ConclusionsBody surface area at birth is inversely associated with future risk for GDM in primiparous women.