Browsing by Subject "AGENT"

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  • Nieminen, H. J.; Ylitalo, T.; Karhula, S.; Suuronen, J. -P.; Kauppinen, S.; Serimaa, R.; Haeggstrom, E.; Pritzker, K. P. H.; Valkealahti, M.; Lehenkari, P.; Finnila, M.; Saarakkala, S. (2015)
    Objective: Collagen distribution within articular cartilage (AC) is typically evaluated from histological sections, e.g., using collagen staining and light microscopy (LM). Unfortunately, all techniques based on histological sections are time-consuming, destructive, and without extraordinary effort, limited to two dimensions. This study investigates whether phosphotungstic acid (PTA) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA), two collagen-specific markers and X-ray absorbers, could (1) produce contrast for AC X-ray imaging or (2) be used to detect collagen distribution within AC. Method: We labeled equine AC samples with PTA or PMA and imaged them with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) at pre-defined time points 0, 18, 36, 54, 72, 90, 180, 270 h during staining. The micro-CT image intensity was compared with collagen distributions obtained with a reference technique, i.e., Fourier-transform infrared imaging (FTIRI). The labeling time and contrast agent producing highest association (Pearson correlation, BlandeAltman analysis) between FTIRI collagen distribution and micro-CT -determined PTA distribution was selected for human AC. Results: Both, PTA and PMA labeling permitted visualization of AC features using micro-CT in non-calcified cartilage. After labeling the samples for 36 h in PTA, the spatial distribution of X-ray attenuation correlated highly with the collagen distribution determined by FTIRI in both equine (mean +/- S.D. of the Pearson correlation coefficients, r = 0.96 +/- 0.03, n = 12) and human AC (r = 0.82 +/- 0.15, n = 4). Conclusions: PTA-induced X-ray attenuation is a potential marker for non-destructive detection of AC collagen distributions in 3D. This approach opens new possibilities in development of non-destructive 3D histopathological techniques for characterization of OA. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd and Osteoarthritis Research Society International.
  • Perelygina, Ludmila; Hautala, Timo; Seppänen, Mikko; Adebayo, Adebola; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Icenogle, Joseph (2017)
    Persistent rubella virus (RV) infection has been associated with various pathologies such as congenital rubella syndrome, Fuchs's uveitis, and cutaneous granulomas in patients with primary immune deficiencies (PID). Currently there are no drugs to treat RV infections. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is an FDA-approved drug for parasitic infections, and has been recently shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral activities. Here we found that empiric 2-month therapy with oral NTZ was associated in the decline/elimination of RV antigen from lesions in a PID patient with RV positive granulomas, while peginterferon treatment had no effect. In addition, we characterized the effects of NTZ on cell culture models of persistent RV infection. NTZ significantly inhibited RV replication in a primary culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and Vero and A549 epithelial cell lines in a dose dependent manner with an average 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.35 mu g/ml (1.1 mu M). RV strains representing currently circulating genotypes were inhibited to a similar extent. NTZ affected early and late stages of infection by inhibiting synthesis of cellular and RV RNA and interfering with intracellular trafficking of the RV surface glycoproteins, E1 and E2. These results suggest a potential application of NTZ for the treatment of persistent rubella infections, but more studies are required.
  • Qiao, Yue; Ping, Yuan; Zhang, Hongbo; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Fengyong; Yu, Yinhui; Xie, Tingting; Li, Wanli; Zhong, Danni; Zhang, Yuezhou; Yao, Ke; Almeida Santos, Helder; Zhou, Min (2019)
    Chronic nonhealing wounds have imposed serious challenges in the clinical practice, especially for the patients infected with multidrug-resistant microbes. Herein, we developed an ultrasmall copper sulfide (covellite) nanodots (CuS NDs) based dual functional nanosystem to cure multidrug-resistant bacteria-infected chronic nonhealing wound. The nanosystem could eradicate multidrug-resistant bacteria and expedite wound healing simultaneously owing to the photothermal effect and remote control of copper-ion release. The antibacterial results indicated that the combination treatment of photothermal CuS NDs with photothermal effect initiated a strong antibacterial effect for drug-resistant pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase Escherichia coli both in vitro and in vivo. Meanwhile, the released Cu2+ could promote fibroblast cell migration and endothelial cell angiogenesis, thus accelerating wound-healing effects. In MRSA-infected diabetic mice model, the nanosystem exhibited synergistic wound healing effect of infectious wounds in vivo and demonstrated negligible toxicity and nonspecific damage to major organs. The combination of ultrasmall CuS NDs with photothermal therapy displayed enhanced therapeutic efficacy for chronic nonhealing wound in multidrug-resistant bacterial infections, which may represent a promising class of antibacterial strategy for clinical translation.
  • Mansikkamäki, Salla; Sinkkonen, Saku T.; Korpi, Esa R.; Lüddens, Hartmut (2019)
    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) niflumic acid, a fenamate in structure, has many molecular targets, one of them being specific subtypes of the main inhibitory ligand-gated anion channel, the GABA(A) receptor. Here, we report on the effects of other fenamates and other classes of NSAIDs on brain picrotoxinin-sensitive GABA A receptors, using an autoradiographic assay with [S-35]TBPS as a ligand on mouse brain sections. We found that the other fenamates studied (flufenamic acid, meclofenamic acid, mefenamic acid and tolfenamic acid) affected the autoradiographic signal at low micromolar concentrations in a facilitatory-like allosteric fashion, i.e., without having affinity to the [S-35]TBPS binding site. Unlike niflumic acid that shows clear preference for inhibiting cerebellar granule cell layer GABA(A) receptors, the other fenamates showed little brain regional selectivity, indicating that their actions are not receptor-subtype selective. Of the non-fenamate NSAIDs studied at 100 mu M concentration, diclofenac induced the greatest inhibition of the binding, which is not surprising as it has close structural similarity with the potent fenamate meclofenamic acid. Using two-electrode voltage-clamp assays on Xenopus oocytes, the effect of niflumic acid was found to be dependent on the beta subunit variant and the presence of gamma 2 subunit in rat recombinant alpha 1 beta and alpha 1 beta gamma 2 GABA(A) receptors, with the beta 1 allowing the niflumic acid inhibition and beta 3 the stimulation of the receptor-mediated currents. In summary, the fenamate NSAID5 constitute an interesting class of compounds that could be used for development of potent GABA(A) receptor allosteric agonists with other targets to moderate inflammation, pain and associated anxiety/depression.
  • Pollesello, Piero; Ben Gal, Tuvia; Bettex, Dominique; Cerny, Vladimir; Comin-Colet, Josep; Eremenko, Alexandr A.; Farmakis, Dimitrios; Fedele, Francesco; Fonseca, Candida; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Herpain, Antoine; Heringlake, Matthias; Heunks, Leo; Husebye, Trygve; Ivancan, Visnja; Karason, Kristian; Kaul, Sundeep; Kubica, Jacek; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Molgaard, Henning; Parissis, John; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Poder, Pentti; Polzl, Gerhard; Vrtovec, Bojan; Yilmaz, Mehmet B.; Papp, Zoltan (2019)
    Both acute and advanced heart failure are an increasing threat in term of survival, quality of life and socio-economical burdens. Paradoxically, the use of successful treatments for chronic heart failure can prolong life but-per definition-causes the rise in age of patients experiencing acute decompensations, since nothing at the moment helps avoiding an acute or final stage in the elderly population. To complicate the picture, acute heart failure syndromes are a collection of symptoms, signs and markers, with different aetiologies and different courses, also due to overlapping morbidities and to the plethora of chronic medications. The palette of cardio- and vasoactive drugs used in the hospitalization phase to stabilize the patient's hemodynamic is scarce and even scarcer is the evidence for the agents commonly used in the practice (e.g., catecholamines). The pipeline in this field is poor and the clinical development chronically unsuccessful. Recent set backs in expected clinical trials for new agents in acute heart failure (AHF) (omecamtiv, serelaxine, ularitide) left a field desolately empty, where only few drugs have been approved for clinical use, for example, levosimendan and nesiritide. In this consensus opinion paper, experts from 26 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, U.K. and Ukraine) analyse the situation in details also by help of artificial intelligence applied to bibliographic searches, try to distil some lesson-learned to avoid that future projects would make the same mistakes as in the past and recommend how to lead a successful development project in this field in dire need of new agents.
  • Korhonen, Essi M.; Suvanto, Maija T.; Uusitalo, Ruut; Faolotto, Giulia; Smura, Teemu; Sane, Jussi; Vapalahti, Olli; Huhtamo, Eili (2020)
    Sindbis virus (SINV) is a mosquito-borne avian hosted virus that is widely distributed in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Oceania. Disease in humans is documented mainly from Northern Europe and South Africa and associated with genotype I. In 2018 under extremely warm climatic conditions, a small outbreak of 71 diagnosed SINV infections was recorded in Finland. We screened 52 mosquito pools (570 mosquitoes) and 223 human sera for SINV with real-time RT-PCR and the positive samples with virus isolation. One SINV strain was isolated from a pool (n = 13) of genusOchlerotatusmosquitoes and three strains from patient serum samples. Complete genome analysis suggested all the isolates to be divergent from one another and related to previous Finnish, Swedish, and German strains. The study provides evidence of SINV strain transfer within Europe across regions with different epidemiological characteristics. Whether these are influenced by different mosquito genera involved in the transmission remains to be studied.
  • Imlimthan, Surachet; Correia, Alexandra; Figueiredo, Patricia Isabel; Lintinen, Kalle; Balasubramanian, Vimalkumar; Airaksinen, Anu; Kostiainen, Mauri A.; Almeida Santos, Helder; Sarparanta, Mirkka Päivikki (2020)
    Natural biopolymer nanoparticles (NPs), including nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) and lignin, have shown potential as scaffolds for targeted drug delivery systems due to their wide availability, cost‐efficient preparation, and anticipated biocompatibility. Since both CNC and lignin can potentially cause complications in cell viability assays due to their ability to scatter the emitted light and absorb the assay reagents, we investigated the response of bioluminescent (CellTiter‐Glo®), colorimetric (MTT® and AlamarBlue®) and fluorometric (LIVE/DEAD®) assays for the determination of the biocompatibility of the multimodal CNC and lignin constructs in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages and 4T1 breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. Here, we have developed multimodal CNC and lignin NPs harboring the radiometal chelator DOTA (1,4,7,10‐tetraazacyclododecane‐1,4,7,10‐tetraacetic acid) and the fluorescent dye Cyanine 5 for the investigation of nanomaterial biodistribution in vivo with nuclear and optical imaging, which were then used as the model CNC and lignin nanosystems in the cell viability assay comparison. CellTiter‐Glo® based on the detection of ATP‐dependent luminescence in viable cells revealed to be the best assay for both nanoconstructs for its robust linear response to increasing NP concentration and lack of interference from either of the NP types. Both multimodal CNC and lignin NPs displayed low cytotoxicity and favorable interactions with the cell lines, suggesting that they are good candidates for nanosystem development for targeted drug delivery in breast cancer and for theranostic applications. Our results provide useful guidance for cell viability assay compatibility for CNC and lignin NPs and facilitate the future translation of the materials for in vivo applications.
  • Meierhofer, Melissa; Lilley, Thomas M.; Ruokolainen, Lasse; Johnson, Joseph; Parratt, Steven; Morrison, Michael; Pearce, Brian; Evans, Jonah; Anttila, Jani (2021)
    Predicting the emergence and spread of infectious diseases is critical for the effective conservation of biodiversity. White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging infectious disease of bats, has resulted in high mortality in eastern North America. Because the fungal causative agent Pseudogymnoascus destructans is constrained by temperature and humidity, spread dynamics may vary by geography. Environmental conditions in the southern part of the continent are different than the northeast, where disease dynamics are typically studied, making it difficult to predict how the disease will manifest. Herein, we modelled WNS pathogen spread in Texas based on cave densities and average dispersal distances of hosts, projecting these results out to 10 years. We parameterized a predictive model of WNS epidemiology and its effects on bat populations with observed cave environmental data. Our model suggests that bat populations in northern Texas will be more affected by WNS mortality than southern Texas. As such, we recommend prioritizing the preservation of large overwintering colonies of bats in north Texas through management actions. Our model illustrates that infectious disease spread and infectious disease severity can become uncoupled over a gradient of environmental variation and highlight the importance of understanding host, pathogen and environmental conditions across a breadth of environments.