Browsing by Subject "AGGRESSION"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-6 of 6
  • Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Maddalena, Chiara; Viscanti, Giovanna; Lanciano, Tiziana; Soleti, Emanuela; Mangiulli, Ivan; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Bertolino, Alessandro; Curci, Antonietta (2016)
    The human ability of identifying, processing and regulating emotions from social stimuli is generally referred as Emotional Intelligence (EI). Within EI, Ability EI identifies a performance measure assessing individual skills at perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions. Previous models suggest that a brain "somatic marker circuitry" (SMC) sustains emotional sub-processes included in EI. Three primary brain regions are included: the amygdala, the insula and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Here, our aim was to investigate the relationship between Ability EI scores and SMC activity during social judgment of emotional faces. Sixty-three healthy subjects completed a test measuring Ability EI and underwent fMRI during a social decision task (i.e. approach or avoid) about emotional faces with different facial expressions. Imaging data revealed that EI scores are associated with left insula activity during social judgment of emotional faces as a function of facial expression. Specifically, higher EI scores are associated with greater left insula activity during social judgment of fearful faces but also with lower activity of this region during social judgment of angry faces. These findings indicate that the association between Ability EI and the SMC activity during social behavior is region- and emotionspecific.
  • Henttonen, Pentti; Salmi, Juha; Peräkylä, Anssi; Krusemark, Elizabeth A. (2022)
    Continued interest in the distinction between grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism and the fluctuation between grandiose and vulnerable states has expanded the repertoire of self-report instruments. The present study examined the psychometric properties of four brief narcissism measures [the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-13 (NPI-13), Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale (HSNS), Super-Brief Pathological Narcissism Inventory (SB-PNI), and the g-FLUX] in a Finnish sample of university students. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the reliability of the NPI-13, g-FLUX, SB-PNI Vulnerability, and two HSNS subfactors (Oversensitivity and Egocentrism). Tests of measurement invariance indicated the NPI-13, SB-PNI Vulnerability, HSNS Oversensitivity, and the g-FLUX perform similarly between males and females and are generally similar between individuals in younger and older age groups. Construct and predictive validity were evaluated by examining relations between narcissism measures and relevant criteria including psychopathology symptoms, self-esteem, well-being, five factor traits, and empathy. Results supported the construct validity of all four measures, while correlational profiles highlighted the convergence between the g-FLUX and measures of both grandiosity and vulnerability. The NPI-13 was most predictive of NPD symptoms, whereas vulnerable narcissism measures were most predictive of psychopathology. Results further establish the psychometric properties of the NPI-13, SB-PNI Vulnerability, HSNS Oversensitivity, Egocentrism, and provide new validation of the g-FLUX.
  • Merjonen, P.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L.; Jokela, M.; Seppälä, I.; Lyytikäinen, L.-P.; Pulkki-Råback, L.; Kivimäki, M.; Elovainio, M.; Kettunen, J.; Ripatti, S.; Kähönen, M.; Viikari, J.; Palotie, A.; Peltonen, L.; Raitakari, O. T.; Lehtimäki, T. (2011)
  • Gluschkoff, Kia; Elovainio, Marko; Hintsa, Taina; Pentti, Jaana; Salo, Paula; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2017)
    Objectives This study aimed to examine the longitudinal association of workplace violence with disturbed sleep and the moderating role of organisational justice (ie, the extent to which employees are treated with fairness) in teaching. Methods We identified 4988 teachers participating in the Finnish Public Sector study who reported encountering violence at work. Disturbed sleep was measured in three waves with 2-year intervals: the wave preceding exposure to violence, the wave of exposure and the wave following the exposure. Data on procedural and interactional justice were obtained from the wave of exposure to violence. The associations were examined using repeated measures log-binomial regression analysis with the generalised estimating equations method, adjusting for gender and age. Results Exposure to violence was associated with an increase in disturbed sleep (RR 1.32 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.52)) that also persisted after the exposure (RR 1.26 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.48)). The increase was higher among teachers perceiving the managerial practices as relatively unfair (RR 1.46 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.09) and RR 1.59 (95% CI 1.04 to 2.42) for interactional and procedural justice, respectively). By contrast, working in high-justice conditions seemed to protect teachers from the negative effect of violence on sleep. Conclusion Our findings show an increase in sleep disturbances due to exposure to workplace violence in teaching. However, the extent to which teachers are treated with justice moderates this association. Although preventive measures for violence should be prioritised, resources aimed at promoting justice at schools can mitigate sleep problems associated with workplace violence.
  • Sundvik, Maria; Puttonen, Henri; Semenova, Svetlana; Panula, Pertti (2021)
    We studied the social hierarchy in zebrafish and assessed differences in neurotransmitters and behavior in the F1 generation offspring of dominant and subordinate zebrafish (Danio rerio). We used behavioral assays to study locomotion, ability to complete cognitive tasks, social interaction and aggression. To study the neurochemical changes, we applied quantitative polymerase chain reaction, high pressure liquid chromatography and immunohistochemistry. Social hierarchies were formed both by males and females when animals were kept in same sex pairs in the dyadic dominant-subordinate hierarchy test. The offspring of dominant animals were the leaders in social interactions, however aggression in the mirror-test was not altered in any group. Serotonin and noradrenaline levels were lower in the F1 generation subordinate animals when compared with dominant animals, but not compared with animals that were naive to social hierarchy. The mRNA level of the rate-limiting enzyme in histamine synthesis, histidine decarboxylase, was significantly lower in dominant and subordinate larval zebrafish when compared with control animals. In the dominant adult zebrafish tyrosine hydroxylase 1 mRNA level was lower compared with control animals, whereas tyrosine hydroxylase 2 mRNA was not different. The result was verified with immunohistochemistry. There were gender specific differences between the dominant and subordinate animals, where the dominant females performed better in cognitive tasks such as the T-maze than subordinate females. This was not observed in males, as the behavior of the dominant and subordinate males did not differ. These results add to the understanding of the plastic nature of the central nervous system and show that neurochemical features in aminergic neurotransmitter systems are associated with social leadership and dominance.
  • Suvisaari, Jaana; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Lindgren, Maija; Harkanen, Tommi; Yolken, Robert H. (2017)
    Objective: We investigated whether T. gondii seropositivity is associated with 12-month depressive, anxiety and alcohol use disorders and current depressive symptoms and whether inflammation, measured by C-reactive protein (CRP) level, explains these associations. Method: Health 2000 study (BRIF8901), conducted in years 2000-2001, is based on a nationally representative sample of Finns aged 30 and above, with 7112 participants and 88.6% response rate. DSM-IV depressive, anxiety and alcohol use disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and depressive symptoms with the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI-21). We used logistic regression to investigate the association of T. gondii seropositivity with mental disorders and linear regression with BDI-21 scores. Results: T. gondii seroprevalence was significantly associated with 12-month generalized anxiety disorder but not with other anxiety, depressive or alcohol use disorders. T. gondii seropositivity was associated with higher BDI-21 scores (beta 0.56, 95% CI 0.12-1.00, P = 0.013) and with having a comorbid depressive and anxiety disorder (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.16-2.97, P = 0.010). Higher CRP levels were associated with these outcomes and with T. gondii seropositivity, but adjusting for CRP did not change the effect of T. gondii seropositivity. Limitations: Cross-sectional study design with no information on the timing of T. gondii infection. Conclusion: T. gondii seropositivity is associated with generalized anxiety disorder, depressive symptoms and comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders, which is not mediated by inflammation.