Browsing by Subject "AGONIST DYSIHERBAINE"

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  • Postila, Pekka A.; Kaszuba, Karol; Kuleta, Patryk; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur; Rog, Tomasz (2016)
    The cytochrome (cyt) bc(1) complex is an integral component of the respiratory electron transfer chain sustaining the energy needs of organisms ranging from humans to bacteria. Due to its ubiquitous role in the energy metabolism, both the oxidation and reduction of the enzyme's substrate co-enzyme Q has been studied vigorously. Here, this vast amount of data is reassessed after probing the substrate reduction steps at the Q(i)-site of the cyt bc(1) complex of Rhodobacter capsulatus using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations suggest that the Lys251 side chain could rotate into the Q(i)-site to facilitate binding of half-protonated semiquinone - a reaction intermediate that is potentially formed during substrate reduction. At this bent pose, the Lys251 forms a salt bridge with the Asp252, thus making direct proton transfer possible. In the neutral state, the lysine side chain stays close to the conserved binding location of cardiolipin (CL). This back-and-forth motion between the CL and Asp252 indicates that Lys251 functions as a proton shuttle controlled by pH-dependent negative feedback. The CL/K/D switching, which represents a refinement to the previously described CL/K pathway, fine-tunes the proton transfer process. Lastly, the simulation data was used to formulate a mechanism for reducing the substrate at the Q(i)-site.
  • Postila, Pekka A.; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Rog, Tomasz Jakub (2016)
    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were performed with 13 non-peptidic neurotransmitters (NTs) in three different membrane environments. The results provide compelling evidence that NTs are divided into membrane-binding and membrane-nonbinding molecules. NTs adhere to the postsynaptic membrane surface whenever the ligand-binding sites of their synaptic receptors are buried in the lipid bilayer. In contrast, NTs that have extracellular ligand-binding sites do not have a similar tendency to adhere to the membrane surface. This finding is a seemingly simple yet important addition to the paradigm of neurotransmission, essentially dividing it into membrane-independent and membrane-dependent mechanisms. Moreover, the simulations also indicate that the lipid composition especially in terms of charged lipids can affect the membrane partitioning of NTs. The revised paradigm, highlighting the importance of cell membrane and specific lipids for neurotransmission, should to be of interest to neuroscientists, drug industry and the general public alike.