Browsing by Subject "AID"

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  • Felin, Elina; Jukola, Elias; Raulo, Saara; Heinonen, Jaakko; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria (2016)
    Meat inspection now incorporates a more risk-based approach for protecting human health against meat-borne biological hazards. Official post-mortem meat inspection of pigs has shifted to visual meat inspection. The official veterinarian decides on additional post-mortem inspection procedures, such as incisions and palpations. The decision is based on declarations in the food chain information (FCI), antemortem inspection and post-mortem inspection. However, a smooth slaughter and inspection process is essential. Therefore, one should be able to assess prior to slaughter which pigs are suitable for visual meat inspection only, and which need more profound inspection procedures. This study evaluates the usability of the FCI provided by pig producers and considered the possibility for risk ranking of incoming slaughter batches according to the previous meat inspection data and the current FCI. Eighty-five slaughter batches comprising 8954 fattening pigs were randomly selected at a slaughterhouse that receives animals from across Finland. The mortality rate, the FCI and the meat inspection results for each batch were obtained. The current FCI alone provided insufficient and inaccurate information for risk ranking purposes for meat inspection. The partial condemnation rate for a batch was best predicted by the partial condemnation rate calculated for all the pigs sent for slaughter from the same holding in the previous year (p <0.001) and by prior information on cough declared in the current FCI (p = 0.02) statement. Training and information to producers are needed to make the FCI reporting procedures more accurate. Historical meat inspection data on pigs slaughtered from the same holdings and well-chosen symptoms/signs for reporting, should be included in the FCI to facilitate the allocation of pigs for visual inspection. The introduced simple scoring system can be easily used for additional information for directing batches to appropriate meat inspection procedures. To control the main biological public health hazards related to pork, serological surveillance should be done and the information obtained from analyses should be used as part of the FCI. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Silfvast, Josetta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The signal recognition particle (SRP) targets newly synthesized secretory and membrane proteins from the cytosol to the translocon complex on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. This highly specific co-translational protein targeting is essential for proteostasis by preventing the accumulation of proteins in the cytosol and the mistargeting of proteins. Defects in the SRP68 and SRP72 subunits of eukaryotic SRP have been linked to various inflammatory muscle diseases such as myopathy and myositis. The full role of these subunits in protein targeting and regulation of targeting is unknown. Previously the yeast SRP72 subunit has been degraded using an auxin-inducible degron (AID) system to explore the effect of depletion on protein targeting and cell viability, but the mammalian SRP72-AID has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to deplete the mammalian SRP68 and SRP72 subunits using the AID system. This study revealed that in the case of SRP68-AID, approximately 65% of the protein is degraded after 2 hours. Respectively, 75% of SRP72-AID degrades after 2 hours and 85% after 4 hours. However, complete depletion of subunits was not achieved during 24 hours of auxin treatment. Quantification of depletion also showed that the strongest decrease in SRP occurs during the first 2 hours. This study demonstrated that mammalian SRP subunits can be depleted using the AID system, providing a good basis for further research to examine the effect of subunit depletion on protein targeting. This may help to solve the mechanisms of diseases associated with SRP68 and SRP72 defects and to develop therapeutics for them.
  • Alkodsi, Amjad; Cervera, Alejandra; Zhang, Kaiyang; Louhimo, Riku; Meriranta, Leo; Pasanen, Annika; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Holte, Harald; Leppä, Sirpa; Lehtonen, Rainer; Hautaniemi, Sampsa (2019)
    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a biologically and clinically heterogeneous disease whose personalized clinical management requires robust molecular stratification. Here, we show that somatic hypermutation (SHM) patterns constitute a marker for DLBCL molecular classification. The activity of SHM mutational processes delineated the cell of origin (COO) in DLBCL. Expression of the herein identified 36 SHM target genes stratified DLBCL into four novel SHM subtypes. In a meta-analysis of patients with DLBCL treated with immunochemotherapy, the SHM subtypes were significantly associated with overall survival (1642 patients) and progression-free survival (795 patients). Multivariate analysis of survival indicated that the prognostic impact of the SHM subtypes is independent from the COO classification and the International Prognostic Index. Furthermore, the SHM subtypes had a distinct clinical outcome within each of the COO subtypes, and strikingly, even within unclassified DLBCL. The genetic landscape of the four SHM subtypes indicated unique associations with driver alterations and oncogenic signaling in DLBCL, which suggests a possibility for therapeutic exploitation. These findings provide a biologically driven classification system in DLBCL with potential clinical applications.
  • Trotta, Luca; Hautala, Timo; Hamalainen, Sari; Syrjanen, Jaana; Viskari, Hanna; Almusa, Henrikki; Lepisto, Maija; Kaustio, Meri; Porkka, Kimmo; Palotie, Aarno; Seppanen, Mikko; Saarela, Janna (2016)
    Antibody class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation critically depend on the function of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Rare variants in its gene AICDA have been reported to cause autosomal recessive AID deficiency (autosomal recessive hyper-IgM syndrome type 2 (HIGM2)). Exome sequencing of a multicase Finnish family with an HIGM2 phenotype identified a rare, homozygous, variant (c.416T > C, p.(Met139Thr)) in the AICDA gene, found to be significantly enriched in the Finnish population compared with other populations of European origin (38.56-fold, P <0.001). The population history of Finland, characterized by a restricted number of founders, isolation and several population bottlenecks, has caused enrichment of certain rare disease-causing variants and losses of others, as part of a phenomenon called the Finnish Disease Heritage. Accordingly, rare founder mutations cause the majority of observed Finnish cases in these mostly autosomal recessive disorders that consequently are more frequent in Finland than elsewhere. Screening of all currently known Finnish patients with an HIGM2 phenotype showed them to be homozygous for p.(Met139Thr). All the Finnish p.(Met139Thr) carriers with available data on their geographic descent originated from the eastern and northeastern parts of Finland. They were observed to share more of their genome identity by descent (IBD) than Finns in general (P <0.001), and they all carried a 207.5-kb ancestral haplotype containing the variant. In conclusion, the identified p.(Met139Thr) variant is significantly enriched in Finns and explains all thus far found AID deficiencies in Finland.