Browsing by Subject "AIR"

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  • Franchin, Alessandro; Downard, Andy; Kangasluoma, Juha; Nieminen, Tuomo; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Steiner, Gerhard; Manninen, Hanna E.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Flagan, Richard C.; Kulmala, Markku (2016)
    Reliable and reproducible measurements of atmospheric aerosol particle number size distributions below 10 nm require optimized classification instruments with high particle transmission efficiency. Almost all differential mobility analyzers (DMAs) have an unfavorable potential gradient at the outlet (e.g., long column, Vienna type) or at the inlet (nano-radial DMA), preventing them from achieving a good transmission efficiency for the smallest nanoparticles. We developed a new high-transmission inlet for the Caltech nano-radial DMA (nRDMA) that increases the transmission efficiency to 12% for ions as small as 1.3 nm in Millikan-Fuchs mobility equivalent diameter, D-p (corresponding to 1.2 x 10(-4) m(2) V-1 s(-1) in electrical mobility). We successfully deployed the nRDMA, equipped with the new inlet, in chamber measurements, using a particle size magnifier (PSM) and as a booster a condensation particle counter (CPC). With this setup, we were able to measure size distributions of ions within a mobility range from 1.2 x 10(-4) to 5.8 x 10(-6) m(2) V-1 s(-1). The system was modeled, tested in the laboratory and used to measure negative ions at ambient concentrations in the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) 7 measurement campaign at CERN. We achieved a higher size resolution (R = 5.5 at D-p = 1.47 nm) than techniques currently used in field measurements (e.g., Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS), which has a R similar to 2 at largest sizes, and R similar to 1.8 at D-p = 1.5 nm) and maintained a good total transmission efficiency (6.3% at D-p = 1.5 nm) at moderate inlet and sheath airflows (2.5 and 30 L min(-1), respectively). In this paper, by measuring size distributions at high size resolution down to 1.3 nm, we extend the limit of the current technology. The current setup is limited to ion measurements. However, we envision that future research focused on the charging mechanisms could extend the technique to measure neutral aerosol particles as well, so that it will be possible to measure size distributions of ambient aerosols from 1 nm to 1 mu m.
  • Berndt, Torsten; Scholz, Wiebke; Mentler, Bernhard; Fischer, Lukas; Herrmann, Hartmut; Kulmala, Markku; Hansel, Armin (2018)
    Hydrocarbons are emitted into the Earth's atmosphere in very large quantities by human and biogenic activities. Their atmospheric oxidation processes almost exclusively yield RO2 radicals as reactive intermediates whose atmospheric fate is not yet fully unraveled. Herein, we show that gas-phase reactions of two RO2 radicals produce accretion products composed of the carbon backbone of both reactants. The rates for accretion product formation are very high for RO2 radicals bearing functional groups, competing with those of the corresponding reactions with NO and HO2. This pathway, which has not yet been considered in the modelling of atmospheric processes, can be important, or even dominant, for the fate of RO2 radicals in all areas of the atmosphere. Moreover, the vapor pressure of the formed accretion products can be remarkably low, characterizing them as an effective source for the secondary organic aerosol.
  • Kerst, Thomas; Malmbeck, Rikard; Banik, Nidhu lal; Toivonen, Juha (2019)
    When exposed to air, alpha particles cause the production of light by exciting the molecules surrounding them. This light, the radioluminescence, is indicative of the presence of alpha radiation, thus allowing for the optical sensing of alpha radiation from distances larger than the few centimeters an alpha particle can travel in air. While the mechanics of radioluminescence in air and other gas compositions is relatively well understood, the same cannot be said about the radioluminescence properties of liquids. Better understanding of the radioluminescence properties of liquids is essential to design methods for the detection of radioactively contaminated liquids by optical means. In this article, we provide radioluminescence images of Am-241 dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solution and present the recorded radioluminescence spectrum with a maximum between, and a steep decrease at the short wavelength side of the maximum. The shape of the spectrum resembles a luminescence process rather than Cerenkov light, bremsstrahlung, or other mechanisms with broadband emission. We show that the amount of light produced is about 150 times smaller compared to that of the same amount of Am-241 in air. The light production in the liquid is evenly distributed throughout the sample volume with a slight increase on the surface of the liquid. The radioluminescence intensity is shown to scale linearly with the Am-241 concentration and not be affected by the HNO3 concentration.
  • Piispanen, Wilhelm W.; Lundell, Richard V.; Tuominen, Laura J.; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne K. (2021)
    Introduction: Cold water imposes many risks to the diver. These risks include decompression illness, physical and cognitive impairment, and hypothermia. Cognitive impairment can be estimated using a critical flicker fusion frequency (CFFF) test, but this method has only been used in a few studies conducted in an open water environment. We studied the effect of the cold and a helium-containing mixed breathing gas on the cognition of closed circuit rebreather (CCR) divers. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three divers performed an identical dive with controlled trimix gas with a CCR device in an ice-covered quarry. They assessed their thermal comfort at four time points during the dive. In addition, their skin temperature was measured at 5-min intervals throughout the dive. The divers performed the CFFF test before the dive, at target depth, and after the dive. Results: A statistically significant increase of 111.7% in CFFF values was recorded during the dive compared to the pre-dive values (p < 0.0001). The values returned to the baseline after surfacing. There was a significant drop in the divers' skin temperature of 0.48 degrees C every 10 min during the dive (p < 0.001). The divers' subjectively assessed thermal comfort also decreased during the dive (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Our findings showed that neither extreme cold water nor helium-containing mixed breathing gas had any influence on the general CFFF profile described in the previous studies from warmer water and where divers used other breathing gases. We hypothesize that cold-water diving and helium-containing breathing gases do not in these diving conditions cause clinically relevant cerebral impairment. Therefore, we conclude that CCR diving in these conditions is safe from the perspective of alertness and cognitive performance.
  • Zellweger, Christoph; Emmenegger, Lukas; Firdaus, Mohd; Hatakka, Juha; Heimann, Martin; Kozlova, Elena; Spain, T. Gerard; Steinbacher, Martin; van der Schoot, Marcel V.; Buchmann, Brigitte (2016)
    Until recently, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) measurements were made almost exclusively using nondispersive infrared (NDIR) absorption and gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC/FID) techniques, respectively. Recently, commercially available instruments based on spectroscopic techniques such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have become more widely available and affordable. This resulted in a widespread use of these techniques at many measurement stations. This paper is focused on the comparison between a CRDS "travelling instrument" that has been used during performance audits within the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) with instruments incorporating other, more traditional techniques for measuring CO2 and CH4 (NDIR and GC/FID). We demonstrate that CRDS instruments and likely other spectroscopic techniques are suitable for WMO/GAW stations and allow a smooth continuation of historic CO2 and CH4 time series. Moreover, the analysis of the audit results indicates that the spectroscopic techniques have a number of advantages over the traditional methods which will lead to the improved accuracy of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 measurements.
  • Aalto, Juha; Scherrer, Daniel; Lenoir, Jonathan; Guisan, Antoine; Luoto, Miska (2018)
    Soil temperature (ST) has a key role in Arctic ecosystem functioning and global environmental change. However, soil thermal conditions do not necessarily follow synoptic temperature variations. This is because local biogeophysical processes can lead to a pronounced soil-atmosphere thermal offset (Delta T) while altering the coupling (beta Tau) between ST and ambient air temperature (AAT). Here, we aim to uncover the spatiotemporal variation in these parameters and identify their main environmental drivers. By deploying a unique network of 322 temperature loggers and surveying biogeophysical processes across an Arctic landscape, we found that the spatial variation in Delta T during the AAT 0 period, Delta T was controlled by soil characteristics, vegetation and solar radiation (Delta T = -0.6 degrees C +/- 1.0 degrees C). Importantly, Delta T was not constant throughout the seasons reflecting the influence of beta Tau on the rate of local soil warming being stronger after (mean beta Tau = 0.8 +/- 0.1) than before (beta Tau = 0.2 +/- 0.2) snowmelt. Our results highlight the need for continuous microclimatic and local environmental monitoring, and suggest a potential for large buffering and non-uniform warming of snow-dominated Arctic ecosystems under projected temperature increase.
  • Vihma, Timo; Kilpeläinen, Tiina; Manninen, Miina; Sjöblom, Anna; Jakobson, Erko; Palo, Timo; Jaagus, Jaak; Maturilli, Marion (2011)
  • Mammola, Stefano; Piano, Elena; Cardoso, Pedro; Vernon, Philippe; Dominguez-Villar, David; Culver, David C.; Pipan, Tanja; Isaia, Marco (2019)
    Scientists of different disciplines have recognized the valuable role of terrestrial caves as ideal natural laboratories in which to study multiple eco-evolutionary processes, from genes to ecosystems. Because caves and other subterranean habitats are semi-closed systems characterized by a remarkable thermal stability, they should also represent insightful systems for understanding the effects of climate change on biodiversity in situ. Whilst a number of recent advances have demonstrated how promising this fast-moving field of research could be, a lack of synthesis is possibly holding back the adoption of caves as standard models for the study of the recent climatic alteration. By linking literature focusing on physics, geology, biology and ecology, we illustrate the rationale supporting the use of subterranean habitats as laboratories for studies of global change biology. We initially discuss the direct relationship between external and internal temperature, the stability of the subterranean climate and the dynamics of its alteration in an anthropogenic climate change perspective. Owing to their evolution in a stable environment, subterranean species are expected to exhibit low tolerance to climatic perturbations and could theoretically cope with such changes only by shifting their distributional range or by adapting to the new environmental conditions. However, they should have more obstacles to overcome than surface species in such shifts, and therefore could be more prone to local extinction. In the face of rapid climate change, subterranean habitats can be seen as refugia for some surface species, but at the same time they may turn into dead-end traps for some of their current obligate inhabitants. Together with other species living in confined habitats, we argue that subterranean species are particularly sensitive to climate change, and we stress the urgent need for future research, monitoring programs and conservation measures.
  • Mohr, Claudia; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Xu, Lu; Ng, Nga L.; Herndon, Scott C.; Williams, Leah R.; Franklin, Jonathan P.; Zahniser, Mark S.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Knighton, W. Berk; Aiken, Allison C.; Gorkowski, Kyle J.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Allan, James D.; Thornton, Joel A. (2013)
  • Sundvik, Maria; Nieminen, Heikki J.; Salmi, Ari; Panula, Pertti; Haeggstrom, Edward (2015)
    Acoustic levitation provides potential to characterize and manipulate material such as solid particles and fluid in a wall-less environment. While attempts to levitate small animals have been made, the biological effects of such levitation have been scarcely documented. Here, our goal was to explore if zebrafish embryos can be levitated (peak pressures at the pressure node and anti-node: 135 dB and 144 dB, respectively) with no effects on early development. We levitated the embryos (n = 94) at 2-14 hours post fertilization (hpf) for 1000 (n = 47) or 2000 seconds (n = 47). We compared the size and number of trunk neuromasts and otoliths in sonicated samples to controls (n = 94), and found no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05). While mortality rate was lower in the control group (22.3%) compared to that in the 1000 s (34.0%) and 2000 s (42.6%) levitation groups, the differences were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). The results suggest that acoustic levitation for less than 2000 sec does not interfere with the development of zebrafish embryos, but may affect mortality rate. Acoustic levitation could potentially be used as a non-contacting wall-less platform for characterizing and manipulating vertebrae embryos without causing major adverse effects to their development.
  • Yan, Chao; Tham, Yee Jun; Zha, Qiaozhi; Wang, Xinfeng; Xue, Likun; Dai, Jianing; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Tao (2019)
    Nitrate radical (NO3) and dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) play crucial roles in the nocturnal atmosphere. To quantify their impacts, we deployed a thermal-dissociation chemical ionization mass spectrometry (TD-CIMS), to measure their concentration, as well as ClNO2 at a coastal background site in the southern of China during the late autumn of 2012. Moderate levels of NO3, N2O5 and high concentration of ClNO2 were observed during the study period, indicating active NOx-O-3 chemistry in the region. Distinct features of NO3, N2O5 and ClNO2 mixing ratios were observed in different airmasses. Further analysis revealed that the N2O5 heterogeneous reaction was the dominant loss of N2O5 and NO3, which showed higher loss rate compared to that in other coastal sites. Especially, the N2O5 loss rates could reach up to 0.0139 s(-1) when airmasses went across the sea. The fast heterogeneous loss of N2O5 led to rapid NOx loss which could be comparable to the daytime process through NO2 oxidization by OH, and on the other hand, to rapid nitrate aerosol formation. In summary, our results revealed that the N2O5 hydrolysis could play significant roles in regulating the air quality by reducing NOx but forming nitrate aerosols. (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Ahonen, L. R.; Kangasluoma, J.; Lammi, J.; Lehtipalo, K.; Hämeri, K.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M. (2017)
    This study was conducted to observe a potential formation and/or release of aerosol particles related to manufacturing processes inside a cleanroom. We introduce a novel technique to monitor airborne sub 2nm particles in the cleanroom and present results from a measurement campaign during which the total particle number concentration (>1nm and >7 nm) and the size resolved concentration in the 1 to 2nm size range were measured. Measurements were carried out in locations where atomic layer deposition (ALD), sputtering, and lithography processes were conducted, with a wide variety of starting materials. During our campaign in the clean room, we observed several time periods when the particle number concentration was 10(5) cm(-3) in the sub 2nm size range and 10(4) cm(-3) in the size class larger than 7nm in one of the sampling locations. The highest concentrations were related to the maintenance processes of the manufacturing machines, which were conducted regularly in that specific location. Our measurements show that around 500cm(-3) sub 2nm particles or clusters were in practice always present in this specific cleanroom, while the concentration of particles larger than 2nm was less than 2cm(-3). During active processes, the concentrations of sub 2nm particles could rise to over 10(5) cm(-3) due to an active new particle formation. The new particle formation was most likely induced by a combination of the supersaturated vapors, released from the machines, and the very low existing condensation sink, leading to pretty high formation rates J(1.4 nm) = (9 4) cm(-3) s(-1) and growth rates of particles (GR(1.1-1.3 nm) = (6 +/- 3) nm/h and GR(1.3-1.8 nm) = (14 +/- 3) nm/h).Copyright (c) 2017 American Association for Aerosol Research
  • Weiss, Florentin; Schaefer, Christoph; Ruzsanyi, Veronika; Maerk, Tilmann; Eiceman, Gary; Mayhew, Chris A.; Zimmermann, Stefan (2022)
    Here we report the first High Kinetic Energy-Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometric (HiKE-IMSMS) investigations involving four fluranes; isoflurane, enflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane. Unlike standard (atmospheric pressure) IMS, HiKEIMS can detect these compounds in positive ion mode. This is because its low-pressure environment (~& nbsp;14 mbar) and the associated short ion drift times in the HiKEIMS ensure the reagent ions O-2+(center dot)& nbsp; and H3O+ are present in the reaction region, and these can react with the fluranes by dissociative charge and proton transfer, respectively. However, their ion intensities are very dependent on the value of the reduced electric field (E/N) applied and the humidity of the air in the reaction region of the HiKE-IMS. In this paper we explore the potential use of HiKE-IMS for air quality control and breath analysis of fluranes. To help in the interpretation of the ion mobility spectra, and hence the ion-flurane chemistry occurring in reaction region, a HiKE-IMS was coupled to a Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer so that the m/z values of both the reagent and product ions that are contained within the various ion mobility peaks observed could be identified with a high level of confidence. The dependencies of the intensities of these ions as functions of E/N (30-115 Td) and humidity in the reaction region are reported. A number of product ions have been observed only under low humidity conditions (H2O volume-mixing ratio ~100 ppm(v)), including CHF(2+)and CHFCl (+) for isoflurane and enflurane, CHF2(+), CF3(+) and C3H2F5O+ for desflurane, and CH3O+, CHF2+, C3H3F4O+, C4H3F6O+ and C4H3F6O+(H2O) for sevoflurane. It is interesting to note that CH3O+, CHF2+, CHFCl+ and CF3+ have shorter drift times than that measured for O-2(+center dot & nbsp;). This is explained by resonant charge transfer reaction processes occurring in the drift region: O-2(+center dot & nbsp;)& nbsp;+ O-2 ?& nbsp;O-2+(center dot)& nbsp;.O-2?& nbsp; O-2 + O-2 +(center dot)& nbsp;.(c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • Adams, Michael P.; Atanasova, Nina S.; Sofieva, Svetlana; Ravantti, Janne; Heikkinen, Aino; Brasseur, Zoe; Duplissy, Jonathan; Bamford, Dennis H.; Murray, Benjamin J. (2021)
    In order to effectively predict the formation of ice in clouds we need to know which subsets of aerosol particles are effective at nucleating ice, how they are distributed and where they are from. A large proportion of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) in many locations are likely of biological origin, and some INPs are extremely small, being just tens of nanometres in size. The identity and sources of such INPs are not well characterized. Here, we show that several different types of virus particles can nucleate ice, with up to about 1 in 20 million virus particles able to nucleate ice at -20 degrees C. In terms of the impact on cloud glaciation, the ice-nucleating ability (the fraction which are ice nucleation active as a function of temperature) taken together with typical virus particle concentrations in the atmosphere leads to the conclusion that virus particles make a minor contribution to the atmospheric ice-nucleating particle population in the terrestrial-influenced atmosphere. However, they cannot be ruled out as being important in the remote marine atmosphere. It is striking that virus particles have an ice-nucleating activity, and further work should be done to explore other types of viruses for both their ice-nucleating potential and to understand the mechanism by which viruses nucleate ice.
  • Roslund, Kajsa Emilia; Lehto, Markku; Pussinen, Pirkko; Hartonen, Kari; Groop, Per-Henrik; Halonen, Lauri; Metsälä, Markus (2021)
    We have measured the volatile fingerprints of four pathogenic oral bacteria connected to periodontal disease and dental abscess: Porphyromonas gingivalis (three separate strains), Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens and Tannerella forsythia. Volatile fingerprints were measured in vitro from the headspace gas of the bacteria cultured on agar. Concrete identification of new and previously reported bacterial volatiles were performed by a combination of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and offline gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We also studied the effect of the reduced electric field strength (E/N) on the fragmentation patterns of bacterial volatiles in online proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). We aimed to discover possible new biomarkers for the studied oral bacteria, as well as to validate the combination of GC-MS and PTR-MS for volatile analysis. Some of the most promising compounds produced include: 1-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1MeTIQ), indole, and a cascade of sulphur compounds, such as methanethiol, dimethyl disulphide (DMDS) and dimethyl trisulphide (DMTS). We also found that several compounds, especially alcohols, aldehydes and esters, fragment significantly with the PTR-MS method, when high E/N values are used. We conclude that the studied oral bacteria can be separated by their volatile fingerprints in vitro, which could have importance in clinical and laboratory environments. In addition, using softer ionization conditions can improve the performance of the PTR-MS method in the volatile analysis of certain compounds.
  • Jayaprakash, Balamuralikrishna; Adams, Rachel I.; Kirjavainen, Pirkka; Karvonen, Anne; Vepsalainen, Asko; Valkonen, Maria; Jarvi, Kati; Sulyok, Michael; Pekkanen, Juha; Hyvarinen, Anne; Taubel, Martin (2017)
    Background: The limited understanding of microbial characteristics in moisture-damaged buildings impedes efforts to clarify which adverse health effects in the occupants are associated with the damage and to develop effective building intervention strategies. The objectives of this current study were (i) to characterize fungal and bacterial microbiota in house dust of severely moisture-damaged residences, (ii) to identify microbial taxa associated with moisture damage renovations, and (iii) to test whether the associations between the identified taxa and moisture damage are replicable in another cohort of homes. We applied bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS amplicon sequencing complemented with quantitative PCR and chemical-analytical approaches to samples of house dust, and also performed traditional cultivation of bacteria and fungi from building material samples. Results: Active microbial growth on building materials had significant though small influence on the house dust bacterial and fungal communities. Moisture damage interventions-including actual renovation of damaged homes and cases where families moved to another home-had only a subtle effect on bacterial community structure, seen as shifts in abundance weighted bacterial profiles after intervention. While bacterial and fungal species richness were reduced in homes that were renovated, they were not reduced for families that moved houses. Using different discriminant analysis tools, we were able identify taxa that were significantly reduced in relative abundance during renovation of moisture damage. For bacteria, the majority of candidates belonged to different families within the Actinomycetales order. Results for fungi were overall less consistent. A replication study in approximately 400 homes highlighted some of the identified taxa, confirming associations with observations of moisture damage and mold. Conclusions: The present study is one of the first studies to analyze changes in microbiota due to moisture damage interventions using high-throughput sequencing. Our results suggest that effects of moisture damage and moisture damage interventions may appear as changes in the abundance of individual, less common, and especially bacterial taxa, rather than in overall community structure.
  • Lassmann-Klee, Paul Guenther; Lehtimäki, Lauri; Lindholm, Tuula; Malmberg, L. Pekka; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Piirilä, Päivi (2018)
    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (F-ENO) is used to assess eosinophilic inflammation of the airways. F-ENO values are influenced by the expiratory flow rate and orally produced NO. We measured F-ENO at four different expiratory flow levels after two different mouthwashes: tap water and carbonated water. Further, we compared the alveolar NO concentration (C-ANO), maximum airway NO flux (J(awNO)) and airway NO diffusion (D-awNO) after these two mouthwashes. F-ENO was measured in 30 volunteers (healthy or asthmatic) with a chemiluminescence NO-analyser at flow rates of 30, 50, 100 and 300mL/s. A mouthwash was performed before the measurement at every flow rate. The carbonated water mouthwash significantly reduced F-ENO compared to the tap water mouthwash at all expiratory flows: 50mL/s (p
  • Leino, Katri; Nieminen, Tuomo; Manninen, Hanna E.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku (2016)
    Secondary aerosol formation from gas-phase precursors is a frequent phenomenon occurring in a boreal environment. Traditionally, this process is identified visually from observational data on total and ion number size distributions. Here, we introduce a new, objective classification method for the new particle formation events based on measured intermediate-ion concentrations. The intermediate-ion concentration is a suitable indicator of new particle formation, because it is linked to the atmospheric new particle formation. The concentration of intermediate ions is typically very low (below 5 cm(-3)) when there is no new particle formation or precipitation events occurring. In this study, we analysed concentrations of negative intermediate ions at the Station for Measuring Ecosystem Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR II) in Hyytiala, Finland, during the years 2003-2013. We found that the half-hour median concentration of negative intermediate ions in sizes 2-4 nm was > 20 cm(-3) during 77.5% of event days classified by traditional method. The corresponding value was 92.3% in the case of 2-7 nm negative ions. In addition, the intermediate-ion concentration varied seasonally in a similar manner as the number of event days, peaking in the spring. A typical diurnal variation of the intermediate-ion concentration resembled that of the particle concentration during the event days. We developed here a new method for classifying new particle formation events based on intermediate-ion concentrations. The new method is complementary to the traditional event analysis and it can also be used as an automatic way of determining new particle formation events from large data sets.
  • Junninen, Heikki; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehn, Mikael; Sipilä, Mikko; Kangasluoma, Juha; Franchin, Alessandro; Petäjä, Tuukka; Manninen, Hanna E.; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Worsnop, Douglas; Kulmala, Markku (2016)
    Atmospheric ions are produced after a cascade of reactions starting from initial ionization by high energetic radiation. Such ionization bursts generate ions that rapidly react and generate a suite of ion products. Primary ions are in the atmosphere originate from radioactive decay, gamma radiation from the soil or cosmic ray events. In this work, we modified an existing instrumentation and developed a novel setup for detecting ion bursts. The setup consists of a continuous flow ionization chamber coupled to Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-Of-Flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometer. The APi-TOF sampling rate was set to 100 Hz in order to detect individual ion bursts from ionization events. Besides counting the individual ionization events, the developed setup is able to follow the rapidly changing chemical composition of ions during ion burst cascade. The setup can give us insights into the primary ionization mechanisms and their importance in atmospheric ion and aerosol dynamics.
  • Wehner, B.; Werner, F.; Ditas, F.; Shaw, R. A.; Kulmala, M.; Siebert, H. (2015)
    During the CARRIBA (Cloud, Aerosol, Radiation and tuRbulence in the trade wInd regime over BArba-dos) campaign, the interaction between aerosol particles and cloud microphysical properties was investigated in detail, which also includes the influence of clouds on the aerosol formation. During two intensive campaigns in 2010 and 2011, helicopter-borne measurement flights were performed to investigate the thermodynamic, turbulent, microphysical, and radiative properties of trade-wind cumuli over Barbados. During these flights, 91 cases with increased aerosol particle number concentrations near clouds were detected. The majority of these cases are also correlated with enhanced irradiance in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral wavelength range. This enhancement reaches values up to a factor of 3.3 greater compared to background values. Thus, cloud boundaries provide a perfect environment for the production of precursor gases for new particle formation. Another feature of cloud edges is an increased turbulence, which may also enhance nucleation and particle growth. The observed events have a mean length of 100 m, corresponding to a lifetime of less than 300 s. This implies that particles with diameters of at least 7 nm grew several nanometers per minute, which corresponds to the upper end of values in the literature (Kulmala et al., 2004). Such high values cannot be explained by sulfuric acid alone; thus extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOCs) are probably involved here.