Browsing by Subject "AKI"

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  • Tietäväinen, Johanna; Laine, Outi; Mäkelä, Satu; Huhtala, Heini; Pörsti, Ilkka; Vaheri, Antti; Mustonen, Jukka (2021)
    Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. We aimed to evaluate whether ABO and rhesus blood groups associate with the susceptibility or the severity of PUUV infection. We analyzed blood groups in 289 adult patients treated in Tampere University hospital due to PUUV infection during the years 1982-2017. Patients' blood group distribution was compared to that of healthy, voluntary blood donors living in the Tampere University Hospital responsibility area (n = 21,833). The severity of PUUV infection, as judged by the severity of acute kidney injury (AKI), thrombocytopenia, inflammation, capillary leakage, and the length of hospital care, was analyzed across the groups. The ABO and rhesus blood group distributions did not differ between the patients and blood donors. Patients with non-O blood groups had lower systolic blood pressure compared to patients with blood group O, but there was no difference in other markers of capillary leakage or in the severity of AKI. Minor deviations in the number of platelets and leukocytes were detected between the O and non-O blood groups. To conclude, patients with blood group O may be less susceptible to hypotension, but otherwise blood groups have no major influences on disease susceptibility or severity during acute PUUV infection.
  • Wiersema, Renske; Koeze, Jacqueline; Hiemstra, Bart; Pettilä, Ville; Perner, Anders; Keus, Frederik; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; SICS-I Study Grp; Clement, R. P.; Dieperink, W.; Hilbink, D. H.; Klasen, M.; Klaver, M.; Kaufmann, T.; Schokking, L. J.; Sikkens, V. W. (2019)
    Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in up to 50% of all critically ill patients and hemodynamic abnormalities are assumed to contribute, but their nature and share is still unclear. We explored the associations between hemodynamic variables, including cardiac index and right ventricular function, and the occurrence of AKI in critically ill patients. In this prospective cohort study, we included all patients acutely admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Within 24 h after ICU admission clinical and hemodynamic variables were registered including ultrasonographic measurements of cardiac index and right ventricular function, assessed using tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and right ventricular systolic excursion (RV S'). Maximum AKI stage was assessed according to the KDIGO criteria during the first 72 h after admission. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used including both known predictors and univariable significant predictors of AKI. Secondary outcomes were days alive outside ICU and 90-day mortality. A total of 622 patients were included, of which 338 patients (54%) had at least AKI stage 1 within 72 h after ICU admission. In the final multivariate model higher age (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.03, for each year), higher weight (OR 1.03 CI 1.02-1.04, for each kg), higher APACHE IV score (OR 1.02, CI 1.01-1.03, per point), lower mean arterial pressure (OR 1.02, CI 1.01-1.03, for each mmHg decrease) and lower TAPSE (OR 1.05, CI 1.02-1.09 per millimeter decrease) were all independent predictors for AKI in the final multivariate logistic regression model. Sepsis, cardiac index, RV S' and use of vasopressors were not significantly associated with AKI in our data. AKI patients had fewer days alive outside of ICU, and their mortality rate was significantly higher than those without AKI. In our cohort of acutely admitted ICU patients, the incidence of AKI was 54%. Hemodynamic variables were significantly different between patients with and without AKI. A worse right ventricle function was associated with AKI in the final model, whereas cardiac index was not.
  • Jokiranta, T. Sakari; Viklicky, Ondrej; Al Shorafa, Saleh; Coppo, Rosanna; Gasteyger, Christoph; Macia, Manuel; Pankratenko, Tatiana; Shenoy, Mohan; Soylemezoglu, Oguz; Tsimaratos, Michel; Wetzels, Jack; Haller, Hermann (2017)
    Background: The differential diagnosis of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is complex however the rapid diagnosis of the underlying condition is vital to inform urgent treatment decisions. A survey was devised with the objective of understanding current practices across Europe and the Middle East, and of challenges when diagnosing the cause of TMA. Methods: Over 450 clinicians, from 16 countries were invited to complete an online survey. Results: Of 254 respondents, the majority were nephrologists, had > 10 years' experience in their specialty, and had diagnosed a patient with TMA. The triad of thrombocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia and acute kidney injury are the main diagnostic criteria used. Responses indicate that a differential diagnosis of TMA is usually made within 1-2 (53%) or 3-4 days (26%) of presentation. Similarly, therapy is usually initiated within the first 4 days (74%), however 13% report treatment initiation > 1-week post-presentation. Extrarenal symptoms and a panoply of other conditions are considered when assessing the differential diagnosis of TMA. While 70 and 78% of respondents stated they always request complement protein levels and ADAMTS13 activity, respectively. Diagnostic considerations of paediatric and adult nephrologists varied. A greater proportion of paediatric than adult nephrologists consider extrarenal manifestations clinically related to a diagnosis of TMA; pulmonary (45% vs. 18%), gastrointestinal (67% vs. 50%), CNS (96% vs. 84%) and cardiovascular (54% vs. 42%), respectively. Variability in the availability of guidelines and extent of family history taken was also evident. Conclusions: This survey reveals the variability of current practices and the need for increased urgency among physicians in the differential diagnosis of TMA, despite their experience. Above all, the survey highlights the need for international clinical guidelines to provide systematically developed recommendations for understanding the relevance of complement protein levels, complement abnormalities and ADAMTS13 testing, in making a differential diagnosis of TMA. Such clinical guidelines would enable physicians to make a more rapid and informed diagnosis of TMA, therefore initiate effective treatment earlier, with a consequent improvement in patient outcomes.
  • Sakari Jokiranta, T.; Viklicky, Ondrej; Al Shorafa, Saleh; Coppo, Rosanna; Gasteyger, Christoph; Macia, Manuel; Pankratenko, Tatiana; Shenoy, Mohan; Soylemezoglu, Oğuz; Tsimaratos, Michel; Wetzels, Jack; Haller, Hermann (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background The differential diagnosis of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is complex however the rapid diagnosis of the underlying condition is vital to inform urgent treatment decisions. A survey was devised with the objective of understanding current practices across Europe and the Middle East, and of challenges when diagnosing the cause of TMA. Methods Over 450 clinicians, from 16 countries were invited to complete an online survey. Results Of 254 respondents, the majority were nephrologists, had >10 years’ experience in their specialty, and had diagnosed a patient with TMA. The triad of thrombocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia and acute kidney injury are the main diagnostic criteria used. Responses indicate that a differential diagnosis of TMA is usually made within 1–2 (53%) or 3–4 days (26%) of presentation. Similarly, therapy is usually initiated within the first 4 days (74%), however 13% report treatment initiation >1-week post-presentation. Extrarenal symptoms and a panoply of other conditions are considered when assessing the differential diagnosis of TMA. While 70 and 78% of respondents stated they always request complement protein levels and ADAMTS13 activity, respectively. Diagnostic considerations of paediatric and adult nephrologists varied. A greater proportion of paediatric than adult nephrologists consider extrarenal manifestations clinically related to a diagnosis of TMA; pulmonary (45% vs. 18%), gastrointestinal (67% vs. 50%), CNS (96% vs. 84%) and cardiovascular (54% vs. 42%), respectively. Variability in the availability of guidelines and extent of family history taken was also evident. Conclusions This survey reveals the variability of current practices and the need for increased urgency among physicians in the differential diagnosis of TMA, despite their experience. Above all, the survey highlights the need for international clinical guidelines to provide systematically developed recommendations for understanding the relevance of complement protein levels, complement abnormalities and ADAMTS13 testing, in making a differential diagnosis of TMA. Such clinical guidelines would enable physicians to make a more rapid and informed diagnosis of TMA, therefore initiate effective treatment earlier, with a consequent improvement in patient outcomes.
  • Bellomo, Rinaldo; Vaara, Suvi; Kellum, John A. (2017)
  • Iheozor-Ejiofor, Rommel; Vapalahti, Katariina; Sironen, Tarja; Levanov, Lev; Hepojoki, Jussi; Lundkvist, Åke; Mäkelä, Satu; Vaheri, Antti; Mustonen, Jukka; Plyusnin, Alexander; Strandin, Tomas M.; Vapalahti, Olli (2022)
    Nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), is an acute febrile illness caused by Puumala orthohantavirus (PUUV). NE manifests typically with acute kidney injury (AKI), with a case fatality rate of about 0.1%. The treatment and management of hantavirus infections are mainly supportive, although neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and immune sera therapeutics are under investigation. In order to assess the potential use of antibody therapeutics in NE, we sought to determine the relationship between circulating PUUV neutralizing antibodies, PUUV nucleocapsid protein (N) IgG antibodies, and viral loads with markers of disease severity. The study included serum samples of extensively characterized patient cohorts (n = 116) from Tampere University Hospital, Finland. The results showed that upon hospitalization, most patients already had considerable neutralizing and anti-PUUV-N IgG antibody levels. However, contrary to expectations, neutralizing antibody titers from the first day of hospitalization did not appear to protect from AKI or correlate with more favorable disease outcomes. This indicates that further studies are needed to investigate the applicability of neutralizing antibodies as a therapy for hospitalized NE patients.
  • Vaara, Suvi T.; Glassford, Neil; Eastwood, Glenn M.; Canet, Emmanuel; Mårtensson, Johan; Bellomo, Rinaldo (2020)
    Abstract Background Plasma creatinine (Cr) is a marker of kidney function and typically measured once daily. We hypothesized that Cr measured by point-of-care technology early after ICU admission would be a good predictor of acute kidney injury (AKI) the next day in critically ill patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective database audit in a single tertiary ICU database. We included patients with normal first admission Cr (CrF) and identified a Cr value (CrP) obtained within 6 to 12 hrs from ICU admission. We used their difference converted into percentage (delta-Cr-%) to predict subsequent AKI (based on Cr and/or need for renal replacement therapy) the next day. We assessed predictive value by calculating area under the receiver characteristic curve (AUC), logistic regression models for AKI with and without delta-Cr-%, and the category-free net reclassifying index (cfNRI). Results We studied 780 patients. Overall, 70 (9.0%) fulfilled the Cr AKI definition by CrP measurement. On day 2, 148 patients (19.0%) were diagnosed with AKI. AUC (95% CI) for delta-Cr-% to predict AKI on day 2 was 0.82 (95% CI 0.78-0.86), and 0.74 (95% CI 0.69-0.80) when patients with AKI based on the CrP were excluded. Using a cut-off of 17% increment, the positive likelihood ratio (95% CI) for delta-Cr-% to predict AKI was 3.5 (2.9 ? 4.2). The cfNRI was 90.0 (74.9-106.1). Conclusions Among patients admitted with normal Cr, early changes in Cr help predict AKI the following day.
  • Jäntti, Toni; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Pulkki, Kari; Turkia, Heidi; Sabell, Tuija; Tolppanen, Heli; Jurkko, Raija; Hongisto, Mari; Kataja, Anu; Sionis, Alessandro; Silva-Cardoso, Jose; Banaszewski, Marek; DiSomma, Salvatore; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Haapio, Mikko; Lassus, Johan (Springer International Publishing, 2021)
    Abstract Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent form of organ injury in cardiogenic shock. However, data on AKI markers such as plasma proenkephalin (P-PENK) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (P-NGAL) in cardiogenic shock populations are lacking. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of P-PENK and P-NGAL to predict acute kidney injury and mortality in cardiogenic shock. Results P-PENK and P-NGAL were measured at different time points between baseline and 48 h in 154 patients from the prospective CardShock study. The outcomes assessed were AKI defined by an increase in creatinine within 48 h and all-cause 90-day mortality. Mean age was 66 years and 26% were women. Baseline levels of P-PENK and P-NGAL (median [interquartile range]) were 99 (71–150) pmol/mL and 138 (84–214) ng/mL. P-PENK > 84.8 pmol/mL and P-NGAL > 104 ng/mL at baseline were identified as optimal cut-offs for AKI prediction and independently associated with AKI (adjusted HRs 2.2 [95% CI 1.1–4.4, p = 0.03] and 2.8 [95% CI 1.2–6.5, p = 0.01], respectively). P-PENK and P-NGAL levels at baseline were also associated with 90-day mortality. For patients with oliguria < 0.5 mL/kg/h for > 6 h before study enrollment, 90-day mortality differed significantly between patients with low and high P-PENK/P-NGAL at baseline (5% vs. 68%, p < 0.001). However, the biomarkers provided best discrimination for mortality when measured at 24 h. Identified cut-offs of P-PENK24h > 105.7 pmol/L and P-NGAL24h > 151 ng/mL had unadjusted hazard ratios of 5.6 (95% CI 3.1–10.7, p < 0.001) and 5.2 (95% CI 2.8–9.8, p < 0.001) for 90-day mortality. The association remained significant despite adjustments with AKI and two risk scores for mortality in cardiogenic shock. Conclusions High levels of P-PENK and P-NGAL at baseline were independently associated with AKI in cardiogenic shock patients. Furthermore, oliguria before study inclusion was associated with worse outcomes only if combined with high baseline levels of P-PENK or P-NGAL. High levels of both P-PENK and P-NGAL at 24 h were found to be strong and independent predictors of 90-day mortality. Trial registration: NCT01374867 at www.clinicaltrials.gov , registered 16 Jun 2011—retrospectively registered
  • CardShock Investigators; Jäntti, Toni; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Pulkki, Kari; Turkia, Heidi; Sabell, Tuija; Tolppanen, Heli; Jurkko, Raija; Hongisto, Mari; Kataja, Anu; Sionis, Alessandro; Silva-Cardoso, Jose; Banaszewski, Marek; DiSomma, Salvatore; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Haapio, Mikko; Lassus, Johan (2021)
    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent form of organ injury in cardiogenic shock. However, data on AKI markers such as plasma proenkephalin (P-PENK) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (P-NGAL) in cardiogenic shock populations are lacking. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of P-PENK and P-NGAL to predict acute kidney injury and mortality in cardiogenic shock. Results: P-PENK and P-NGAL were measured at different time points between baseline and 48 h in 154 patients from the prospective CardShock study. The outcomes assessed were AKI defined by an increase in creatinine within 48 h and all-cause 90-day mortality. Mean age was 66 years and 26% were women. Baseline levels of P-PENK and P-NGAL (median [interquartile range]) were 99 (71-150) pmol/mL and 138 (84-214) ng/mL. P-PENK > 84.8 pmol/mL and P-NGAL > 104 ng/mL at baseline were identified as optimal cut-offs for AKI prediction and independently associated with AKI (adjusted HRs 2.2 [95% CI 1.1-4.4, p = 0.03] and 2.8 [95% CI 1.2-6.5, p = 0.01], respectively). P-PENK and P-NGAL levels at baseline were also associated with 90-day mortality. For patients with oliguria <0.5 mL/kg/h for > 6 h before study enrollment, 90-day mortality differed significantly between patients with low and high P-PENK/P-NGAL at baseline (5% vs. 68%, p <0.001). However, the biomarkers provided best discrimination for mortality when measured at 24 h. Identified cut-offs of P-PENK24h > 105.7 pmol/L and P-NGAL(24h) > 151 ng/mL had unadjusted hazard ratios of 5.6 (95% CI 3.1-10.7, p <0.001) and 5.2 (95% CI 2.8-9.8, p <0.001) for 90-day mortality. The association remained significant despite adjustments with AKI and two risk scores for mortality in cardiogenic shock. Conclusions: High levels of P-PENK and P-NGAL at baseline were independently associated with AKI in cardiogenic shock patients. Furthermore, oliguria before study inclusion was associated with worse outcomes only if combined with high baseline levels of P-PENK or P-NGAL. High levels of both P-PENK and P-NGAL at 24 h were found to be strong and independent predictors of 90-day mortality.
  • Tietäväinen, Johanna; Mäkelä, Satu; Huhtala, Heini; Pörsti, Ilkka H; Strandin, Tomas; Vaheri, Antti; Mustonen, Jukka (2021)
    Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) causes a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome characterized by thrombocytopenia, increased capillary leakage, and acute kidney injury (AKI). As glucosuria at hospital admission predicts the severity of PUUV infection, we explored how plasma glucose concentration associates with disease severity. Plasma glucose values were measured during hospital care in 185 patients with PUUV infection. They were divided into two groups according to maximum plasma glucose concentration: P-Gluc < 7.8 mmol/L (n = 134) and P-Gluc >= 7.8 mmol/L (n = 51). The determinants of disease severity were analyzed across groups. Patients with P-Gluc >= 7.8 mmol/L had higher hematocrit (0.46 vs. 0.43; p < 0.001) and lower plasma albumin concentration (24 vs. 29 g/L; p < 0.001) than patients with P-Gluc < 7.8 mmol/L. They presented with higher prevalence of pulmonary infiltrations and pleural effusion in chest radiograph, higher prevalence of shock and greater weight change during hospitalization. Patients with P-Gluc >= 7.8 mmol/L were characterized by lower platelet count (50 vs. 66 x 10(9)/L; p = 0.001), more severe AKI (plasma creatinine 272 vs. 151 mu mol/L; p = 0.001), and longer hospital treatment (8 vs. 6 days; p < 0.001) than patients with P-Gluc < 7.8 mmol/L. Plasma glucose level is associated with the severity of capillary leakage, thrombocytopenia, inflammation, and AKI in patients with acute PUUV infection.