Browsing by Subject "ALBUMINURIA"

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  • Lindfors, S; Polianskyte-Prause, Z; Bouslama, R; Lehtonen, E; Mannerla, M; Nisen, H; Tienari, J; Salmenkari, H; Forsgard, R; Mirtti, T; Lehto, M; Groop, PH; Lehtonen, S (2021)
    Aims/hypothesis Chronic low-grade inflammation with local upregulation of proinflammatory molecules plays a role in the progression of obesity-related renal injury. Reduced serum concentration of anti-inflammatory adiponectin may promote chronic inflammation. Here, we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory and renoprotective effects and mechanisms of action of AdipoRon, an adiponectin receptor agonist. Methods Wild-type DBA/2J mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented or not with AdipoRon to model obesity-induced metabolic endotoxaemia and chronic low-grade inflammation and we assessed changes in the glomerular morphology and expression of proinflammatory markers. We also treated human glomeruli ex vivo and human podocytes in vitro with AdipoRon and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin upregulated in obesity and diabetes, and analysed the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, activation of inflammatory signal transduction pathways, apoptosis and migration. Results In HFD-fed mice, AdipoRon attenuated renal inflammation, as demonstrated by reduced expression of glomerular activated NF-kappa B p65 subunit (NF-kappa B-p65) (70%, p < 0.001), TNF alpha (48%, p < 0.01), IL-1 beta (51%, p < 0.001) and TGF beta (46%, p < 0.001), renal IL-6 and IL-4 (21% and 20%, p < 0.05), and lowered glomerular F4/80-positive macrophage infiltration (31%, p < 0.001). In addition, AdipoRon ameliorated HFD-induced glomerular hypertrophy (12%, p < 0.001), fibronectin accumulation (50%, p < 0.01) and podocyte loss (12%, p < 0.001), and reduced podocyte foot process effacement (15%, p < 0.001) and thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (18%, p < 0.001). In cultured podocytes, AdipoRon attenuated the LPS-induced activation of the central inflammatory signalling pathways NF-kappa B-p65, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) (30%, 36% and 22%, respectively, p < 0.001), reduced the secretion of TNF alpha (32%, p < 0.01), and protected against podocyte apoptosis and migration. In human glomeruli ex vivo, AdipoRon reduced the LPS-induced secretion of inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-18, IL-6 and IL-10. Conclusions/interpretation AdipoRon attenuated the renal expression of proinflammatory cytokines in HFD-fed mice and LPS-stimulated human glomeruli, which apparently contributed to the amelioration of glomerular inflammation and injury. Mechanistically, based on assays on cultured podocytes, AdipoRon reduced LPS-induced activation of the NF-kappa B-p65, JNK and p38-MAPK pathways, thereby impelling the decrease in apoptosis, migration and secretion of TNF alpha. We conclude that the activation of the adiponectin receptor by AdipoRon is a potent strategy to attenuate endotoxaemia-associated renal inflammation.
  • Feodoroff, Maija; Harjutsalo, Valma; Forsblom, Carol; Thorn, Lena; Waden, Johan; Tolonen, Nina; Lithovius, Raija; Groop, Per-Henrik (2016)
    To evaluate the effect of cumulative smoking on the development of diabetic nephropathy. Study included 3613 patients with type 1 diabetes, participating in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. The 12-year cumulative risk of microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was estimated for current, ex- and nonsmokers. Cox regression analyses, with multivariable adjustments for other risk factors for diabetic nephropathy, were used to evaluate the risk at different stages of diabetic nephropathy based on the cumulative amount of smoking in pack-years. The 12-year cumulative risk of microalbuminuria was 18.9 % (95 % CI 14.6-23.0, P <0.0001) for current smokers and 15.1 % (10.3-19.6, P = 0.087) for ex-smokers, compared with 10.0 % (7.8-12.1) for nonsmokers. The corresponding risks of macroalbuminuria were 14.4 % (95 % CI 10.8-17.9, P <0.0001), 6.1 % (3.5-8.6, P = 0.082) and 4.7 % (3.0-6.4), respectively. The 12-year cumulative risk of ESRD was 10.3 % (95 % CI 8.4-12.4, P <0.0001) for current smokers and 10.0 % (7.9-12.3, P <0.0001) for ex-smokers, compared with 5.6 % (4.6-6.7) for nonsmokers. In the current smokers, one pack-year increased the risk of macroalbuminuria with a HR of 1.025 (1.010-1.041) and the risk of ESRD with a HR of 1.014 (1.001-1.026) compared with nonsmokers, in the fully adjusted model. In the ex-smokers, the risk of macroalbuminuria and ESRD was no different from the risk in nonsmokers after multivariable adjustment. Current smoking is a risk factor for the progression of diabetic nephropathy and the risk increases with the increasing dose of smoking. Ex-smokers seem to carry a similar risk of progression of diabetic nephropathy as nonsmokers.
  • Ahonen, Linda; Jäntti, Sirkku; Suvitaival, Tommi; Theilade, Simone; Risz, Claudia; Kostiainen, Risto; Rossing, Peter; Oresic, Matej; Hyötyläinen , Tuulia (2019)
    Several small molecule biomarkers have been reported in the literature for prediction and diagnosis of (pre)diabetes, its co-morbidities, and complications. Here, we report the development and validation of a novel, quantitative method for the determination of a selected panel of 34 metabolite biomarkers from human plasma. We selected a panel of metabolites indicative of various clinically-relevant pathogenic stages of diabetes. We combined these candidate biomarkers into a single ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method and optimized it, prioritizing simplicity of sample preparation and time needed for analysis, enabling high-throughput analysis in clinical laboratory settings. We validated the method in terms of limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ), linearity (R-2), and intra- and inter-day repeatability of each metabolite. The method's performance was demonstrated in the analysis of selected samples from a diabetes cohort study. Metabolite levels were associated with clinical measurements and kidney complications in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. Specifically, both amino acids and amino acid-related analytes, as well as specific bile acids, were associated with macro-albuminuria. Additionally, specific bile acids were associated with glycemic control, anti-hypertensive medication, statin medication, and clinical lipid measurements. The developed analytical method is suitable for robust determination of selected plasma metabolites in the diabetes clinic.
  • Cherney, David; Lund, Soren S.; Perkins, Bruce A.; Groop, Per-Henrik; Cooper, Mark E.; Kaspers, Stefan; Pfarr, Egon; Woerle, Hans J.; von Eynatten, Maximilian (2016)
    Aims/hypothesis Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition lowers HbA(1c), systolic BP (SBP) and weight in patients with type 2 diabetes and reduces renal hyperfiltration associated with type 1 diabetes, suggesting decreased intraglomerular hypertension. As lowering HbA(1c), SBP, weight and intraglomerular pressure is associated with antialbuminuric effects in diabetes, we hypothesised that SGLT2 inhibition would reduce the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) to a clinically meaningful extent. Methods We examined the effect of the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin on UACR by pooling data from patients with type 2 diabetes and prevalent microalbuminuria (UACR=30-300 mg/g; n = 636) or macroalbuminuria (UACR>300 mg/g; n=215) who participated in one of five phase III randomised clinical trials. Primary assessment was defined as percentage change in geometric mean UACR from baseline to week 24. Results After controlling for clinical confounders including baseline log-transformed UACR, HbA(1c), SBP and estimated GFR (according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease [MDRD] formula), treatment with empagliflozin significantly reduced UACR in patients with microalbuminuria (-32% vs placebo; p Conclusions/interpretation In patients with type 2 diabetes and either micro-or macroalbuminuria, empagliflozin reduced UACR by a clinically meaningful amount. This effect was largely independent of the known metabolic or systemic haemodynamic effects of this drug class. Our results further support a direct renal effect of SGLT2 inhibitors. Prospective studies are needed to explore the potential of this intervention to alter the course of kidney disease in high-risk patients with diabetes. Trial registration: NCT01177813 (study 1); NCT01159600 (study 2); NCT01159600 (study 3); NCT01210001 (study 4); and NCT01164501 (study 5).