Browsing by Subject "ALCOHOL"

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  • Castren, Sari; Basnet, Syaron; Pankakoski, Maiju; Ronkainen, Jenni-Emilia; Helakorpi, Satu; Uutela, Antti; Alho, Hannu; Lahti, Tuuli (2013)
  • Virtanen, Suvi; Lagerberg, Tyra; Khemiri, Lotfi; Suvisaari, Jaana; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Chang, Zheng; Latvala, Antti (2022)
    Background and aims Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed medications for patients with anxiety/depression. These patients often have problems with substance use, but it remains unclear whether the risk of substance misuse is influenced by SSRI treatment. We aimed to determine whether SSRI treatment is associated with a decreased risk of acute substance misuse-related outcomes. Design Cohort study following individuals through Swedish nation-wide registers between July 2005 and December 2013 and comparing the risk of substance misuse outcomes during periods on- versus off-treatment within the same individual. Setting Swedish general population. Participants Individuals with a newly dispensed prescription of SSRIs between July 2006 and December 2013 and an ICD-10 diagnosis of anxiety/depressive disorder before the first treatment initiation. The cohort included 146 114 individuals (60.7% women). Measurements Substance misuse outcomes included ICD-10 diagnoses of acute intoxications (F10.0-F19.0), accidental poisonings by alcohol or drugs (X41-X42, X45-X46) and substance-related criminal offenses. Findings The absolute rate of substance misuse increased sharply before the onset of SSRI treatment and decreased after treatment initiation. Stratified Cox regression models showed an elevated risk [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.62-1.78] of substance misuse outcomes during a 1-month period preceding treatment initiation, compared with the reference period of more than 1 month before treatment start. The on-treatment estimates (1-30 days, HR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.23-1.37; 31-120 days, HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.24-1.35; and > 120 days, HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.18-1.30 after treatment initiation] were consistently lower than the 1-month pre-treatment estimate, but still elevated compared with the reference period. Conclusions For people with anxiety/depression, the risk of substance misuse appears to be particularly elevated immediately before initiating selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment, which may reflect the emergence or worsening of substance use problems concurrently with anxiety/depression. SSRI treatment appears to be associated with a lower risk of substance misuse compared with the 1-month period preceding treatment initiation, but causality remains uncertain.
  • Castren, Sari; Grainger, Marjut; Lahti, Tuuli; Alho, Hannu; Salonen, Anne H. (2015)
    Background: Adolescent gambling and substance use are viewed as a public health concern internationally. The early onset age of gambling is a known risk factor for developing gambling problems later in life. The aims of this study are: to evaluate the internal consistency reliability, factorial validity and classification accuracy of the Finnish version of DSM-IV-Multiple Response-Juvenile (DSM-IV-MR-J) criteria measuring at-risk/problem gambling (ARPG); to examine gender differences in gambling participation, ARPG and substance use among first-year junior high school students; and to investigate the association of gambling and gaming (video game playing) participation, substance use and social variables with ARPG. Methods: This study examined 988 adolescents (mean age 13.4 years) at 11 public schools in Finland between October-December 2013. The response rate was 91.6%. Chi-squared test and binary logistic regression analysis were used. Results: 'Illegal acts' was the most endorsed and sensitive, but the least specific criteria identifying ARPG. During the past year, 51.6% of the respondents had gambled, 7.9% were identified as at-risk/problem gamblers (DSM-IV-MR-J score >= 2), 8.0% had smoked and 8.9% had been drinking for intoxication, and the first three were significantly more common among boys than girls. The odds ratio of being a male past-year at-risk/problem gambler was 2.27, 5.78 for gambling often or sometimes, 2.42 for video game playing weekly or more often and 6.23 for having peer gamblers. Conclusions: Overall, the Finnish version of the DSM-IV-MR-J had acceptable internal consistency reliability and factorial validity. None of the DSM-IV-MR-J criteria were accurate enough to screen ARPG per se. ARPG past-year prevalence was relatively high with males gambling more than females. ARPG was as common as drinking alcohol for intoxication and smoking. Peer gambling was strongly associated with ARPG. Efficient strategies to minimise the risks of gambling problems, tools for prevention and identification of ARPG among the underage are needed.
  • Salonen, Anne H.; Castren, Sari; Raisamo, Susanna; Orford, Jim; Alho, Hannu; Lahti, Tuuli (2014)
    Background: Attitudes towards gambling influence gambling behaviour but also reflect the existing gambling policy in a society. However, studies examining general attitudes towards gambling at the population level are scarce. The first aim of this study was to investigate general attitudes of the Finnish population towards gambling. The second aim was to explore the association of socio-demographics, gambling behaviours, being a concerned significant other (CSO) of a problem gambler and perceived health and lifestyle with attitudes towards gambling among the Finnish population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed by structured telephone interview on a random sample of 15-74-year-old Finns between October 2011 and January 2012. The data (n = 4484) was weighted based on age, gender and region of residence. Attitudes towards gambling were measured with the eight-item version of the Attitude Towards Gambling Scale (ATGS-8). A factor analysis was performed to test the structure of the Finnish version of the ATGS-8. The data were analysed using one-way ANOVA test, t-test and multiple regression analysis. Results: On average, attitudes of Finns towards gambling were negative. The most significant factors associated with positive attitudes towards gambling were male gender, young age, 12 years or more education and net income more than 2000(sic), low score on gambling severity, being a non-CSO of a problem gambler and high alcohol consumption Conclusions: The association between young age, male gender, high net income and risky alcohol consumption, and favourable gambling attitudes was strong, and also reflects risky gambling behaviour. Experiencing gambling-related harms caused by one's own or significant other's excessive gambling seems to indicate unfavourable attitudes towards gambling.
  • Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Tuuli; Seitsalo, Seppo; Kronholm, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Peltonen, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki; Partonen, Timo (2014)
    Earlier studies have revealed that the more the preference to schedule daily activities towards the evening hours is, the higher the odds for a range of health hazards are. Therefore, we wanted to analyze, whether the behavioral trait of morningness-eveningness is associated with articular and spinal diseases or those with musculoskeletal disorders. Participants (n=6089), as part of the National FINRISK 2007 Study, were derived from the general population, aged 25 to 74 years, living in Finland. Chronotype was assessed based on six items from the original Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Information about risk factors and the diagnoses of articular and spinal diseases were based on the self-reported information. Our results suggest that Evening-types have higher odds for articular and spinal diseases as compared with Morning-types, and this risk is heightened especially regarding spinal disease and backache (odds ratios of 1.8 to 2.1, and 1.6 to 1.8, respectively) and remains significant after controlling for the sex, age, education, civil status, physical activity, alcohol use, and smoking, and additionally for the body-mass index, insufficient sleep, or depressive symptoms.
  • Tigerstedt, Christoffer; Agahi, Neda; Bye, Elin; Ekholm, Ola; Härkönen, Janne; Jensen, Heidi Rosendahl; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Mäkelä, Pia; Moan, Inger Synnove; Parikka, Suvi; Raninen, Jonas; Vilkko, Anni; Bloomfield, Kim (2020)
    Aim: The present article summarises status and trends in the 21st century in older people's (60-79 years) drinking behaviour in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden and concludes this thematic issue. Each country provided a detailed report analysing four indicators of alcohol use: the prevalence of alcohol consumers, the prevalence of frequent use, typical amounts of use, and the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking (HED). The specific aim of this article is to compare the results of the country reports. Findings: Older people's drinking became more common first in Denmark in the 1970s and then in the other countries by the 1980s. Since 2000 the picture is mixed. Denmark showed decreases in drinking frequency, typically consumed amounts and HED, while in Sweden upward trends were dominant regarding prevalence of consumers and frequency of drinking as well as HED. Finland and Norway displayed both stable indicators except for drinking frequency and proportion of women consumers where trends increased. In all four countries, the gender gap diminished with regard to prevalence and frequency of drinking, but remained stable in regard to consuming large amounts. In Norway the share of alcohol consumers among women aged 60-69 years exceeded the share among men. During the late 2010s, Denmark had the highest prevalence of alcohol consumers as well as the highest proportion drinking at a higher frequency. Next in ranking was Finland, followed by Sweden and Norway. This overall rank ordering was observed for both men and women. Conclusion: As the populations aged 60 years and older in the Nordic countries continue to grow, explanations for the drivers and consequences of changes in older people's drinking will become an increasingly relevant topic for future research. Importantly, people aged 80 years and older should also be included as an integral part of that research.
  • Whipp, Alyce M.; Korhonen, Tellervo; Raevuori, Anu; Heikkilä, Kauko; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Vuoksimaa, Eero (2019)
    Modestly prevalent in the general population (4%), but highly prevalent in prison populations (>40%), the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) involves aggression as one of several possible criteria. Using multiple informants, we aimed to determine if general aggression, as well as direct and indirect subtypes, assessed in early adolescence (ages 12, 14) predict young adulthood ASPD in a population-based sample. Using data from a Finnish population-based longitudinal twin cohort study with psychiatric interviews available at age 22 (N=1347), we obtained DSM-IV-based ASPD diagnoses. Aggression measures from ages 12 (parental and teacher ratings) and 14 (teacher, self, and co-twin ratings) were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) of ASPD from logistic regression models and the area under the curve (AUC) from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, and family structure. All informants' aggression ratings were significant (p
  • Vaurio, Olli; Lähteenvuo, Markku; Kautiainen, Hannu; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Tiihonen, Jari (2022)
    The mortality of female psychopaths has scarcely been investigated. To estimate the association between psychopathy and mortality, data from subjects having been in forensic psychiatric assessments at Niuvanniemi Hospital during 1984-1993 were linked to the data from the National Death Registry. Sixteen psychopathic females scoring 25 points or higher in the PCL-R scale (psychopaths) were followed up for a median (IQR) 21 (17-25) years and 41 offenders scoring
  • Wang, Haidong; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abraha, Haftom Niguse; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adedoyin, Rufus Adesoji; Adetifa, Ifedayo Morayo O.; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Afshin, Ashkan; Aggarwal, Rakesh; Agrawal, Anurag; Agrawal, Sutapa; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibthiel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Aiyar, Sneha; Akanda, Shafqat; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Al Lami, Faris Hasan; Alabed, Samer; Alahdab, Fares; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore; Alasfoor, Deena; Aldridge, Robert William; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Aljunid, Syed M.; Alkaabi, Juma M.; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allam, Shalini D.; Allebeck, Peter; Kivimaki, Mika; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; GBD 2016 Mortality Collaborators (2017)
    Background Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify exemplars for best practice. To accomplish this, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) estimated age-specific and sex-specific all-cause mortality between 1970 and 2016 for 195 countries and territories and at the subnational level for the five countries with a population greater than 200 million in 2016. Methods We have evaluated how well civil registration systems captured deaths using a set of demographic methods called death distribution methods for adults and from consideration of survey and census data for children younger than 5 years. We generated an overall assessment of completeness of registration of deaths by dividing registered deaths in each location-year by our estimate of all-age deaths generated from our overall estimation process. For 163 locations, including subnational units in countries with a population greater than 200 million with complete vital registration (VR) systems, our estimates were largely driven by the observed data, with corrections for small fluctuations in numbers and estimation for recent years where there were lags in data reporting (lags were variable by location, generally between 1 year and 6 years). For other locations, we took advantage of different data sources available to measure under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) using complete birth histories, summary birth histories, and incomplete VR with adjustments; we measured adult mortality rate (the probability of death in individuals aged 15-60 years) using adjusted incomplete VR, sibling histories, and household death recall. We used the U5MR and adult mortality rate, together with crude death rate due to HIV in the GBD model life table system, to estimate age-specific and sex-specific death rates for each location-year. Using various international databases, we identified fatal discontinuities, which we defined as increases in the death rate of more than one death per million, resulting from conflict and terrorism, natural disasters, major transport or technological accidents, and a subset of epidemic infectious diseases; these were added to estimates in the relevant years. In 47 countries with an identified peak adult prevalence for HIV/AIDS of more than 0.5% and where VR systems were less than 65% complete, we informed our estimates of age-sex-specific mortality using the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP)-Spectrum model fitted to national HIV/AIDS prevalence surveys and antenatal clinic serosurveillance systems. We estimated stillbirths, early neonatal, late neonatal, and childhood mortality using both survey and VR data in spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression models. We estimated abridged life tables for all location-years using age-specific death rates. We grouped locations into development quintiles based on the Sociodemographic Index (SDI) and analysed mortality trends by quintile. Using spline regression, we estimated the expected mortality rate for each age-sex group as a function of SDI. We identified countries with higher life expectancy than expected by comparing observed life expectancy to anticipated life expectancy on the basis of development status alone. Findings Completeness in the registration of deaths increased from 28% in 1970 to a peak of 45% in 2013; completeness was lower after 2013 because of lags in reporting. Total deaths in children younger than 5 years decreased from 1970 to 2016, and slower decreases occurred at ages 5-24 years. By contrast, numbers of adult deaths increased in each 5-year age bracket above the age of 25 years. The distribution of annualised rates of change in age-specific mortality rate differed over the period 2000 to 2016 compared with earlier decades: increasing annualised rates of change were less frequent, although rising annualised rates of change still occurred in some locations, particularly for adolescent and younger adult age groups. Rates of stillbirths and under-5 mortality both decreased globally from 1970. Evidence for global convergence of death rates was mixed; although the absolute difference between age-standardised death rates narrowed between countries at the lowest and highest levels of SDI, the ratio of these death rates-a measure of relative inequality-increased slightly. There was a strong shift between 1970 and 2016 toward higher life expectancy, most noticeably at higher levels of SDI. Among countries with populations greater than 1 million in 2016, life expectancy at birth was highest for women in Japan, at 86.9 years (95% UI 86.7-87.2), and for men in Singapore, at 81.3 years (78.8-83.7) in 2016. Male life expectancy was generally lower than female life expectancy between 1970 and 2016, and the gap between male and female life expectancy increased with progression to higher levels of SDI. Some countries with exceptional health performance in 1990 in terms of the difference in observed to expected life expectancy at birth had slower progress on the same measure in 2016. Interpretation Globally, mortality rates have decreased across all age groups over the past five decades, with the largest improvements occurring among children younger than 5 years. However, at the national level, considerable heterogeneity remains in terms of both level and rate of changes in age-specific mortality; increases in mortality for certain age groups occurred in some locations. We found evidence that the absolute gap between countries in age-specific death rates has declined, although the relative gap for some age-sex groups increased. Countries that now lead in terms of having higher observed life expectancy than that expected on the basis of development alone, or locations that have either increased this advantage or rapidly decreased the deficit from expected levels, could provide insight into the means to accelerate progress in nations where progress has stalled. Copyright (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  • Wang, Cuicui; Luo, Jie; Nie, Peixin; Wang, Daoyang (2019)
    The present study examined the relationship between substance use and reasoning in adolescents, and further investigated the modulation role of growth mindset on this relationship. A total of 1759 adolescents in China with substance use experience were investigated. The results showed that substance use (smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use) was negatively correlated with reasoning (r = -0.24 similar to -0.39, p <0.01) and growth mindset (r = -0.18 similar to -0.32, p <0.01). Regression analysis revealed that after controlling for the background variables (i.e., age, family annual income, and parents' educational level), only illicit drug use was the significant predictor of reasoning (beta = -0.325, t = -14.28, p <0.001). The interaction effect between growth mindset and illicit drug use was also a significant predictor of reasoning (beta = -0.067, t = -2.92, p = 0.004), indicating growth mindset modulated the relationship between illicit drug use and reasoning ability. Further analysis found that the negative correlation between frequency of illicit drug use and reasoning in high growth mindset group was weaker than that of low growth mindset group (F-(3.1733) = 332.51, p <0.001, f(2) = 0.22). This suggests that growth mindset plays a significant moderating role in the relationship between substance use and reasoning. Overall, substance use has adverse effect on adolescent reasoning, however, growth mindset could reduce this adverse effect.
  • 23andMe Res Team; Subst Use Disorders Working Grp Ps; Int Cannabis Consortium (2018)
    Cannabis use is a heritable trait that has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes. In the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) for lifetime cannabis use to date (N = 184,765), we identified eight genome-wide significant independent single nucleotide polymorphisms in six regions. All measured genetic variants combined explained 11% of the variance. Gene-based tests revealed 35 significant genes in 16 regions, and S-PrediXcan analyses showed that 21 genes had different expression levels for cannabis users versus nonusers. The strongest finding across the different analyses was CADM2, which has been associated with substance use and risk-taking. Significant genetic correlations were found with 14 of 25 tested sub-stance use and mental health-related traits, including smoking, alcohol use, schizophrenia and risk-taking. Mendelian randomization analysis showed evidence for a causal positive influence of schizophrenia risk on cannabis use. Overall, our study provides new insights into the etiology of cannabis use and its relation with mental health.
  • Kanamuller, Juha; Riipinen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa; Paloneva, Eero; Hakko, Helina (2016)
    The authors examined all hanging-suicides during 1988-2013 (N=851) in the province of Oulu, northern Finland. Using death-certificate data and ICD-diagnoses from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, we focused on gender differences in suicide, mental health, and somatic health. Male victims were more likely to have intoxication or problematic alcohol use; female victims were more likely to have somatic or mental hospitalization. Previous physical or mental hospitalization was related with absence of intoxication at the time of suicide. Suicide prevention should focus on acute alcohol abuse in the presence of acute stressors, suicidal thoughts and mental illness.
  • Bock, Peter; Nousiainen, Paula; Elder, Thomas; Blaukopf, Markus; Amer, Hassan; Zirbs, Ronald; Potthast, Antje; Gierlinger, Notburga (2020)
    Vibrational spectroscopy is a very suitable tool for investigating the plant cell wall in situ with almost no sample preparation. The structural information of all different constituents is contained in a single spectrum. Interpretation therefore heavily relies on reference spectra and understanding of the vibrational behavior of the components under study. For the first time, we show infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of dibenzodioxocin (DBDO), an important lignin substructure. A detailed vibrational assignment of the molecule, based on quantum chemical computations, is given in the Supporting Information; the main results are found in the paper. Furthermore, we show IR and Raman spectra of synthetic guaiacyl lignin (dehydrogenation polymer-G-DHP). Raman spectra of DBDO and G-DHP both differ with respect to the excitation wavelength and therefore reveal different features of the substructure/polymer. This study confirms the idea previously put forward that Raman at 532 nm selectively probes end groups of lignin, whereas Raman at 785 nm and IR seem to represent the majority of lignin substructures.
  • Lounassalo, Irinja; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Palomaki, Sanna; Salin, Kasper; Tolvanen, Asko; Pahkala, Katja; Rovio, Suvi; Fogelholm, Mikael; Yang, Xiaolin; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T.; Tammelin, Tuija H. (2021)
    BackgroundEvidence on whether leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) facilitates individuals' adoption of multiple healthy behaviors remains scarce. This study investigated the associations of diverse longitudinal LTPA trajectories from childhood to adulthood with diet, screen time, smoking, binge drinking, sleep difficulties, and sleep duration in adulthood.MethodsData were drawn from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Participants were aged 9-18years (N=3553; 51% females) in 1980 and 33-49years at the latest follow-up in 2011. The LTPA trajectories were identified using a latent profile analysis. Differences in self-reported health-related behaviors across the LTPA trajectories were studied separately for women and men by using the Bolck-Croon-Hagenaars approach. Models were adjusted for age, body mass index, education level, marital status, total energy intake and previous corresponding behaviors.ResultsPersistently active, persistently low-active, decreasingly and increasingly active trajectories were identified in both genders and an additional inactive trajectory for women. After adjusting the models with the above-mentioned covariates, the inactive women had an unhealthier diet than the women in the other trajectories (p< 0.01; effect size (ES)>0.50). The low-active men followed an unhealthier diet than the persistently and increasingly active men (p< 0.01; ES>0.50). Compared to their inactive and low-active peers, smoking frequency was lower in the increasingly active women and men (p< 0.01; ES>0.20) and persistently active men (p< 0.05; ES>0.20). The increasingly active men reported lower screen time than the low-active (p< 0.001; ES>0.50) and persistently active (p< 0.05; ES>0.20) men. The increasingly and persistently active women reported fewer sleep difficulties than the inactive (p< 0.001; ES>0.80) and low-active (p< 0.05; ES>0.50 and>0.80, respectively) women. Sleep duration and binge drinking were not associated with the LTPA trajectories in either gender, nor were sleep difficulties in men and screen time in women.ConclusionsNot only persistently higher LTPA but also an increasing tendency to engage in LTPA after childhood/adolescence were associated with healthier diet and lower smoking frequency in both genders, having less sleep difficulties in women and lower screen time in increasingly active men. Inactivity and low activity were associated with the accumulation of several unhealthy behaviors in adulthood. Associations were stronger in women.
  • Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Lallukka, Tea; Nyberg, Solja T.; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G. David; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Ferrie, Jane E.; Heikkila, Katriina; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Lahelma, Eero; Nielsen, Martin L.; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H.; Pentti, Jaana; Rahkonen, Ossi; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Schupp, Jurgen; Shipley, Martin J.; Siegrist, Johannes; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Suominen, Sakari B.; Theorell, Tores; Vahtera, Jussi; Wagner, Gert G.; Wang, Jian Li; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimaki, Mika (2018)
    Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published prospective cohort studies and included available cohorts with unpublished individual-participant data. We used a random-effects meta-analysis to calculate summary estimates across studies. Results We identified ten published cohort studies and included unpublished individual-participant data from 18 studies. In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working >= 55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I-2 = 45.1%, P=0.004). A strong association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association in Europe (1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.22), and no association in North America (0.97, 95% CI 0.70-1.34) or Australia (0.95, 95% CI 0.70-1.29). Differences by other characteristics were small. Conclusions This observational evidence suggests a moderate association between long working hours and onset of depressive symptoms in Asia and a small association in Europe.
  • Rytilä-Manninen, Minna; Haravuori, Henna; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Lindberg, Nina (2018)
    We investigated whether psychiatric symptomatology, impulsivity, family and social dysfunction, and alcohol use mediate the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and suicidality. The study population comprised 206 adolescent psychiatric inpatients and 203 age- and gender-matched adolescents from the community. ACEs and suicidality were assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime version, the Life Events Checklist, and a structured background data collection sheet. Psychiatric symptomatology was measured using the Symptom Checklist -90. Impulsivity, social dysfunction, and family dysfunction were measured using the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, and alcohol use was assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. A simple mediation test and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. A positive direct effect of ACEs on suicidality was observed. Also seen was a positive indirect effect of ACEs on suicidality through psychiatric symptomatology, impulsivity, and family and social dysfunctions. Alcohol misuse did not, however, mediate the relationship between ACEs and suicidality. According to the multiple mediation analyses, psychiatric symptomatology was the most significant mediator, followed by impulsivity. Psychiatric symptoms, impulsivity, and family and social dysfunctions are factors that should be taken into consideration when assessing suicidality in adolescents.
  • NBCS Collaborators; ABCTB Investigators; kConFab Investigators; Park, Hanla A.; Neumeyer, Sonja; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Muranen, Taru A.; Nevanlinna, Heli (2021)
    Background Despite a modest association between tobacco smoking and breast cancer risk reported by recent epidemiological studies, it is still equivocal whether smoking is causally related to breast cancer risk. Methods We applied Mendelian randomisation (MR) to evaluate a potential causal effect of cigarette smoking on breast cancer risk. Both individual-level data as well as summary statistics for 164 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported in genome-wide association studies of lifetime smoking index (LSI) or cigarette per day (CPD) were used to obtain MR effect estimates. Data from 108,420 invasive breast cancer cases and 87,681 controls were used for the LSI analysis and for the CPD analysis conducted among ever-smokers from 26,147 cancer cases and 26,072 controls. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address pleiotropy. Results Genetically predicted LSI was associated with increased breast cancer risk (OR 1.18 per SD, 95% CI: 1.07-1.30, P = 0.11 x 10(-2)), but there was no evidence of association for genetically predicted CPD (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.78-1.19, P = 0.85). The sensitivity analyses yielded similar results and showed no strong evidence of pleiotropic effect. Conclusion Our MR study provides supportive evidence for a potential causal association with breast cancer risk for lifetime smoking exposure but not cigarettes per day among smokers.
  • Drouard, Gabin; Ollikainen, Miina; Mykkänen, Juha; Raitakari, Olli; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kähönen, Mika; Mishra, Pashupati P.; Wang, Xiaoling; Kaprio, Jaakko (2022)
    Abnormal blood pressure is strongly associated with risk of high-prevalence diseases, making the study of blood pressure a major public health challenge. Although biological mechanisms underlying hypertension at the single omic level have been discovered, multi-omics integrative analyses using continuous variations in blood pressure values remain limited. We used a multi-omics regression-based method, called sparse multi-block partial least square, for integrative, explanatory, and predictive interests in study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure values. Various datasets were obtained from the Finnish Twin Cohort for up to 444 twins. Blocks of omics-including transcriptomic, methylation, metabolomic-data as well as polygenic risk scores and clinical data were integrated into the modeling and supported by cross-validation. The predictive contribution of each omics block when predicting blood pressure values was investigated using external participants from the Young Finns Study. In addition to revealing interesting inter-omics associations, we found that each block of omics heterogeneously improved the predictions of blood pressure values once the multi-omics data were integrated. The modeling revealed a plurality of clinical, transcriptomic, and metabolomic factors consistent with the literature and that play a leading role in explaining unit variations in blood pressure. These findings demonstrate (1) the robustness of our integrative method to harness results obtained by single omics discriminant analyses, and (2) the added value of predictive and exploratory gains of a multi-omics approach in studies of complex phenotypes such as blood pressure.