Browsing by Subject "ALCOHOL-USE DISORDERS"

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  • Virtanen, Suvi; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Mataix-Cols, David; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Larsson, Henrik; Ruck, Christian; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lichtenstein, Paul; Latvala, Antti (2020)
    Background Causes of the comorbidity of substance misuse with anxiety-related and depressive disorders (anxiety/depression) remain poorly known. We estimated associations of substance misuse and anxiety/depression in the general population and tested them while accounting for genetic and shared environmental factors. Methods We studied individuals born in Sweden 1968–1997 (n = 2 996 398) with follow-up in nationwide register data for 1997–2013. To account for familial effects, stratified analyses were conducted within siblings and twin pairs. Substance misuse was defined as ICD-10 alcohol or drug use disorder or an alcohol/drug-related criminal conviction. Three dimensions of ICD-10 anxiety and depressive disorders and a substance misuse dimension were identified through exploratory factor analysis. Results Substance misuse was associated with a 4.5-fold (95% CI 4.50–4.58) elevated risk of lifetime generalized anxiety/depression, 4.7-fold (95% CI 4.63–4.82) elevated risk of panic disorder and agora/social phobia, and 2.9-fold elevated risk of phobias/OCD (95% CI 2.82–3.02) as compared to those without substance misuse. The associations were attenuated in within-family analyses but we found elevated risks in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for substance misuse as well as significant non-shared environmental correlations. The association between anxiety/depression and substance misuse was mainly driven by generalized anxiety/depression, whereas other anxiety/depression dimensions had minor or no independent associations with substance misuse. Conclusions Substance misuse and anxiety/depression are associated at the population level, and these associations are partially explained by familial liabilities. Our findings indicate a common genetic etiology but are also compatible with a potential partially causal relationship between substance misuse and anxiety/depression.
  • Sipila, Pyry; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2016)
    AimsTo determine if associations of alcohol consumption with all-cause mortality replicate in discordant monozygotic twin comparisons that control for familial and genetic confounds. DesignA 30-year prospective follow-up. SettingPopulation-based older Finnish twin cohort. ParticipantsSame-sex twins, aged 24-60years at the end of 1981, without overt comorbidities, completed questionnaires in 1975 and 1981 with response rates of 89 and 84%. A total of 15607 twins were available for mortality follow-up from the date of returned 1981 questionnaires to 31December 2011; 14787 twins with complete information were analysed. MeasurementsSelf-reported monthly alcohol consumption, heavy drinking occasions (HDO) and alcohol-induced blackouts. Adjustments for age, gender, marital and smoking status, physical activity, obesity, education and social class. FindingsAmong twins as individuals, high levels of monthly alcohol consumption (259g/month) associated with earlier mortality [hazard ratio (HR)=1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.47-1.81]. That association was replicated in comparisons of all informatively drinking-discordant twin pairs (HR=1.91, 95% CI=1.49-2.45) and within discordant monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs (HR=2.24, 95% CI=1.31-3.85), with comparable effect size. Smaller samples of MZ twins discordant for HDO and blackouts limited power; a significant association with mortality was found for multiple blackouts (HR=2.82, 95% CI=1.30-6.08), but not for HDO. ConclusionsThe associations of high levels of monthly alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced blackouts with increased all-cause mortality among Finnish twins cannot be explained by familial or genetic confounds; the explanation appears to be causal.
  • Salama, Essi; Castaneda, Anu E.; Suvisaari, Jaana; Rask, Shadia; Laatikainen, Tiina; Niemelä, Solja (2022)
    Comorbidity of substance use with affective symptoms and suicidality has been well documented in the general population. However, population-based migrant studies about this association are scarce. We examined the association of affective symptoms and suicidal ideation with binge drinking, daily smoking, and lifetime cannabis use among Russian, Somali, and Kurdish migrants in comparison with the Finnish general population. Cross-sectional data from the Finnish Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu, n?=?1307) and comparison group data of the general Finnish population (n?=?860) from the Health 2011 Survey were used. Substance use included self-reported current binge drinking, daily smoking, and lifetime cannabis use. Affective symptoms and suicidal ideation were measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25). We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses, including age, gender, and additional socio-demographic and migration-related factors. Suicidal ideation (OR 2.4 95% CI 1.3?4.3) was associated with binge drinking among Kurds and lifetime cannabis use among Russians (OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.9?17.0) and Kurds (OR 5.5, 95% CI 1.9?15.6). Affective symptoms were associated with daily smoking (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.02?2.6) and lifetime cannabis use (OR 6.1, 95% CI 2.6?14.5) among Kurdish migrants. Our results draw attention to the co-occurrence of suicidal ideation, affective symptoms, and substance use, especially among Kurdish migrants. These results highlight the variation of comorbidity of substance use and affective symptoms between the different populations. This implies that screening for substance use in mental healthcare cannot be neglected based on presumed habits of substance use.
  • Liskola, Joni; Haravuori, Henna; Lindberg, Nina; Kiviruusu, Olli; Niemelä, Solja; Karlsson, Linnea; Marttunen, Mauri (2021)
    Aim: The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) has been validated for use with adolescents to screen their harmful alcohol consumption. How well AUDIT or its derivative consumption version AUDIT-C predicts the development of problematic alcohol use among adolescents remains unknown. The aim of our study was to examine the predictive capacity of AUDIT and AUDIT-C among adolescents in a one-year follow-up. Methods: Finnish adolescents (N = 337) were examined at baseline with AUDIT and one year later with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime version (KSADS-PL) interview to assess alcohol problem use. Test characteristics and regression models were analyzed in predicting alcohol problem use. Results: The sensitivity of AUDIT (cut-off >= 5) was 0.809 and specificity 0.621 in predicting alcohol problem use among adolescents one year later. The positive test posterior probability was 0.51. For those who screened negative at baseline, the positive test posterior probability was 0.13. With AUDIT-C (cut-off =3), the posterior probabilities were 0.47 and 0.12, respectively (sensitivity 0.855, specificity 0.529). The odds ratio was 6.95 for those screening positive with AUDIT and 6.59 with AUDIT-C at baseline to have alcohol problem use one year later. Conclusions: AUDIT has utility in screening youth at risk for developing alcohol problem use. It has significant predictive capacity in detecting risk especially among adolescents with depression.
  • Salama, Essi; Niemelä, Solja; Suvisaari, Jaana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Koponen, Paivikki; Castaneda, Anu E. (2018)
    Background: Substance use is a well-known public health problem, but population-based research on migrants' substance use in Europe is limited. Factors related to the cultural background and current life situation might influence substance use among migrants. Here, the prevalence of substance use in Russian, Somali and Kurdish migrants in Finland is reported in comparison with the general population, and the associations between substance use and socio-economic and migration-related background factors among migrants are analysed. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the Finnish Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu) and comparison group data of the general Finnish population (n = 1165) from the Health 2011 Survey were used. The survey participants were of Russian (n = 702), Somali (n = 512), and Kurdish (n = 632) origin. Substance use included self-reported alcohol use within previous 12 months (AUDIT-C questionnaire), current and lifetime daily smoking and lifetime use of cannabis and intravenous drugs. Results: Binge drinking was less prevalent among all migrant groups than in the general Finnish population (Russian men 65%, p <0.01; Russian women 30%, p <0.01, Somali men 2%, p <0.01, Kurdish men 27%, p <0.01, Kurdish women 6%, p <0.01, general population men 87% and women 72%). Current daily smoking was more prevalent among Russian (28%, p = 0.04) and Kurdish (29%, p <0.01) migrant men compared with the reference group (20%). Younger age and employment were associated with binge drinking among migrants. Socio-economic disadvantage increased the odds for daily smoking in Russian, Somali and Kurdish migrant men. Several migration-related factors, such as age at migration and language proficiency, were associated with substance use. Conclusions: Binge drinking is less common among migrants than in the Finnish general population. However, current daily smoking was more prevalent among Russian and Kurdish migrant men compared with the general population. Younger age, level of education, employment, duration of residence in Finland and language proficiency were associated with binge drinking and daily smoking with varying patterns of association depending on the migrant group and gender. These findings draw attention to the variation in substance use habits among migrant populations.