Browsing by Subject "ALCOHOLISM"

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  • Elsilä, Lauri; Harkki, Juliana; Enberg, Emma Amanda; Martti, Alvar; Linden, Anni-Maija; Korpi, Esa (2022)
    Background: Psychedelics, like lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), are again being studied as potential therapies for many neuropsychiatric disorders, including addictions. At the same time, the acute effects of psychedelics on rewarding behaviours have been scarcely studied. Aims: The current study aimed to clarify if LSD decreases binge-like ethanol drinking in mice, and whether the observed acute effects on ethanol consumption are generalizable to a natural reinforcer, sucrose, and if the effects resulted from aversive or reward-attenuating effects caused by LSD. Methods: The effects of acute LSD were examined using 2-bottle choice intermittent ethanol (20%) and sucrose drinking (10%), discrete-trial current-intensity threshold method of intracranial self-stimulation and short-term feeding behaviour assay in C57BL/6 male mice. Results: The results showed that acute 0.1 mg/kg, but not 0.05 mg/kg, dose (i.p.) of LSD reduced 2-h intermittent ethanol drinking transiently without any prolonged effects. No effects were seen in intermittent 2-h sucrose drinking. The tested LSD doses had neither effect on the intracranial self-stimulation current-intensity thresholds, nor did LSD affect the threshold-lowering, or rewarding, effects of simultaneous amphetamine treatment. Furthermore, LSD had small, acute diminishing effects on 2-h food and water intake. Conclusions: Based on these results, LSD decreases binge-like ethanol drinking in mice, but only acutely. This effect is not likely to stem from reward-attenuating effects but could be in part due to reduced consummatory behaviour.
  • Nikolakaros, Georgios; Ilonen, Tuula; Kurki, Timo; Paju, Janina; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G.; Vataja, Risto (2016)
    Wernicke's encephalopathy is often undiagnosed, particularly in non-alcoholics. There are very few reports of non-alcoholic patients diagnosed with Korsakoff syndrome in the absence of a prior diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy and no studies of diffusion tensor imaging in non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome. We report on three non-alcoholic psychiatric patients (all women) with long-term non-progressive memory impairment that developed after malnutrition accompanied by at least one of the three Wemicke's encephalopathy manifestations: ocular abnormalities, ataxia or unsteadiness, and an altered mental state or mild memory impairment. In neuropsychological examination, all patients had memory impairment, including intrusions. One patient had mild cerebellar vermis atrophy in MRI taken after the second episode of Wemicke's encephalopathy. The same patient had mild hypometabolism in the lateral cortex of the temporal lobes. Another patient had mild symmetrical atrophy and hypometabolism of the superior frontal lobes. Two patients were examined with diffusion tensor imaging. Reduced fractional anisotropy values were found in the corona radiata in two patients, and the uncinate fasciculus and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus in one patient. Our results suggest that non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome is underdiagnosed. Psychiatric patients with long-term memory impairment may have Korsakoff syndrome and, therefore, they should be evaluated for a history of previously undiagnosed Wernicke's encephalopathy. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Hoggart, Clive J.; Venturini, Giulia; Mangino, Massimo; Gomez, Felicia; Ascari, Giulia; Zhao, Jing Hua; Teumer, Alexander; Winkler, Thomas W.; Tsernikova, Natalia; Luan, Jian'an; Mihailov, Evelin; Ehret, Georg B.; Zhang, Weihua; Lamparter, David; Esko, Tonu; Mace, Aurelien; Rueeger, Sina; Bochud, Pierre-Yves; Barcella, Matteo; Dauvilliers, Yves; Benyamin, Beben; Evans, David M.; Hayward, Caroline; Lopez, Mary F.; Franke, Lude; Russo, Alessia; Heid, Iris M.; Salvi, Erika; Vendantam, Sailaja; Arking, Dan E.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chambers, John C.; Fiorito, Giovanni; Grallert, Harald; Guarrera, Simonetta; Homuth, Georg; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Porteous, David; Moradpour, Darius; Iranzo, Alex; Hebebrand, Johannes; Kemp, John P.; Lammers, Gert J.; Aubert, Vincent; Heim, Markus H.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Peraita-Adrados, Rosa; Santamaria, Joan; Generation Scotland Consortium; LifeLines Cohort Study; GIANT Consortium; Lokki, Marja-Liisa (2014)
  • Majuri, Joonas; Joutsa, Juho; Johansson, Jarkko; Voon, Valerie; Parkkola, Riitta; Alho, Hannu; Arponen, Eveliina; Kaasinen, Valtteri (2017)
    Behavioral addictions, such as pathological gambling (PG) and binge eating disorder (BED), appear to be associated with specific changes in brain dopamine and opioid function, but the role of other neurotransmitter systems is less clear. Given the crucial role of serotonin in a number of psychiatric disorders, we aimed to compare brain serotonergic function among individuals with BED, PG and healthy controls. Seven BED patients, 13 PG patients and 16 healthy controls were scanned with high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) using the serotonin transporter (SERT) tracer [C-11]MADAM. Both region-of-interest and voxel-wise whole brain analyses were performed. Patients with BED showed increased SERT binding in the parieto-occipital cortical regions compared to both PG and healthy controls, with parallel decreases in binding in the nucleus accumbens, inferior temporal gyrus and lateral orbitofrontal cortex. No differences between PG patients and controls were observed. None of the subjects were on SSRI medications at the time of imaging, and there were no differences in the level of depression between PG and BED patients. The results highlight differences in brain SERT binding between individuals with BED and PG and provide further evidence of different neurobiological underpinnings in behavioral addictions that are unrelated to the co-existing mood disorder. The results aid in the conceptualization of behavioral addictions by characterizing the underlying serotonin changes and provide a framework for additional studies to examine syndrome-specific pharmaceutical treatments. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.