Browsing by Subject "ALICE"

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  • Berger, M.; Ball, M.; Fabbietti, L.; Ketzer, B.; Arora, R.; Beck, R.; Böhmer, F.V.; Chen, J.-C.; Cusanno, F.; Dørheim, S.; Garcia, Francisco; Hehner, J.; Herrmann, N.; Höppner, C.; Kaiser, D.; Kis, M.; Kleipa, Volker; Konorov, I.; Kunkel, Jochen; Kurz, Nikolaus; Leifels, Y.; Müllner, P.; Munzer, R.; Neubert, S.; Rauch, J.h; Schmidt, C.J.; Schmitz, R.; Soyk, D.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Voss, Bernd; Walther, D.; Zmeskal, J. (2017)
    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is an ideal device for the detection of charged particle tracks in a large volume covering a solid angle of almost . The high density of hits on a given particle track facilitates the task of pattern recognition in a high-occupancy environment and in addition provides particle identification by measuring the specific energy loss for each track. For these reasons, TPCs with Multiwire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) amplification have been and are widely used in experiments recording heavy-ion collisions. A significant drawback, however, is the large dead time of the order of 1 ms per event generated by the use of a gating grid, which is mandatory to prevent ions created in the amplification region from drifting back into the drift volume, where they would severely distort the drift path of subsequent tracks. For experiments with higher event rates this concept of a conventional TPC operating with a triggered gating grid can therefore not be applied without a significant loss of data. A continuous readout of the signals is the more appropriate way of operation. This, however, constitutes a change of paradigm with considerable challenges to be met concerning the amplification region, the design and bandwidth of the readout electronics, and the data handling. A mandatory prerequisite for such an operation is a sufficiently good suppression of the ion backflow from the avalanche region, which otherwise limits the tracking and particle identification capabilities of such a detector. Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) are a promising candidate to combine excellent spatial resolution with an intrinsic suppression of ions. In this paper we describe the design, construction and the commissioning of a large TPC with GEM amplification and without gating grid (GEM-TPC). The design requirements have driven innovations in the construction of a light-weight field-cage, a supporting media flange, the GEM amplification and the readout system, which are presented in this paper. We further describe the support infrastructure such as gas, cooling and slow control. Finally, we report on the operation of the GEM-TPC in the FOPI experiment, and describe the calibration procedures which are applied to achieve the design performance of the device.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2018)
    The production of the charm-strange baryon Xi(0)(c) is measured for the first time at the LHC via its semileptonic decay into e(+) Xi(-) nu(e) in ppcollisions at root s = 7 TeV with the ALICE detector. The transverse momentum ( p(T)) differential cross section multiplied by the branching ratio is presented in the interval 1 < p(T)< 8 GeV/c at mid-rapidity, vertical bar y vertical bar < 0.5. The transverse momentum dependence of the Xi(0)(c) baryon production relative to the D-0 meson production is compared to predictions of event generators with various tunes of the hadronisation mechanism, which are found to underestimate the measured cross-section ratio. (C) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Adam, J.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Kral, J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Rak, J.; Rasanen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; The ALICE collaboration (2015)
    The size of the particle emission region in high-energy collisions can be deduced using the femtoscopic correlations of particle pairs at low relative momentum. Such correlations arise due to quantum statistics and Coulomb and strong final state interactions. In this paper, results are presented from femtoscopic analyses of pi(+/-) pi(+/-), K-+/- K-+/-, K-S(0) K-S(0), pp, and (pp) over bar correlations from Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV by the ALICE experiment at the LHC. One-dimensional radii of the system are extracted from correlation functions in terms of the invariant momentum difference of the pair. The comparison of the measured radii with the predictions from a hydrokinetic model is discussed. The pion and kaon source radii display a monotonic decrease with increasing average pair transverse mass m(T) which is consistent with hydrodynamic model predictions for central collisions. The kaon and proton source sizes can be reasonably described by approximate m(T) scaling.
  • Adam, J.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Kral, J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J.; The ALICE collaboration (2017)
    The first study of phi-meson production in p-Pb collisions at forward and backward rapidity, at a nucleonnucleon centre-of-mass energy root s(NN)= 5.02 TeV, has been performed with the ALICE apparatus at the LHC. The phi-mesons have been identified in the dimuon decay channel in the transverse momentum (p(T)) range 1 <p(T) <7GeV/c, both in the p-going (2.03 <y <3.53) and the Pb-going (-4.46 <y <-2.96) directions - where ystands for the rapidity in the nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass - the integrated luminosity amounting to 5.01 +/- 0.19nb(-1) and 5.81 +/- 0.20nb(-1), respectively, for the two data samples. Differential cross sections as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity are presented. The forward-backward ratio for f-meson production is measured for 2.96
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2018)
    An invariant differential cross section measurement of inclusive pi(0) and eta meson production atmid-rapidity in pp collisions at root s = 8 TeV was carried out by the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The spectra of pi(0) and eta mesons were measured in transverse momentum ranges of 0.3 <p(T) <35 GeV/c and 0.5 <p(T) <35 GeV/c, respectively. Next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations using fragmentation functions DSS14 for the pi(0) and AESSS for the. overestimate the cross sections of both neutral mesons, although such calculations agree with the measured eta/pi(0) ratio within uncertainties. The results were also compared with PYTHIA 8.2 predictions for which the Monash 2013 tune yields the best agreement with the measured neutral meson spectra. The measurements confirm a universal behavior of the eta/pi(0) ratio seen forNA27, PHENIX and ALICE data for pp collisions from root s = 27.5 GeV to root s = 8 TeV within experimental uncertainties. A relation between the pi(0) and eta production cross sections for pp collisions at root s = 8 TeV is given by m(T) scaling for p(T) > 3.5 GeV/c. However, a deviation from this empirical scaling rule is observed for transverse momenta below p(T) <3.5 GeV/c in the eta/pi(0) ratio with a significance of 6.2 sigma.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2018)
    Invariant differential yields of deuterons and antideuterons in pp collisions at root s = 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV and the yields of tritons, He-3 nuclei, and their antinuclei at root s = 7 TeV have been measured with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurements cover a wide transverse momentum (p(T)) range in the rapidity interval vertical bar y vertical bar <0.5, extending both the energy and the pT reach of previous measurements up to 3 GeV/c for A = 2 and 6 GeV/c for A = 3. The coalescence parameters of (anti) deuterons and 3 He nuclei exhibit an increasing trend with pT and are found to be compatible with measurements in pA collisions at low p(T) and lower energies. The integrated yields decrease by a factor of about 1000 for each increase of the mass number with one (anti) nucleon. Furthermore, the deuteron-to-proton ratio is reported as a function of the average charged particle multiplicity at different center-of-mass energies.
  • Adamova, D.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J.; The ALICE collaboration (2017)
    The transverse momentum distributions of the strange and double-strange hyperon resonances ( Sigma ( 1385)(+/-), Xi ( 1530)(0)) produced in p-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV were measured in the rapidity range -0.5 <yCMS <0 for event classes corresponding to different charged-particle multiplicity densities, <dN(ch)/d eta(lab)> . The mean transverse momentumvalues are presented as a function of <dNch/d eta(lab)>, as well as a function of the particle masses and compared with previous results on hyperon production. The integrated yield ratios of excited to ground- state hyperons are constant as a function of <dN(ch)/d eta(lab)>. The equivalent ratios to pions exhibit an increase with <dN(ch)/ d eta(lab)>, depending on their strangeness content.
  • Adam, J.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; The ALICE collaboration (2016)
    The pseudorapidity (eta) and transverse-momentum (p(T)) distributions of charged particles produced in proton-proton collisions are measured at the centre-of-mass energy root s = 13 TeV. The pseudorapidity distribution in vertical bar eta vertical bar <1.8 is reported for inelastic events and for events with at least one charged particle in vertical bar eta vertical bar <1. The pseudorapidity density of charged particles produced in the pseudorapidity region vertical bar eta vertical bar <0.5 is 5.31 +/- 0.18 and 6.46 +/- 0.19 for the two event classes, respectively. The transverse-momentum distribution of charged particles is measured in the range 0.15 <p(T) <20 GeV/c and vertical bar eta vertical bar <0.8 for events with at least one charged particle in vertical bar eta vertical bar <1. The evolution of the transverse momentum spectra of charged particles is also investigated as a function of event multiplicity. The results are compared with calculations from PYTHIA and EPOS Monte Carlo generators. (C) 2015 CERN for the benefit of the ALICE Collaboration. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).