Browsing by Subject "ALKALOIDS"

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  • Hotti, Hannu; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Seppanen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Rischer, Heiko (2017)
    Sarraceniaceae is a New World carnivorous plant family comprising three genera: Darlingtonia, Heliamphora, and Sarracenia. The plants occur in nutrient-poor environments and have developed insectivorous capability in order to supplement their nutrient uptake. Sarracenia flava contains the alkaloid coniine, otherwise only found in Conium maculatum, in which its biosynthesis has been studied, and several Aloe species. Its ecological role and biosynthetic origin in S. flava is speculative. The aim of the current research was to investigate the occurrence of coniine in Sarracenia and Darlingtonia and to identify common constituents of both genera, unique compounds for individual variants and floral scent chemicals. In this comprehensive metabolic profiling study, we looked for compound patterns that are associated with the taxonomy of Sarracenia species. In total, 57 different Sarracenia and D. californica accessions were used for metabolite content screening by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The resulting high-dimensional data were studied using a data mining approach. The two genera are characterized by a large number of metabolites and huge chemical diversity between different species. By applying feature selection for clustering and by integrating new biochemical data with existing phylogenetic data, we were able to demonstrate that the chemical composition of the species can be explained by their known classification. Although transcriptome analysis did not reveal a candidate gene for coniine biosynthesis, the use of a sensitive selected ion monitoring method enabled the detection of coniine in eight Sarracenia species, showing that it is more widespread in this genus than previously believed.
  • Qaderi, Ardashir; Omidi, Mansour; Pour-Aboughadareh, Alireza; Poczai, Péter; Shaghaghi, Javad; MehrAfarin, Ali; Nohooji, Majid Ghorbani; Etminan, Alireza (2019)
    In the present investigation, 72 accessions of the Iranian poppy (Papaver bracteatum Lindl.) were analyzed for genetic diversity and population structure using start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers along with four important phytochemical traits to provide baseline knowledge for the Iranian poppy’s breeding and conservation plans. Twelve ISSR and thirteen SCoT primers generated a total of 98 and 186 fragments with a mean of 8.17 and 14.31 fragments per primer, respectively. Polymorphic information content for ISSR and SCoT primers ranged from 0.39 to 0.45 and 0.28 to 0.34, with the resolving power ranging from 21.61 to 3.97 and 13.08 to 28.02, respectively. Neighbour-joining (NJ) based clustering grouped 72 accessions into three main groups based on two markers studied (ISSR and SCoT) and the combined data (ISSR + SCoT), which associated with their eco-geographical regions. Population structure based analysis divided 72 accessions into 3 subpopulations using ISSR markers, when SCoT was used eight subpopulations were observed. However, when the combined data was used only three subpopulations were found, which corresponded to the grouping observed with the NJ method and these results were supported by principal coordinate analyses (PCoA). Phytochemical analysis revealed that plant capsule has higher total amounts of the alkaloids; thebaine, morphine and oripavine than stem tissues. Interestingly, for the geographical parameters, latitude showed a significant and positive correlation with thebaine extracted from both stem and capsules and the regression results confirmed these associations. Taken together, our results indicated that three populations Ploor, Eil-Teymoor and Anjomane due to their high contents of alkaloids like thebaine as well as the Taham population due to its high content of morphine and oripavine have a strong enough potency to be used in the pharmacy industry.
  • Aly, Ashraf A.; El-Sheref, Essmat M.; Mourad, Aboul-Fetouh E.; Bakheet, Momtaz E. M.; Bräse, Stefan; Nieger, Martin (2019)
    In this investigation an efficient synthesis of 2,3-bis-(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-3-yl)succinic acid derivatives was achieved by one-pot reaction of one equivalent of aromatic amines with two equivalents of diethyl malonate in diphenyl ether and catalyzed with triethylamine. In case of applying the previous condition with aromatic amines and diethyl malonate in a ratio of 2:1, no quinolone structure was obtained, whereas N-1,N-3-bis(4-bromophenyl)malonamide, as an example, was obtained in 95% yield. Under the same previous condition, arylmethylene-bis-3,3-quinoline-2-ones were in one pot synthesized via the reaction of equal equivalents of aromatic amines and diethyl malonate together with half equivalent of the corresponding aromatic aldehydes. The structure of the obtained compounds was proved by IR, NMR and mass spectra and X-ray structure analyses. [GRAPHICS] .
  • Jyske, Tuula; Järvenpää, Eila; Kunnas, Susan; Sarjala, Tytti; Raitanen, Jan-Erik; Mäki, Maarit; Pastell, Helena; Korpinen, Risto; Kaseva, Janne; Tupasela, Tuomo (2020)
    Developing shoots, i.e., sprouts, and older needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies(L.) Karst.) have traditionally been used for medicinal purposes due to the high content of vitamins and antioxidants. Currently, sprouts are available as, for example, superfood and supplements. However, end-product quality and nutritive value may decline in the value-chain from raw material sourcing to processing and storage. We studied (1) impacts of different drying and extraction methods on nutritional composition and antioxidative properties of sprouts and needles, (2) differences between sprouts and needles in nutritional composition and microbiological quality, and (3) production scale quality of the sprouts. Additionally, (4) sprout powder was applied in products (ice-cream and sorbet) and consumer acceptance was evaluated. According to our results, older needles have higher content of dry matter, energy, and calcium, but lower microbial quality than sprouts. Sprouts showed a higher concentration of vitamin C, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus than older needles. Freeze-drying was the best drying method preserving the quality of both sprouts and needles, e.g., vitamin C content. The antioxidative activity of the sprout extracts were lower than that of needles. Ethanol-water extraction resulted in a higher content of active compounds in the extract than water extraction. Sensory evaluation of food products revealed that on average, 76% of consumers considered sprout-containing products very good or good, and a creamy product was preferred over a water-based sorbet.