Browsing by Subject "ALL-CAUSE"

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  • Moller, Grith; Sluik, Diewertje; Ritz, Christian; Mikkilä, Vera; Raitakari, Olli T.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Dragsted, Lars O.; Larsen, Thomas M.; Poppitt, Sally D.; Silvestre, Marta P.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Raben, Anne (2017)
    Higher-protein diets have been advocated for body-weight regulation for the past few decades. However, the potential health risks of these diets are still uncertain. We aimed to develop a protein score based on the quantity and source of protein, and to examine the association of the score with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Analyses were based on three population studies included in the PREVIEW project (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Intervention and population studies in Europe and around the World): NQplus, Lifelines, and the Young Finns Study. Cross-sectional data from food-frequency questionnaires (n = 76,777 subjects) were used to develop a protein score consisting of two components: 1) percentage of energy from total protein, and 2) plant to animal protein ratio. An inverse association between protein score and HbA1c (slope -0.02 +/- 0.01 mmol/mol, p <0.001) was seen in Lifelines. We found a positive association between the protein score and eGFR in Lifelines (slope 0.17 +/- 0.02 mL/min/1.73 m(2), p <0.0001). Protein scoring might be a useful tool to assess both the effect of quantity and source of protein on health parameters. Further studies are needed to validate this newly developed protein score.
  • Rosenstrom, Tom; Fawcett, Tim W.; Higginson, Andrew D.; Metsa-Simola, Niina; Hagen, Edward H.; Houston, Alasdair I.; Martikainen, Pekka (2017)
    Divorce is associated with an increased probability of a depressive episode, but the causation of events remains unclear. Adaptive models of depression propose that depression is a social strategy in part, whereas non-adaptive models tend to propose a diathesis-stress mechanism. We compare an adaptive evolutionary model of depression to three alternative non-adaptive models with respect to their ability to explain the temporal pattern of depression around the time of divorce. Register-based data (304,112 individuals drawn from a random sample of 11% of Finnish people) on antidepressant purchases is used as a proxy for depression. This proxy affords an unprecedented temporal resolution (a 3-monthly prevalence estimates over 10 years) without any bias from non-compliance, and it can be linked with underlying episodes via a statistical model. The evolutionary-adaptation model (all time periods with risk of divorce are depressogenic) was the best quantitative description of the data. The non-adaptive stress-relief model (period before divorce is depressogenic and period afterwards is not) provided the second best quantitative description of the data. The peak-stress model (periods before and after divorce can be depressogenic) fit the data less well, and the stress-induction model (period following divorce is depressogenic and the preceding period is not) did not fit the data at all. The evolutionary model was the most detailed mechanistic description of the divorce-depression link among the models, and the best fit in terms of predicted curvature; thus, it offers most rigorous hypotheses for further study. The stress-relief model also fit very well and was the best model in a sensitivity analysis, encouraging development of more mechanistic models for that hypothesis.
  • Eranti, Antti; Kerola, Tuomas; Aro, Aapo L.; Tikkanen, Jani T.; Rissanen, Harri A.; Anttonen, Olli; Junttila, M. Juhani; Knekt, Paul; Huikuri, Heikki V. (2016)
    Background: Diabetes predisposes to sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, it is uncertain whether greater proportion of cardiac deaths are sudden among diabetes patients than other subjects. It is also unclear whether the risk of SCD is pronounced already early in the course of the disease. The relationship of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and SCD is scarcely documented. Methods: A general population cohort of 10594 middle-aged subjects (mean age 44 years, 52.6 % male, follow-up duration 35-41 years) was divided into diabetes patients (n = 82), subjects with IGT (n = 3806, plasma glucose = 9.58 mmol/l in one-hour glucose tolerance test), and controls (n = 6706). Results: Diabetes patients had an increased risk of SCD after adjustment confounders (hazard ratio 2.62, 95 % confidence interval 1.46-4.70, p = 0.001) but risk for non-sudden cardiac death was similarly increased and the proportion of SCD of cardiac deaths was not increased. The SCD risk persisted after exclusion of subjects with baseline cardiac disease or non-fatal cardiac events during the follow-up. Subjects with IGT were at increased risk for SCD (univariate hazard ratio 1.51; 95 % confidence interval 1.31-1.74; p <0.001) and also for non-sudden cardiac deaths and non-fatal cardiac events but adjustments for other risk factors attenuated these effects. Conclusions: Diabetes was associated with increased risk of SCD but also the risk of non-sudden cardiac death was similarly increased. The proportion of cardiac deaths being sudden in subjects with diabetes was not increased. The higher SCD risk in diabetes patients was independent of known cardiac disease at baseline or occurrence of nonfatal cardiac event during the follow-up.
  • Bijwaard, Govert E.; Tynelius, Per; Myrskylae, Mikko (2019)
    Education is negatively associated with most major causes of death. Prior work ignores the premise that cause-specific hazards are interdependent and that both education and mortality depend on cognitive ability. We analyse Swedish men aged 18-63, focusing on months lost due to specific causeswhich solves the interdependence problemand use a structural model that accounts for confounding due to cognitive ability. In a standard Cox model controlling for Intelligence Quotient, improving education is associated with large decreases in mortality for major causes of death. In the structural model, improving education is associated with a small decrease in months lost for most causes and education levels. Among the least educated, however, improving education strongly reduces the months lost, mainly those lost from external causes, such as accidents and suicide. Results suggest that conventional analysis of education and mortality may be biased, even if accounting for observed cognition.
  • Sánez Tähtisalo, Heini; Hiltunen, Timo P.; Kenttä, Tuomas; Junttila, Juhani; Oikarinen, Lasse; Virolainen, Juha; Kontula, Kimmo K.; Porthan, Kimmo (2020)
    Background T-wave area dispersion (TW-Ad) is a novel electrocardiographic (ECG) repolarization marker associated with sudden cardiac death. However, limited data is available on the clinical correlates of TW-Ad. In addition, there are no previous studies on cardiovascular drug effects on TW-Ad. In this study, we examined the relation between TW-Ad and left ventricular mass. We also studied the effects of four commonly used antihypertensive drugs on TW-Ad. Methods A total of 242 moderately hypertensive males (age, 51±6 years; office systolic/diastolic blood pressure during placebo, 153±14/100±8 mmHg), participating in the GENRES study, were included. Left ventricular mass index was determined by transthoracic echocardiography. Antihypertensive four-week monotherapies (a diuretic, a beta-blocker, a calcium channel blocker, and an angiotensin receptor antagonist) were administered in a randomized rotational fashion. Four-week placebo periods preceded all monotherapies. The average value of measurements (over 1700 ECGs in total) from all available placebo periods served as a reference to which measurements during each drug period were compared. Results Lower, i.e. risk-associated TW-Ad values correlated with a higher left ventricular mass index (r = −0.14, p = 0.03). Bisoprolol, a beta-blocker, elicited a positive change in TW-Ad (p = 1.9×10−5), but the three other drugs had no significant effect on TW-Ad. Conclusions Our results show that TW-Ad is correlated with left ventricular mass and can be modified favorably by the use of bisoprolol, although demonstration of any effects on clinical endpoints requires long-term prospective studies. Altogether, our results suggest that TW-Ad is an ECG repolarization measure of left ventricular arrhythmogenic substrate.
  • Baars, Adája E.; Rubio-Valverde, Jose R.; Hu, Yannan; Bopp, Matthias; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Kalediene, Ramune; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Regidor, Enrique; White, Chris; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Nusselder, Wilma J. (2019)
    ObjectivesTo assess to what extent educational differences in total life expectancy (TLE) and disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) could be reduced by improving fruit and vegetable consumption in ten European countries.MethodsData from national census or registries with mortality follow-up, EU-SILC, and ESS were used in two scenarios to calculate the impact: the upward levelling scenario (exposure in low educated equals exposure in high educated) and the elimination scenario (no exposure in both groups). Results are estimated for men and women between ages 35 and 79years.ResultsVarying by country, upward levelling reduced inequalities in DFLE by 0.1-1.1years (1-10%) in males, and by 0.0-1.3years (0-18%) in females. Eliminating exposure reduced inequalities in DFLE between 0.6 and 1.7years for males (6-15%), and between 0.1years and 1.8years for females (3-20%).ConclusionsUpward levelling of fruit and vegetable consumption would have a small, positive effect on both TLE and DFLE, and could potentially reduce inequalities in TLE and DFLE.
  • Hunjadi, Monika; Lamina, Claudia; Kahler, Patrick; Bernscherer, Tamara; Viikari, Jorma; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kähönen, Mika; Hurme, Mikko; Juonala, Markus; Taittonen, Leena; Laitinen, Tomi; Jokinen, Eero; Tossavainen, Päivi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli; Ritsch, Andreas (2020)
    The atherogenic process begins already in childhood and progresses to symptomatic condition with age. We investigated the association of cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) and vascular markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy, young adults. CEC was determined in 2282 participants of the Young Finns study using cAMP treated H-3-cholesterol-labeled J774 cells. The CEC was correlated to baseline and 6-year follow-up data of cardiovascular risk factors and ultrasound measurements of arterial structure and function. CEC was higher in women, correlated with total cholesterol, HDL-C, and apolipoprotein A-I, but not with LDL-C or apolipoprotein B. Compared to the lowest CEC quartile, the highest CEC quartile was significantly associated with high CRP levels and inversely associated with adiponectin. At baseline, high CEC was associated with decreased flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and carotid artery distensibility, as well as an increased Young's modulus of elasticity, indicating adverse changes in arterial structure, and function. The association reversed with follow-up FMD data, indicating the interaction of preclinical parameters over time. A higher CEC was directly associated with a lower risk of subclinical atherosclerosis at follow-up. In young and healthy subjects, CEC was associated with important lipid risk parameters at baseline, as in older patients and CAD patients, but inversely with early risk markers for subclinical atherosclerosis.
  • Shen, Yun; Li, Weiqin; Leng, Junhong; Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Huikun; Li, Wei; Wang, Leishen; Tian, Huiguang; Chen, Jinbo; Qi, Lu; Yang, Xilin; Yu, Zhijie; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Hu, Gang (2019)
    Aims: To investigate the risk of postpartum metabolic syndrome in women with GDM compared with those without GDM in a Chinese population. Methods: Tianjin GDM observational study included 1263 women with a history of GDM and 705 women without GDM. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess risks of postpartum metabolic syndrome between women with and without GDM. Postpartum metabolic syndrome was diagnosed by two commonly used criteria. Results: During a mean 3.53 years of follow up, 256 cases of metabolic syndrome were identified by using the NCEPATPIII criteria and 244 cases by using the IDF criteria. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of metabolic syndrome in women with GDM compared with those without GDM were 3.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.02-6.63) for NCEP ATPIII criteria and 3.90 (95% CI 2.13-7.14) for IDF criteria. Women with GDM had higher multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and high blood pressure than women without GDM. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of low HDL cholesterol and hyperglycemia were not significant between women with and without GDM, however, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of hyperglycemia became significant when we used the modified criteria. Conclusions: The present study indicated that women with prior GDM had significantly higher risks for postpartum metabolic syndrome, as well as its individual components. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Laine, Riku; Myrskylä, Mikko; Kaskela, Teemu; Pitkänen, Tuuli (2022)
    Background The first few weeks’ post-imprisonment are associated with high mortality, particularly among individuals with a history of substance use. Excess risk may vary by societal context due to a range of penal systems and substance use patterns. Using data on Finnish individuals who had sought treatment for substance use, we studied the association between criminal sanctions with cause-specific mortality. Methods The database contained 10887 individuals who had sought treatment between 1990 and 2009. Their treatment data were combined with register data on imprisonments and community sanctions and weekly mortality between 1992 and 2015. Mortality was analysed using discrete-time survival models. We controlled for age and sociodemographic factors, and analysed whether education, type of substance used and the type of latest sentence modified the associations. Findings Mortality was high in the first two weeks after sanctions (all-cause odds ratio [OR] 2.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.67-4.07; drug-related deaths OR 8.52, 95% CI 4.64-15.7). Excess risk declined over time (OR after 12 weeks: 1.19, 95% CI 1.07-1.31). Most of the excess risk was attributable to external causes. Mortality was low during imprisonment, but not during community sanctions. The patterns were similar by level of education, substance use and the type of latest sentence. Conclusions Community sanctions were not associated with mortality among people with substance use disorders. Mortality was low during imprisonment, but high post-release. Criminal sanctions should be better utilised as intervention touchpoints and follow-up resources should target prisoners with substance use treatment history to reduce post-release mortality.
  • Einiö, Elina; Goisis, Alice; Myrskylä, Mikko (2019)
    Becoming a father, particularly for the first time, is a central transition in men's lives, and whether this transition takes place early or later in life may have important ramifications on the whole later life course. Previous research has shown that men who father their first child early in life have poorer later-life health than men who postpone having children. However, it is not known how selection by cognitive ability and other childhood characteristics confound the association between the timing of fatherhood and later-life health, or how the association is changing over time as parenthood is postponed to an older age. We investigate the association between men's age at the birth of their first child and midlife self-rated health in two British cohorts born in 1958 and 1970. The study employs logit models. Relative to men who had their first child when they were between 25 and 29 years old, men who had their first child before the age of 20 have the poorest health, followed by men who had a child when they were 20-24 years old. This result was observed in both cohorts. Childhood cognitive ability, which previous research has not analyzed, strongly contributed to this association, and to a greater extent than other childhood characteristics. For the 1970 cohort, those who became fathers at age 35 or older had the best health. This advantage was not found for the 1958 cohort. These findings suggest that the relationship between young age at fatherhood and midlife health is strongly confounded by cognitive ability, and that in recent cohorts a new pattern of advantage among older fathers has emerged.
  • Cuthbertson, Daniel J.; Brown, Emily; Koskinen, Juha; Magnussen, Costan G.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Sabin, Matthew; Tossavainen, Päivi; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T.; Juonala, Markus (2019)
    Background & Aims We aimed to determine how childhood body mass index and metabolic health, along with the change in body mass index between childhood and adulthood, determine the risk of adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods Data from 2020 participants aged 3-18 years at baseline, followed up 31 years later, were examined to assess the utility of four childhood metabolic phenotypes (Metabolic Groups I: normal body mass index, no metabolic disturbances; II: normal body mass index, one or more metabolic disturbances; III: overweight/obese, no metabolic disturbances; IV: overweight/obese, one or more metabolic disturbances) and four life-course adiposity phenotypes (Adiposity Group 1: normal child and adult body mass index; 2, high child, normal adult body mass index; 3, normal child body mass index, high adult body mass index; 4, high child and adult body mass index) in predicting adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Results The risk for adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was similar across all four groups after adjustment for age, sex, lifestyle factors and adult body mass index. Risk of adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was not increased among individuals overweight/obese in childhood but non-obese in adulthood. In contrast, overweight or obese adults, irrespective of their youth body mass index status, had similar to eight-fold to 10-fold increased risk (P <0.001). Conclusions Childhood overweight/obesity, not metabolic health, is associated with increased risk for adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, the increased risk associated with childhood overweight/obesity can be largely removed by obtaining a normal body mass index by adulthood.
  • Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Gordin, Daniel; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Salopuro, Titta; Adeshara, Krishna; Sibolt, Gerli; Curtze, Sami; Pirinen, Jani; Liebkind, Ron; Soinne, Lauri; Sairanen, Tiina; Suihko, Satu; Lehto, Mika; Sinisalo, Juha; Groop, Per-Henrik; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Putaala, Jukka (2022)
    Background and Purpose: We aimed to assess the association between covert atherosclerosis, arterial stiffness, and early-onset cryptogenic ischemic stroke (CIS) in a prospective case-control study. Methods: We enrolled 123 young CIS patients (median age 41 years; 42% women) and 123 age- and sex-matched controls. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), Augmentation Index (AIx), central pulse wave velocity (PWV), and subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR) were compared between patients and controls. Conditional logistic regression was used adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, current smoking, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Total-C/HDL-C) ratio, and glycated albumin to assess the independent association between CIMT, arterial stiffness and CIS. Results: Patients with higher CIMT and PWV were older, more often men and they had more frequently well-documented risk factors, lower HDL and higher Total-C/HDL-C ratio compared to other tertiles. In univariate comparisons, we found no differences between patients and controls regarding CIMT, AIx, or PWV. In the entire cohort, patients had a significantly lower SEVR compared to controls (146.3%, interquartile range [IQR] 125.7-170.3 vs. 158.0%, IQR 141.3-181.0, P=0.010). SEVR was lower also in women compared to their controls (132.0%, IQR 119.4-156.1 vs. 158.7%, IQR 142.0-182.8, P=0.001) but no significant difference appeared between male patients and male controls. However, after adjusting for comorbidities and laboratory values these significant differences were lost (odds ratio [OR] 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-4.91) in the entire cohort and OR 3.89, 95% CI 0.30-50.80 in women). Conclusions: Higher CIMT and PWV were associated to higher age, male sex, and several well-documented cardiovascular risk factors. However, in this study we could not prove that either covert atherosclerosis or arterial stiffness contribute to pathogenesis of early-onset CIS.
  • Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Girchenko, Polina; Robinson, Rachel; Lehto, Soili M.; Toffol, Elena; Heinonen, Kati; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele; Villa, Pia M.; Hamalainen, Esa; Lahti, Jari; Raikkonen, Katri (2020)
    Background Maternal depression during pregnancy increases the risk for adverse developmental outcomes in children. However, the underpinning biological mechanisms remain unknown. We tested whether depression was associated with levels of and change in the inflammatory state during pregnancy, if early pregnancy overweight/obesity or diabetes/hypertensive pregnancy disorders accounted for/mediated these effects, and if depression added to the inflammation that typically accompanies these conditions. Methods We analyzed plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and glycoprotein acetyls at three consecutive stages during pregnancy, derived history of depression diagnoses before pregnancy from Care Register for Healthcare (HILMO) (N= 375) and self-reports (N= 347) and depressive symptoms during pregnancy using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale completed concurrently to blood samplings (N= 295). Data on early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and diabetes/hypertensive pregnancy disorders came from medical records. Results Higher overall hsCRP levels, but not change, during pregnancy were predicted by history of depression diagnosis before pregnancy [HILMO: mean difference (MD) = 0.69 standard deviation (s.d.) units; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26-1.11, self-report: MD = 0.56s.d.; 95% CI 0.17-0.94] and higher depressive symptoms during pregnancy (0.06s.d.pers.d.increase; 95% CI 0.00-0.13). History of depression diagnosis before pregnancy also predicted higher overall glycoprotein acetyls (HILMO: MD = 0.52s.d.; 95% CI 0.12-0.93). These associations were not explained by diabetes/hypertensive disorders, but were accounted for and mediated by early pregnancy BMI. Furthermore, in obese women, overall hsCRP levels increased as depressive symptoms during pregnancy increased (p= 0.006 for interaction). Conclusions Depression is associated with a proinflammatory state during pregnancy. These associations are mediated by early pregnancy BMI, and depressive symptoms during pregnancy aggravate the inflammation related to obesity.
  • Liljestrand, J. M.; Havulinna, A. S.; Paju, S.; Mannisto, S.; Salomaa, V.; Pussinen, P. J. (2015)
    Periodontitis, the main cause of tooth loss in the middle-aged and elderly, associates with the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease. The objective was to study the capability of the number of missing teeth in predicting incident cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), diabetes, and all-cause death. The National FINRISK 1997 Study is a Finnish population-based survey of 8,446 subjects with 13 y of follow-up. Dental status was recorded at baseline in a clinical examination by a trained nurse, and information on incident CVD events, diabetes, and death was obtained via national registers. The registered CVD events included coronary heart disease events, acute myocardial infarction, and stroke. In Cox regression analyses, having >= 5 teeth missing was associated with 60% to 140% increased hazard for incident coronary heart disease events (P <0.020) and acute myocardial infarction (P <0.010). Incident CVD (P <0.043), diabetes (P <0.040), and death of any cause (P <0.019) were associated with >= 9 missing teeth. No association with stroke was observed. Adding information on missing teeth to established risk factors improved risk discrimination of death (P = 0.0128) and provided a statistically significant net reclassification improvement for all studied end points. Even a few missing teeth may indicate an increased risk of CVD, diabetes, or all-cause mortality. When individual risk factors for chronic diseases are assessed, the number of missing teeth could be a useful additional indicator for general medical practitioners.
  • Lindberg, Nina; Miettunen, Jouko; Heiskala, Anni; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu (2017)
    Background: The mortality rate of young offenders is high. Furthermore, mortality in young offenders is associated with psychiatric and substance use disorders. The primary aim of this national register-based follow-up study was to investigate the mortality rate of Finnish delinquents who underwent a forensic psychiatric examination between 1980 and 2010. As delinquency is not a solid entity, we further aimed to compare the risk of premature death among different subgroups of the delinquents; violent versus non-violent offenders, offenders with alcohol use disorders versus those with no such diagnoses, offenders with schizophrenia spectrum disorders versus conduct-and personality-disordered offenders, under-aged versus young adult offenders, and, finally, boys versus girls. Methods: We collected the forensic psychiatric examination reports of all 15- to 19-year-old offenders who were born in Finland and had undergone the examination between 1.1.1980 and 31.12.2010 (n = 606) from the archives of the National Institute of Health and Welfare and retrospectively reviewed them. For each delinquent, four age-, gender- and place of birth-matched controls were randomly selected from the Central Population Register (n = 2424). The delinquents and their controls were followed until the end of 2015. The median follow-up time was 23.9 years (interquartile range 15.3-29.5). We obtained the mortality data from the causes of death register. Deaths attributable to a disease or an occupational disease were considered natural, and those attributable to an accident, suicide or homicide were considered unnatural. Results: By the end of the follow-up period, 22.1% (n = 134) of the delinquents and 3.4% (n = 82) of their controls had died (OR 8.11, 95% CI 6.05-10.86, p <0.001). Among boys, 22.0% (n = 121) of the delinquents and 3.7% (n = 81) of the controls had died (OR 7.38, 95% CI 5.46-9.95, p <0.001). Male delinquents' risk of unnatural death was almost 11-fold, of natural death more than twofold, and of unclear death more than fourfold compared to that of their controls. No girls had natural or unclear deaths, but 23.6% (n = 13) of the delinquents and 0.5% (n = 1) of the controls had died due to unnatural causes (OR 67.79, 95% CI 8.63-532.00, p <0.001). The violent delinquents' risk of premature death was twice that of the non-violent delinquents. The other comparisons demonstrated no statistically significant differences between subgroups. Conclusions: Even though the Finnish correction system prefers psychiatric treatment and rehabilitation over criminal sanctions, and the national health care system offers developmental-phase-specific psychiatric care, the mortality rate of delinquents, especially of those with a history of violent offences, is high. The excess mortality of offenders can be regarded as a specific public-health inequity that calls for more effective intervention procedures than those used thus far.
  • GBD 2020 Alcohol Collaborators; Bryazka, Dana; Reitsma, Marissa B.; Griswold, Max G.; Kivimäki, Mika; Lallukka, Tea; Meretoja, Atte (2022)
    Background The health risks associated with moderate alcohol consumption continue to be debated. Small amounts of alcohol might lower the risk of some health outcomes but increase the risk of others, suggesting that the overall risk depends, in part, on background disease rates, which vary by region, age, sex, and year. Methods For this analysis, we constructed burden-weighted dose-response relative risk curves across 22 health outcomes to estimate the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL) and non-drinker equivalence (NDE), the consumption level at which the health risk is equivalent to that of a non-drinker, using disease rates from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2020 for 21 regions, including 204 countries and territories, by 5-year age group, sex, and year for individuals aged 15-95 years and older from 1990 to 2020. Based on the NDE, we quantified the population consuming harmful amounts of alcohol. Findings The burden-weighted relative risk curves for alcohol use varied by region and age. Among individuals aged 15-39 years in 2020, the TMREL varied between 0 (95% uncertainty interval 0-0) and 0.603 (0.400-1.00) standard drinks per day, and the NDE varied between 0.002 (0-0) and 1.75 (0.698-4.30) standard drinks per day. Among individuals aged 40 years and older, the burden-weighted relative risk curve was J-shaped for all regions, with a 2020 TMREL that ranged from 0.114 (0-0.403) to 1.87 (0.500-3.30) standard drinks per day and an NDE that ranged between 0.193 (0-0.900) and 6.94 (3.40-8.30) standard drinks per day. Among individuals consuming harmful amounts of alcohol in 2020, 59.1% (54.3-65.4) were aged 15-39 years and 76.9% (73.0-81.3) were male. Interpretation There is strong evidence to support recommendations on alcohol consumption varying by age and location. Stronger interventions, particularly those tailored towards younger individuals, are needed to reduce the substantial global health loss attributable to alcohol. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Tikanmaki, Marjaana; Tammelin, Tuija; Vaarasmaki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Miettola, Satu; Pouta, Anneli; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero (2017)
    Background: Lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are key risk factors of chronic adult diseases. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are predicted by birth weight, but the underlying parental and pregnancy-related factors remain largely unknown. We examined how prenatal determinants are associated with physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. Methods: Of the 16-year-old members of the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986), 6682 singletons with no major physical disability reported their amount of physical activity outside school hours, and 4706 completed a submaximal cycle ergometer test assessing cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical activity was expressed as metabolic equivalent hours per week (METh/week) and cardiorespiratory fitness as peak oxygen uptake (ml center dot kg(-1)center dot min(-1)). Prenatal determinants included birth weight, length of gestation, mother's and father's body mass index (BMI), maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and maternal hypertension and smoking during pregnancy. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results: A higher birth weight and longer length of gestation predicted lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness at 16 years, although the association between length of gestation and physical activity was inverse U-shaped. Mother's or father's overweight or obesity before pregnancy were associated with lower levels of their offspring's physical activity and fitness in adolescence. Adjusting for maternal pregnancy disorders and the adolescent's own BMI attenuated the associations with the mother's but not the father's overweight/obesity. Furthermore, maternal GDM predicted lower cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusions: A high birth weight and parental overweight/obesity are associated with lower levels of both physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence, while maternal GDM and longer length of gestation are associated with lower cardiorespiratory fitness. Both long and short lengths of gestation predict low physical activity.
  • Lind, Marcus; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; Nerman, Olle; Eriksson, Johan; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Peltonen, Markku; Pivodic, Aldina; Lindstrom, Jaana (2014)
  • Martikainen, Pekka; Elo, Irma; Tarkiainen, Lasse; Mikkonen, Janne; Myrskylä, Mikko; Moustgaard, Heta (2020)
    Background: Life course epidemiology suggests that early life circumstances affect adult mortality, but most of the evidence is based on cohorts born in the beginning of the 20th century. It remains unclear whether and how the influences of early life circumstances on mortality have changed in later birth cohorts. Methods: Analyses rely on 10% register-based samples of households drawn from the 1950 and the 1975 Finnish censuses, with consistent follow-up of socioeconomic and housing-related characteristics and early mid-life mortality (at ages 30-55 years). We estimate survival models for the associations between childhood circumstances and all-cause, internal and external mortality for cohorts born in 1936-50 and 1961-75 adjusting for attained social characteristics. We estimate sibling intraclass correlations as summary measures of all early life and familial influences. Results: Adverse childhood social circumstances were typically associated with about 10-30% excess cause-specific mortality. These associations were almost fully attenuated by adjustment for achieved later life social characteristics. Early life influences have grown over time for mortality from external causes, particularly as related to home ownership and family type. Differentials have remained stable for internal causes. The intraclass correlations further confirmed the increasing association of early life circumstances on external-cause mortality. Conclusions: Our analyses show that the associations between childhood characteristics and mid-life mortality are substantial and almost fully mediated by achieved adult social characteristics. The increase in the contribution of childhood circumstances to mid-life mortality is driven by ever stronger associations with external causes of death.
  • Suarez, Anna; Lahti, Jari; Czamara, Darina; Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Girchenko, Polina; Andersson, Sture; Strandberg, Timo E.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Kajantie, Eero; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Räikkönen, Katri (2018)
    Background: Molecular aging biomarkers, such as epigenetic age predictors, predict risk factors of premature aging, and morbidity/mortality more accurately than chronological age in middle-aged and elderly populations. Yet, it remains elusive if such biomarkers are associated with aging-related outcomes earlier in life when individuals begin to diverge in aging trajectories. We tested if the Horvath epigenetic age predictor is associated with pubertal, neuroendocrine, psychiatric, and cognitive aging-related outcomes in a sample of 239 adolescents, 11.0-13.2 years-old. Results: Each year increase in epigenetic age acceleration (AA) was associated with 0.06 SD units higher weight-for-age, 0.08 SD units taller height-for-age, -0.09 SD units less missed from the expected adult height, 13 and 16% higher odds, respectively, for each stage increase in breast/genitals development on the Tanner Staging Questionnaire and pubertal stage on the Pubertal Development Scale, 4.2% higher salivary cortisol upon awakening, and 18 to 34% higher odds for internalizing and thought problems on the Child Behavior Checklist (p values <0.045). AA was not significantly associated with cognition. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that already in adolescence, AA is associated with physiological age acceleration, which may index risk of earlier aging. AA may identify individuals for preventive interventions decades before aging-related diseases become manifest.