Browsing by Subject "ALLOCATION"

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  • Hu, Man; Pitkanen, Timo P.; Minunno, Francesco; Tian, Xianglin; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Makela, Annikki (2021)
    Background and Aims Branch biomass and other attributes are important for estimating the carbon budget of forest stands and characterizing crown structure. As destructive measuring is time-consuming and labour-intensive, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) as a solution has been used to estimate branch biomass quickly and non-destructively. However, branch information extraction from TLS data alone is challenging due to occlusion and other defects, especially for estimating individual branch attributes in coniferous trees. Methods This study presents a method, entitled TSMtls, to estimate individual branch biomass non-destructively and accurately by combining tree structure models and TLS data. The TSMtls method constructs the stem-taper curve from TLS data, then uses tree structure models to determine the number, basal area and biomass of individual branches at whorl level. We estimated the tree structural model parameters from 122 destructively measured Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees and tested the method on six Scots pine trees that were first TLS-scanned and later destructively measured. Additionally, we estimated the branch biomass using other TLS-based approaches for comparison. Key Results Tree-level branch biomass estimates derived from TSMtls showed the best agreement with the destructive measurements [coefficient of variation of root mean square error (CV-RMSE) = 9.66 % and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) = 0.99], outperforming the other TLS-based approaches (CV-RMSE 12.97-57.45 % and CCC 0.43-0.98 ). Whorl-level individual branch attributes estimates produced from TSMtls showed more accurate results than those produced from TLS data directly. Conclusions The results showed that the TSMtls method proposed in this study holds promise for extension to more species and larger areas.
  • Liu, Miao; Liu, Xingxing; Kang, Jieyu; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang (2020)
    This study clarifies the mechanisms of Cd uptake, translocation and detoxification in Populus cathayana Rehder females and males, and reveals a novel strategy for dioecious plants to cope with Cd contamination. Females exhibited a high degree of Cd uptake and root-to-shoot translocation, while males showed extensive Cd accumulation in roots, elevated antioxidative capacity, and effective cellular and bark Cd sequestration. Our study also found that Cd is largely located in epidermal and cortical tissues of male roots and leaves, while in females, more Cd was present in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, as well as in leaf mesophyll. In addition, the distributions of sulphur (S) and phosphorus (P) were very similar as that of Cd in males, but the associations were weak in females. Scanning electron microscopy and energy spectroscopy analyses suggested that the amounts of tissue Cd were positively correlated with P and S amounts in males, but not in females (a weak correlation between S and Cd). Transcriptional data suggested that Cd stress promoted the upregulation of genes related to Cd uptake and translocation in females, and that of genes related to cell wall biosynthesis, metal tolerance and secondary metabolism in males. Our results indicated that coordinated physiological, microstructural and transcriptional responses to Cd stress endowed superior Cd tolerance in males compared with females, and provided new insights into mechanisms underlying sexually differential responses to Cd stress.
  • ENCKEP COST Action; Biro, Peter; Salonen, Mikko (2019)
    Background. Considerable differences exist among the living donor Kidney Exchange Programmes (KEPs) that are in use and being built in Europe, contributing to a variation in the number of living donor transplants (Newsletter Transplant; International figures on donation and transplantation 2016). Efforts of European KEPs to exchange (best) practices and share approaches to address challenges have, however, been limited. Methods. Experts from 23 European countries, collaborating on the European Network for Collaboration on Kidney Exchange Programmes Cooperation on Science and Technology Action, developed a questionnaire to collect detailed information on the functioning of all existing KEPs in Europe, as well as their opportunities and challenges. Following a comparative analysis, results were synthesized and interpreted by the same experts. Results. The practices, opportunities and challenges reported by 17 European countries reveal that some of the 10 operating programs are mature, whereas others are in earlier stages of development. Over 1300 transplants were performed through existing KEPs up to the end of 2016, providing approximately 8% of their countries' living kidney donations in 2015. All countries report challenges to either initiating KEPs or increasing volumes. Some challenges are shared, whereas others differ because of differences in context (eg, country size, effectiveness of deceased donor program) and ethical and legal considerations (eg, regarding living donation as such, nonrelated donors, and altruistic donation). Transnational initiatives have started in Central Europe, Scandinavia, and Southern Europe. Conclusions. Exchange of best practices and shared advancement of national programs to address existing challenges, aided by transnational exchanges, may substantially improve access to the most (cost) effective treatment for the increasing number of patients suffering from kidney disease.
  • Zweifel, Roman; Etzold, Sophia; Sterck, Frank; Gessler, Arthur; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Mencuccini, Maurizio; von Arx, Georg; Lazzarin, Martina; Haeni, Matthias; Feichtinger, Linda; Meusburger, Katrin; Knuesel, Simon; Walthert, Lorenz; Salmon, Yann; Bose, Arun K.; Schoenbeck, Leonie; Hug, Christian; De Girardi, Nicolas; Giuggiola, Arnaud; Schaub, Marcus; Rigling, Andreas (2020)
    Tree responses to altered water availability range from immediate (e.g. stomatal regulation) to delayed (e.g. crown size adjustment). The interplay of the different response times and processes, and their effects on long-term whole-tree performance, however, is hardly understood. Here we investigated legacy effects on structures and functions of mature Scots pine in a dry inner-Alpine Swiss valley after stopping an 11-yr lasting irrigation treatment. Measured ecophysiological time series were analysed and interpreted with a system-analytic tree model. We found that the irrigation stop led to a cascade of downregulations of physiological and morphological processes with different response times. Biophysical processes responded within days, whereas needle and shoot lengths, crown transparency, and radial stem growth reached control levels after up to 4 yr only. Modelling suggested that organ and carbon reserve turnover rates play a key role for a tree's responsiveness to environmental changes. Needle turnover rate was found to be most important to accurately model stem growth dynamics. We conclude that leaf area and its adjustment time to new conditions is the main determinant for radial stem growth of pine trees as the transpiring area needs to be supported by a proportional amount of sapwood, despite the growth-inhibiting environmental conditions.
  • Li, Yan; Kang, Jieyu; Li, Zhijun; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang (2020)
    Aims Populus deltoides and P. euramericana are widely used in China as major forestry species. At present, little is known about their responses to nitrogen (N) deficiency when grown in monocultures or mixed plantations. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the growth, and morphological and physiological responses of P. deltoides and P. euramericana to different N levels under competition conditions. Methods We employed two Populus species (P. deltoides and P. euramericana) to discover how N deficiency affects plant traits under different competition types (P. deltoides x P. deltoides, intraspecific competition; P. euramericana x P. euramericana, intraspecific competition; P. deltoides x P. euramericana, interspecific competition). Potted seedlings were exposed to two N levels (normal N, N deficiency), and nitrogen- and competition-driven differences in growth, morphology and physiology were examined. Important Findings Under normal N conditions, interspecific competition significantly decreased the total root weight, root mass fraction (RMF), root-shoot ratio (R/S) and carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N), and increased the leaf dry weight, leaf mass fraction and total leaf area of P. euramericana compared with intraspecific competition. The same conditions significantly affected the growth and morphological variables of P. deltoides, except for the dry weight of fine roots, R/S, specific leaf area, RMF, total nitrogen content and C/N compared with intraspecific competition. In addition, chlorophyll a (Chla), total chlorophyll (Tchl), carotenoid contents (Caro) and the carbon isotope composition (delta C-13) of P. deltoides were significantly lower in interspecific competition than in intraspecific competition, but no difference was detected in P. euramericana. The effects of N deficiency on P. deltoides under intraspecific competition were stronger than under interspecific competition. In contrast, the effects of N deficiency on P. euramericana between intraspecific and interspecific competition were not significantly different. These results suggest that under normal N condition, P. deltoides is expected to gain an advantage in monocultures rather than in mixtures with P. euramericana. Under N deficiency, the growth performance of P. euramericana was more stable than that of P. deltoides under both cultivation modes.
  • Tupek, Boris; Launiainen, Samuli; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sievanen, Risto; Perttunen, Jari; Kulmala, Liisa; Penttila, Timo; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Hashimoto, Shoji; Lehtonen, Aleksi (2019)
    We can curb climate change by improved management decisions for the most important terrestrial carbon pool, soil organic carbon stock (SOC). However, we need to be confident we can obtain the correct representation of the simultanous effect of the input of plant litter, soil temperature and water (which could be altered by climate or management) on the decomposition of soil organic matter. In this research, we used regression and Bayesian statistics for testing process-based models (Yasso07, Yasso15 and CENTURY) with soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and SOC, measured at four sites in Finland during 2015 and 2016. We extracted climate modifiers for calibration with Rh. The Rh values of Yasso07, Yasso15 and CENTURY models estimated with default parameterization correlated with measured monthly heterotrophic respiration. Despite a significant correlation, models on average underestimated measured soil respiration by 43%. After the Bayesian calibration, the fitted climate modifier of the Yasso07 model outperformed the Yasso15 and CENTURY models. The Yasso07 model had smaller residual mean square errors and temperature and water functions with fewer, thus more efficient, parameters than the other models. After calibration, there was a small overestimate of Rh by the models that used monotonic moisture functions and a small generic underestimate in autumn. The mismatch between measured and modelled Rh indicates that the Yasso and CENTURY models should be improved by adjusting climate modifiers of decomposition or by accounting for missing controls in, for example, microbial growth.
  • Yrttimaa, Tuomas; Luoma, Ville; Saarinen, Ninni; Kankare, Elina; Junttila, Samuli; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppa, Juha; Vastaranta, Mikko (2022)
    Tree growth is a physio-ecological phenomena of high interest among researchers across disciplines. Observing changes in tree characteristics has conventionally required either repeated measurements of the characteristics of living trees, retrospective measurements of destructively sampled trees, or modelling. The use of close-range sensing techniques such as terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has enabled non-destructive approaches to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) structure of trees and tree communities in space and time. This study aims at improving the understanding of tree allometry in general and interactions between tree growth and its neighbourhood in particular by using two-date point clouds. We investigated how variation in the increments in basal area at the breast height (Delta g(1.3)), basal area at height corresponding to 60% of tree height (Delta g(0)(6h)), and volume of the stem section below 50% of tree height (Delta v(05h) ) can be explained with TLS point cloud-based attributes characterizing the spatiotemporal structure of a tree crown and crown neighbourhood, entailing the competitive status of a tree. The analyses were based on 218 trees on 16 sample plots whose 3D characteristics were obtained at the beginning (2014, T1) and at the end of the monitoring period (2019, T2) from multi-scan TLS point clouds using automatic point cloud processing methods. The results of this study showed that, within certain tree communities, strong relationships (vertical bar r vertical bar > 0.8) were observed between increments in the stem dimensions and the attributes characterizing crown structure and competition. Most often, attributes characterizing the competitive status of a tree, and the crown structure at T1, were the most important attributes to explain variation in the increments of stem dimensions. Linear mixed-effect modelling showed that single attributes could explain up to 35-60% of the observed variation in Delta g(1.3), Delta g(0)(6h) and Delta V-0(5h), depending on the tree species. This tree-level evidence of the allometric relationship between stem growth and crown dynamics can further be used to justify landscape-level analyses based on airborne remote sensing technologies to monitor stem growth through the structure and development of crown structure. This study contributes to the existing knowledge by showing that laser-based close-range sensing is a feasible technology to provide 3D characterization of stem and crown structure, enabling one to quantify structural changes and the competitive status of trees for improved understanding of the underlying growth processes.
  • Global Burden Dis Hlth Financing; Micah, Angela E.; Su, Yanfang; Bachmeier, Steven D.; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Meretoja, Atte (2020)
    Background Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3 aims to "ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages". While a substantial effort has been made to quantify progress towards SDG3, less research has focused on tracking spending towards this goal. We used spending estimates to measure progress in financing the priority areas of SDG3, examine the association between outcomes and financing, and identify where resource gains are most needed to achieve the SDG3 indicators for which data are available. Methods We estimated domestic health spending, disaggregated by source (government, out-of-pocket, and prepaid private) from 1995 to 2017 for 195 countries and territories. For disease-specific health spending, we estimated spending for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis for 135 low-income and middle-income countries, and malaria in 106 malaria-endemic countries, from 2000 to 2017. We also estimated development assistance for health (DAH) from 1990 to 2019, by source, disbursing development agency, recipient, and health focus area, including DAH for pandemic preparedness. Finally, we estimated future health spending for 195 countries and territories from 2018 until 2030. We report all spending estimates in inflation-adjusted 2019 US$, unless otherwise stated. Findings Since the development and implementation of the SDGs in 2015, global health spending has increased, reaching $7.9 trillion (95% uncertainty interval 7.8-8.0) in 2017 and is expected to increase to $11.0 trillion (10.7-11.2) by 2030. In 2017, in low-income and middle-income countries spending on HIV/AIDS was $20.2 billion (17.0-25.0) and on tuberculosis it was $10.9 billion (10.3-11.8), and in malaria-endemic countries spending on malaria was $5.1 billion (4.9-5.4). Development assistance for health was $40.6 billion in 2019 and HIV/AIDS has been the health focus area to receive the highest contribution since 2004. In 2019, $374 million of DAH was provided for pandemic preparedness, less than 1% of DAH. Although spending has increased across HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria since 2015, spending has not increased in all countries, and outcomes in terms of prevalence, incidence, and per-capita spending have been mixed. The proportion of health spending from pooled sources is expected to increase from 81.6% (81.6-81.7) in 2015 to 83.1% (82.8-83.3) in 2030. Interpretation Health spending on SDG3 priority areas has increased, but not in all countries, and progress towards meeting the SDG3 targets has been mixed and has varied by country and by target. The evidence on the scale-up of spending and improvements in health outcomes suggest a nuanced relationship, such that increases in spending do not always results in improvements in outcomes. Although countries will probably need more resources to achieve SDG3, other constraints in the broader health system such as inefficient allocation of resources across interventions and populations, weak governance systems, human resource shortages, and drug shortages, will also need to be addressed. Copyright (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Arvola, Anne; Malkamäki, Arttu; Penttilä, Juho; Toppinen, Anne (2019)
    In the rapidly growing Tanzanian economy, increasing demand for timber and limited wood supply from industrial plantations and natural forests have opened a new livelihood opportunity for smallholder farmers in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania, which is undergoing a tree-growing boom. In the absence of support services, research and statistics, the magnitude of the phenomena has remained unclear, along with the farmers’ capability to meet market demands, access the markets, and negotiate prices. Primary qualitative data were collected to clarify the role of smallholder tree growers in the forest transition process and wood value chain using 60 semi-structured tree farmer interviews in four villages, and through interviews of timber buyers and processors. The findings indicate that the strong market demand has created dual markets, where higher quality industrial plantations mainly supply larger industries, whereas micro and small enterprises source wood from lower quality smallholder plantations. While the markets’ quality criteria are expected to tighten, capacity building is needed to improve smallholder wood quality to ensure the long-run tree-growing livelihood and competitiveness of small-scale producers in the markets.
  • Liu, Miao; Bi, Jingwen; Liu, Xiucheng; Kang, Jieyu; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ulo; Li, Chunyang (2020)
    Although increasing attention has been paid to the relationships between heavy metal and nitrogen (N) availability, the mechanism underlying adaptation to cadmium (Cd) stress in dioecious plants has been largely overlooked. This study examined Cd accumulation, translocation and allocation among tissues and cellular compartments in Populus cathayana Rehder females and males. Both leaf Cd accumulation and root-to-shoot Cd translocation were significantly greater in females than in males under a normal N supply, but they were reduced in females and enhanced in males under N deficiency. The genes related to Cd uptake and translocation, HMA2, YSL2 and ZIP2, were strongly induced by Cd stress in female roots and in males under a normal N supply. Cadmium largely accumulated in the leaf blades of females and in the leaf veins of males under a normal N supply, while the contrary was true under N deficiency. Furthermore, Cd was mainly distributed in the leaf epidermis and spongy tissues of males, and in the leaf palisade tissues of females. Nitrogen deficiency increased Cd allocation to the spongy tissues of female leaves and to the palisade tissues of males. In roots, Cd was preferentially distributed to the epidermis and cortices in both sexes, and also to the vascular tissues of females under a normal N supply but not under N deficiency. These results suggested that males possess better Cd tolerance compared with females, even under N deficiency, which is associated with their reduced root-to-shoot Cd translocation, specific Cd distribution in organic and/or cellular compartments, and enhanced antioxidation and ion homeostasis. Our study also provides new insights into engineering woody plants for phytoremediation.
  • Palonen, Vesa; Pumpanen, Jukka; Kulmala, Liisa-Maija; Levin, Ingeborg; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Vesala, Timo (2018)
    We present a radiocarbon (C-14) dataset of tropospheric air CO2 forest soil air CO2, and soil CO2 emissions over the course of one growing season in a Scots pine forest in southern Finland. The CO2 collection for C-14 accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis was done with a portable, suitcase-sized system, using molecular sieve cartridges to selectively trap CO2 The piloting measurements aimed to quantify the spatial, seasonal and diurnal changes in the C-14 content of CO2 in a northern forest site. The atmospheric samples collected above the canopy showed a large seasonal variation and an 11 parts per thousand difference between day and nighttime profiles in August. The higher Delta C-14 values during night are partly explained by a higher contribution of C-14-elevated soil CO2, accumulating in the nocturnal boundary layer when vertical mixing is weak. We observed significant seasonal trends in Delta C-14-CO2 at different soil depths that reflected changes in the shares of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration. Also the observed diurnal variation in the Delta C-14 values in soil CO2 highlighted the changes in the origin of CO2, with root activity decreasing more for the night than decomposition.
  • Guo, Qingxue; Wu, Xiaoyi; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang (2020)
    Plant-plant competition is a dynamic and complicated process that is strongly influenced by abiotic conditions. Drought is a critical threat to forests, particularly to young plantation forests. Temporal changes in competition combined with the effects of drought may dramatically influence the physiological traits of plants. Cunninghamia lanceolata plants exposed to intra-specific competition and no-competition conditions were investigated under two soil water levels (well-watered and drought). Changes in plant-plant competition relationships and nitrogen uptake rates were measured at different harvest times. The effects of drought and plant competition on physiological traits, for example, leaf nitrogen allocation, δ13C, and levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA), were also explored. Our results indicated that C. lanceolata shifted from intense neighbor competition to facilitation under well-watered conditions, whereas under drought neighbor competition became much stronger at the second harvest compared to the first harvest. Strong competition significantly decreased N uptake under drought. Leaf NH4+, NO3- and N allocation to water-soluble proteins increased under drought at the first harvest, but significantly declined under prolonged drought. Leaf, stem and root starch concentrations were enhanced by drought. However, during prolonged drought, the root starch concentrations, leaf δ13C, leaf ABA and starch content of C. lanceolata were much lower under strong neighbor competition than in no-competition conditions, which demonstrated that the combined effects of drought and strong competition were more harmful to plant growth and survival compared to single effects. Our study demonstrated that drought combined with competition strongly affected the N uptake, N allocation and physiological traits of plants. Intense competition imposed by neighbors is a great threat to the growth and survival of young C. lanceolata plantations under prolonged drought.
  • Zhang, Han; Kuuluvainen, Jari; Yang, Hongqiang; Xie, Yi; Liu, Can (2017)
    China's new round tenure reform has devolved collective forests to individuals on an egalitarian basis. To balance the equity-efficiency dilemma, forestland transfers are highly advocated by policymakers. However, the forestland rental market is still inactive after the reform. To examine the role of off-farm employment in forestland transfers, a simultaneous Tobit system of equations was employed to account for the endogeneity, interdependency, and censoring issues. Accordingly, the Nelson-Olson two-stage procedure, embedded with a multivariate Tobit estimator, was applied to a nationally representative dataset. The estimation results showed that off-farm employment plays a significantly negative role in forestland rent-in, at the 5% risk level. However, off-farm activities had no significant effect on forestland rent-out. Considering China's specific situation, a reasonable explanation is that households hold forestland as a crucial means of social security against the risk of unemployment. In both rent-in and rent-out equations, high transaction costs are one of the main obstacles impeding forestland transfer. A remarkable finding was that forestland transactions occurred with a statistically significant factor equalization effect, which would be helpful to adjust the mismatched labor-land ratio and improve the land-use efficiency.
  • Kotze, David Johan; Ghosh, Subhadip; Hui, Nan; Jumpponen, Ari; Lee, Benjamin P. Y-H; Lu, Changyi; Lum, Shawn; Pouyat, Richard; Szlavecz, Katalin; Wardle, David A.; Yesilonis, Ian; Zheng, Bangxiao; Setala, Heikki (2021)
    An increasingly urbanized world is one of the most prominent examples of global environmental change. Across the globe, urban parks are designed and managed in a similar way, resulting in visually pleasing expansions of lawn interspersed with individually planted trees of varying appearances and functional traits. These large urban greenspaces have the capacity to provide various ecosystem services, including those associated with soil physicochemical properties. Our aim was to explore whether soil properties in urban parks diverge underneath vegetation producing labile or recalcitrant litter, and whether the impact is affected by climatic zone (from a boreal to temperate to tropical city). We also compared these properties to those in (semi)natural forests outside the cities to assess the influence of urbanization on plant-trait effects. We showed that vegetation type affected percentage soil organic matter (OM), total carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N), but inconsistently across climatic zones. Plant-trait effects were particularly weak in old parks in the boreal and temperate zones, whereas in young parks in these zones, soils underneath the two tree types accumulated significantly more OM, C and N compared to lawns. Within climatic zones, anthropogenic drivers dominated natural ones, with consistently lower values of organic-matter-related soil properties under trees producing labile or recalcitrant litter in parks compared to forests. The dominating effect of urbanization is also reflected in its ability to homogenize soil properties in parks across the three cities, especially in lawn soils and soils under trees irrespective of functional trait. Our study demonstrates that soil functions that relate to carbon and nitrogen dynamics-even in old urban greenspaces where plant-soil interactions have a long history-clearly diverged from those in natural ecosystems, implying a long-lasting influence of anthropogenic drivers on soil ecosystem services.