Browsing by Subject "ALPHA-ACTININ"

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  • Savarese, Marco; Palmio, Johanna; Poza, Juan Jose; Weinberg, Jan; Olive, Montse; Cobo, Ana Maria; Vihola, Anna; Jonson, Per Harald; Sarparanta, Jaakko; Garcia-Bragado, Federico; Urtizberea, Jon Andoni; Hackman, Peter; Udd, Bjarne (2019)
    Objective To clinically and pathologically characterize a cohort of patients presenting with a novel form of distal myopathy and to identify the genetic cause of this new muscular dystrophy. Methods We studied 4 families (3 from Spain and 1 from Sweden) suffering from an autosomal dominant distal myopathy. Affected members showed adult onset asymmetric distal muscle weakness with initial involvement of ankle dorsiflexion later progressing also to proximal limb muscles. Results In all 3 Spanish families, we identified a unique missense variant in the ACTN2 gene cosegregating with the disease. The affected members of the Swedish family carry a different ACTN2 missense variant. Interpretation ACTN2 encodes for alpha actinin2, which is highly expressed in the sarcomeric Z-disk with a major structural and functional role. Actininopathy is thus a new genetically determined distal myopathy. ANN NEUROL 2019;85:899-906.
  • Kovac, Bianca; Makela, Tomi P.; Vallenius, Tea (2018)
    The controlled formation and stabilization of E-cadherin-based adhesions is vital for epithelial integrity. This requires co-operation between the E-cadherin-based adhesions and the associated actin cytoskeleton. In cancer, this co-operation often fails, predisposing cells to migration through molecular mechanisms that have only been partially characterized. Here, we demonstrate that the actin filament cross-linker alpha-actinin-1 is frequently increased in human breast cancer. In mammary epithelial cells, the increased alpha-actinin-1 levels promote cell migration and induce disorganized acini-like structures in Matrigel. This is accompanied by a major reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and the associated E-cadherin-based adhesions. Increased expression of alpha-actinin-1 is particularly noted in basal-like breast cancer cell lines, and in breast cancer patients it associates with poor prognosis in basal-like subtypes. Downregulation of alpha-actinin-1 in E-cadherin expressing basal-like breast cancer cells demonstrate that alpha-actinin-1-assembled actin fibers destabilize E-cadherin-based adhesions. Taken together, these results indicate that increased alpha-actinin-1 expression destabilizes E-cadherin-based adhesions, which is likely to promote the migratory potential of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, our results identify alpha-actinin-1 as a candidate prognostic biomarker in basal-like breast cancer.
  • Paetau, Sonja; Rolova, Taisia; Ning, Lin; Gahmberg, Carl G. (2017)
    The intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM-5) regulates neurite outgrowth and synaptic maturation. ICAM-5 overexpression in the hippocampal neurons induces filopodia formation in vitro. Since microglia are known to prune supernumerous synapses during development, we characterized the regulatory effect of ICAM-5 on microglia. ICAM-5 was released as a soluble protein from N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-treated neurons and bound by microglia. ICAM-5 promoted down-regulation of adhesion and phagocytosis in vitro. Microglia formed large cell clusters on ICAM-5-coated surfaces whereas they adhered and spread on the related molecule ICAM-1. ICAM-5 further reduced the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), but on the contrary induced the secretion of the antiinflammatory IL-10 from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated microglia. Thus, ICAM-5 might be involved in the regulation of microglia in both health and disease, playing an important neuroprotective role when the brain is under immune challenges and as a "don't-eat-me" signal when it is solubilized from active synapses.
  • Bao, Yulong; Wang, Keyu; Yang, Hongxu; Regenstein, Joe M.; Ertbjerg, Per; Zhou, Peng (2020)
    This study investigated the effects of cold storage at different temperatures (4, -0.5, -3, and -20 degrees C) on protein degradation and its relationship to structural changes of black carp muscle. At -0.5 and 4 degrees C, major structural changes occurred, including the formation of gaps between myofibers and myofibrils, breakage of myofibrils and myofibers, and degradation of sarcoplasmic reticulum. Gel-based proteomic analysis showed that these structural changes were accompanied by degradation of a series of myofibrillar proteins, including titin, nebulin, troponin, myosin, myomesin, myosin-binding protein, and a-actinin. Loss of extractable gelatinolytic and caseinolytic protease activities was also observed. At -3 and -20 degrees C, formation of ice crystals was the most noticeable change. The major proteins were degraded at different locations in the black carp muscle, and gelatinolytic and caseinolytic proteases appear to contribute to the degradation of those proteins.
  • Chronopoulos, Antonios; Thorpe, Stephen D.; Cortes, Ernesto; Lachowski, Dariusz; Rice, Alistair J.; Mykuliak, Vasyl V.; Rog, Tomasz; Lee, David A.; Hytönen, Vesa P.; Hernandez, Armando E. del Rio (2020)
    A mechanism of cell response to localized tension shows that syndecan-4 synergizes with EGFR to elicit a mechanosignalling cascade that leads to adaptive cell stiffening through PI3K/kindlin-2 mediated integrin activation. Extensive research over the past decades has identified integrins to be the primary transmembrane receptors that enable cells to respond to external mechanical cues. We reveal here a mechanism whereby syndecan-4 tunes cell mechanics in response to localized tension via a coordinated mechanochemical signalling response that involves activation of two other receptors: epidermal growth factor receptor and beta 1 integrin. Tension on syndecan-4 induces cell-wide activation of the kindlin-2/beta 1 integrin/RhoA axis in a PI3K-dependent manner. Furthermore, syndecan-4-mediated tension at the cell-extracellular matrix interface is required for yes-associated protein activation. Extracellular tension on syndecan-4 triggers a conformational change in the cytoplasmic domain, the variable region of which is indispensable for the mechanical adaptation to force, facilitating the assembly of a syndecan-4/alpha-actinin/F-actin molecular scaffold at the bead adhesion. This mechanotransduction pathway for syndecan-4 should have immediate implications for the broader field of mechanobiology.