Browsing by Subject "ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY"

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  • Palviainen, Mari J.; Junnikkala, Sami; Raekallio, Marja; Meri, Seppo; Vainio, Outi (2015)
  • Riihila, Pilvi; Nissinen, Liisa; Farshchian, Mehdi; Kallajoki, Markku; Kivisaari, Atte; Meri, Seppo; Grenman, Reidar; Peltonen, Sirkku; Peltonen, Juha; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Kahari, Veli-Matti (2017)
    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is one of the most common metastatic skin cancers with increasing incidence. We examined the roles of complement component C3 and complement factor B (CFB) in the growth of cSCC. Analysis of cSCC cell lines (n = 8) and normal human epidermal kerati-nocytes (n = 11) with real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting revealed up-regulation of C3 and CFB expression in cSCC cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed stronger tumor cell specific Labeling for C3 and CFB in invasive cSCCs (n = 71) and recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa-associated cSCCs (n = 11) than in cSCC in situ (n = 69), actinic keratoses (n = 63), and normal skin (n = 5). Significant up-regulation of C3 and CFB mRNA expression was noted in chemically induced mouse cSCCs, compared to benign papillomas. Knockdown of C3 and CFB expression inhibited migration and proliferation of cSCC cells and resulted in potent inhibition of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 activation. Knockdown of C3 and CFB markedly inhibited growth of human cSCC xenograft tumors in vivo. These results provide evidence for the rotes of C3 and CFB in the development of cSCC and identify them as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in this metastatic skin cancer.
  • Kaartinen, Kati; Safa, Adrian; Kotha, Soumya; Ratti, Giorgio; Meri, Seppo (2019)
    Glomerulonephritis (GN) refers to a group of renal diseases affecting the glomeruli due to the damage mediated by immunological mechanisms. A large proportion of the disease manifestations are caused by disturbances in the complement system. They can be due to genetic errors, autoimmunity, microbes or abnormal immunoglobulins, like modified IgA or paraproteins. The common denominator in most of the problems is an overactive or misdirected alternative pathway complement activation. An assessment of kidney function, amount of proteinuria and hematuria are crucial elements to evaluate, when glomerulonephritis is suspected. However, the cornerstones of the diagnoses are renal biopsy and careful examination of the complement abnormality. Differential diagnostics between the various forms of GN is not possible based on clinical features, as they may vary greatly. This review describes the known mechanisms of complement dysfunction leading to different forms of primary GN (like IgA glomerulonephritis, dense deposit disease, C3 glomerulonephritis, post-infectious GN, membranous GN) and differences to atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. It also covers the basic elements of etiology-directed therapy and prognosis of the most common forms of GN. Common principles in the management of GN include treatment of hypertension and reduction of proteinuria, some require immunomodulating treatment. Complement inhibition is an emerging treatment option. A thorough understanding of the basic disease mechanism and a careful follow-up are needed for optimal therapy.
  • Meri, Seppo; Haapasalo, Karita (2020)
    Complement-mediated inflammation or dysregulation in lipid metabolism are associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases. These include age-related macular degeneration (AMD), C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN), dense deposit disease (DDD), atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In all these diseases, formation of characteristic lipid-rich deposits is evident. Here, we will discuss molecular mechanisms whereby dysfunction of complement, and especially of its key regulator factor H, could be involved in lipid accumulation and related inflammation. The genetic associations to factor H polymorphisms, the role of factor H in the resolution of inflammation in lipid-rich deposits, modification of macrophage functions, and complement-mediated clearance of apoptotic and damaged cells indicate that the function of factor H is crucial in limiting inflammation in these diseases.
  • Krzyzewska-Dudek, E.; Kotimaa, J.; Kapczynska, K.; Rybka, J.; Meri, S. (2022)
    Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections pose a serious public health problem. In addition to the typical course of salmonellosis, an infection with Salmonella bacteria can often lead to parenteral infections and sepsis, which are particularly dangerous for children, the elderly and immunocompromised. Bacterial resistance to serum is a key virulence factor for the development of systemic infections. Salmonella, as an enterobacterial pathogen, has developed several mechanisms to escape and block the antibacterial effects of the complement system. In this review, we discuss the relevance of outer membrane polysaccharides to the complement evasion mechanisms of NTS strains. These include the influence of the overall length and density of the lipopolysaccharide molecules, modifications of the O-antigen lipopolysaccharide composition and the role of capsular polysaccharides in opsonization and protection of the outer membrane from the lytic action of complement. Additionally, we discuss specific outer membrane protein complement evasion mechanisms, such as recruitment of complement regula-tory proteins, blocking assembly of late complement components to form the membrane attack complex and the proteolytic cleavage of complement proteins.
  • O'Flynn, Joseph; Kotimaa, Juha; Faber-Krol, Ria; Koekkoek, Karin; Klar-Mohamad, Ngaisah; Koudijs, Angela; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J.; Stover, Cordula; Daha, Mohamed R.; van Kooten, Cees (2018)
    Properdin is the only known positive regulator of complement activation by stabilizing the alternative pathway convertase through C3 binding, thus prolonging its half-life. Recent in vitro studies suggest that properdin may act as a specific pattern recognition molecule. To better understand the role of properdin in vivo, we used an experimental model of acute anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with wild-type, C3-and properdin knockout mice. The model exhibited severe proteinuria, acute neutrophil infiltration and activation, classical and alternative pathway activation, and progressive glomerular deposition of properdin, C3 and C9. Although the acute renal injury was likely due to acute neutrophil activation, we found properdin deposition in C3-knockout mice that was not associated with IgG. Thus, properdin may deposit in injured tissues in vivo independent of its main ligand C3.
  • Haapasalo, Karita; Meri, Seppo (2019)
    The functions of pentraxins, like C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid protein P (SAP) and pentraxin-3 (PTX3), are to coordinate spatially and temporally targeted clearance of injured tissue components, to protect against infections and to regulate related inflammation together with the complement system. For this, pentraxins have a dual relationship with the complement system. Initially, after a focused binding to their targets, e.g., exposed phospholipids or cholesterol in the injured tissue area, or microbial components, the pentraxins activate complement by binding its first component C1q. However, the emerging inflammation needs to be limited to the target area. Therefore, pentraxins inhibit complement at the C3b stage to prevent excessive damage. The complement inhibitory functions of pentraxins are based on their ability to interact with complement inhibitors C4bp or factor H (FH). C4bp binds to SAP, while FH binds to both CRP and PTX3. FH promotes opsonophagocytosis through inactivation of C3b to iC3b, and inhibits AP activity thus preventing formation of the C5a anaphylatoxin and the complement membrane attack complex (MAC). Monitoring CRP levels gives important clinical information about the extent of tissue damage and severity of infections. CRP is a valuable marker for distinguishing bacterial infections from viral infections. Disturbances in the functions and interactions of pentraxins and complement are also involved in a number of human diseases. This review will summarize what is currently known about the FH family proteins and pentraxins that interact with FH. Furthermore, we will discuss diseases, where interactions between these molecules may play a role.
  • Meri, Seppo; Bunjes, Donald; Cofiell, Roxanne; Jodele, Sonata (2022)
    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (HSCT-TMA) is a common complication occurring post-HSCT and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality if not promptly identified and treated. Emerging evidence suggests a central role for the complement system in the pathogenesis of HSCT-TMA. The complement system has also been shown to interact with other pathways and processes including coagulation and inflammation, all of which are activated following HSCT. Three endothelial cell-damaging "hits" are required for HSCT-TMA genesis: a genetic predisposition or existing damage, an endothelial cell-damaging conditioning regimen, and additional damaging insults. Numerous risk factors for the development of HSCT-TMA have been identified (including primary diagnosis, graft type, and conditioning regimen) and validated lists of relatively simple diagnostic signs and symptoms exist, many utilizing routine clinical and laboratory assessments. Despite the relative ease with which HSCT-TMA can be screened for, it is often overlooked or masked by other common post-transplant conditions. Recent evidence that patients with HSCT-TMA may also concurrently present with these differential diagnoses only serve to further confound its identification and treatment. HSCT-TMA may be treated, or even prevented, by removing or ameliorating triggering "hits", and recent studies have also shown substantial utility of complement-targeted therapies in this patient population. Further investigation into optimal management and treatment strategies is needed. Greater awareness of TMA post-HSCT is urgently needed to improve patient outcomes; the objective of this article is to clarify current understanding, explain underlying complement biology and provide simple tools to aid the early recognition, management, and monitoring of HSCT-TMA.
  • Kasperkiewicz, Katarzyna; Swierzko, Anna S.; Przybyla, Marta; Szemraj, Janusz; Barski, Jaroslaw; Skurnik, Mikael; Kaluzynski, Andrzej; Cedzynski, Maciej (2020)
    Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 is mentioned among the most common arthritogenic pathogens. Bacterial components (including lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) may persist in the joint after eradication of infection. Having an adjuvant activity, LPS may enhance production of anticollagen antibodies, involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, its ability to activate complement contributes to the inflammation. The aim of this work was to investigate whether Yersinia LPS (coinjected with collagen) is associated with arthritis progression or other pathological effects and to elucidate the mechanism of this association. It was demonstrated that murine mannose-binding lectin C (MBL-C) recognizes the inner core heptoses of the Rd1 chemotype LPS of Yersinia. In addition, the Rd1 LPS activates the MBL-associated serine protease 1 (MASP-1) stronger than the S and Ra chemotype LPS and comparable to Klebsiella pneumoniae O:3 LPS. However, in contrast to the latter, Yersinia Rd1 LPS was associated neither with the adjuvancity nor with the enhancement of pathological changes in animal paws/impairment of motility. On the other hand, it seemed to be more hepatotoxic when compared with the other tested endotoxins, while the enlargement of inguinal lymph nodes and drop in hepatic MBL-C expression (at the mRNA level) were independent of LPS chemotype. Our data did not suggest no greater impact Y. enterocolitica O:3 on the development or severity of arthropathy related to anticollagen antibody-induced arthritis in mice, although its interaction with MBL-C and subsequent complement activation may contribute to some adverse effects.