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  • Seppa, Satu; Tenhola, Sirpa; Voutilainen, Raimo (2019)
    Context: Among cytokines, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), adiponectin (Adn), and irisin have been considered potential biomarkers for insulin sensitivity (IS). Objective: We evaluated whether serum FGF21, Adn, and irisin associate with markers of IS and serum lipids in 12-year-old children. Design, Participants, and Main Outcome Measures: This cohort study included 192 12-year-old children (109 girls). Seventy-eight of them had been born appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 70 small for gestational age (SGA), and 44 from preeclamptic pregnancies (PREs) as AGA. Fasting serum FGF21, Adn, irisin, lipids, inflammatory markers, and IS markers were measured. Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) was calculated. Results: The means of serum FGF21, high molecular weight (HMW) Adn, and irisin did not differ between the sexes or between the SGA, AGA, and PRE children. In the whole study population, FGF21 associated positively with irisin and uric acid and negatively with leptin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). HMW Adn associated positively with total Adn, HDL-C, leptin, and SHBG. Apart from FGF21, irisin associated positively with insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, y-glutamyltransferase, and triglycerides, and negatively with QUICKI, SHBG, and IGF binding protein-1. In multivariate regression analyses, irisin predicted lower IS and HMW Adn predicted higher HDL-C body mass index-independently, whereas FGF21 had no independent contribution to IS or lipid variables. Conclusion: In 12-year-old children, serum irisin was associated with markers reflecting reduced IS. HMW Adn predicted HDL-C, whereas FGF21 did not contribute to IS or lipid parameters in multivariate regression analyses. Copyright (C) 2019 Endocrine Society
  • Nyberg, Solja T.; Fransson, Eleonor I.; Heikkila, Katriina; Alfredsson, Lars; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; De Bacquer, Dirk; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Ferrie, Jane E.; Hamer, Mark; Joeckel, Karl-Heinz; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lunau, Thorsten; Marmot, Michael G.; Nordin, Maria; Rugulies, Reiner; Siegrist, Johannes; Steptoe, Andrew; Westerholm, Peter J. M.; Westerlund, Hugo; Theorell, Tores; Brunner, Eric J.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G. David; Kivimaki, Mika (2013)
    Background: Job strain is associated with an increased coronary heart disease risk, but few large-scale studies have examined the relationship of this psychosocial characteristic with the biological risk factors that potentially mediate the job strain - heart disease association. Methodology and Principal Findings: We pooled cross-sectional, individual-level data from eight studies comprising 47,045 participants to investigate the association between job strain and the following cardiovascular disease risk factors: diabetes, blood pressure, pulse pressure, lipid fractions, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, obesity, and overall cardiovascular disease risk as indexed by the Framingham Risk Score. In age-, sex-, and socioeconomic status-adjusted analyses, compared to those without job strain, people with job strain were more likely to have diabetes (odds ratio 1.29; 95% CI: 1.11-1.51), to smoke (1.14; 1.08-1.20), to be physically inactive (1.34; 1.26-1.41), and to be obese (1.12; 1.04-1.20). The association between job strain and elevated Framingham risk score (1.13; 1.03-1.25) was attributable to the higher prevalence of diabetes, smoking and physical inactivity among those reporting job strain. Conclusions: In this meta-analysis of work-related stress and cardiovascular disease risk factors, job strain was linked to adverse lifestyle and diabetes. No association was observed between job strain, clinic blood pressure or blood lipids.
  • Seppa, Satu; Tenhola, Sirpa; Voutilainen, Raimo (2018)
    Context: Elevated IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) concentrations are associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adults. Objective: To determine if serum IL-1Ra and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels are associated with markers of reduced insulin sensitivity (IS) and serum lipids in 12-year-old children. Design and Participants: Of 191 children (n = 109 girls), 78 were categorized as having had birth weight and length appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 69 were small for gestational age, and 44 were AGA and from preeclamptic pregnancies. Serum markers of low-grade inflammation, IS, and lipids were measured. Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) was calculated. Results: Mean serum IL-1Ra levels did not differ between the sexes or among the gestational categories. Children in the highest IL-1Ra tertile had lower QUICKI, IGF-binding protein-1, SHBG, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values; and higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference to height ratio (WHtR), and serum insulin, hs-CRP, leptin, and triglyceride concentrations than those in the lowest IL-1Ra tertile. Logistic regression analysis showed higher serum hs-CRP and leptin levels, and WHtR were associated with high serum IL-1Ra levels. IL-1Ra concentration could be used to discriminate the children with lowest IS (area under the curve, 0.68; P <0.001); hs-CRP level could not. Conclusion: Children with the highest IL-1Ra levels had lower IS, higher hs-CRP levels and BMI, and a less favorable lipid profile than those with the lowest IL-1Ra levels, suggesting that high IL-1Ra concentrations may be associated with increased CVD risk in 12-year-old children. Copyright (C) 2018 Endocrine Society
  • Föhr, Tiina; Tolvanen, Asko; Myllymaki, Tero; Järvelä-Reijonen, Elina; Rantala, Sanni; Korpela, Riitta; Peuhkuri, Katri; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Puttonen, Sampsa; Lappalainen, Raimo; Rusko, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M. (2015)
    Background: The present study aimed to investigate how subjective self-reported stress is associated with objective heart rate variability (HRV)-based stress and recovery on workdays. Another aim was to investigate how physical activity (PA), body composition, and age are associated with subjective stress, objective stress, and recovery. Methods: Working-age participants (n = 221; 185 women, 36 men) in this cross-sectional study were overweight (body mass index, 25.3-40.1 kg/m(2)) and psychologically distressed (>= 3/12 points on the General Health Questionnaire). Objective stress and recovery were based on HRV recordings over 1-3 workdays. Subjective stress was assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale. PA level was determined by questionnaire, and body fat percentage was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results: Subjective stress was directly associated with objective stress (P = 0.047) and inversely with objective recovery (P = 0.046). These associations persisted after adjustments for sex, age, PA, and body fat percentage. Higher PA was associated with lower subjective stress (P = 0.037). Older age was associated with higher objective stress (P <0.001). After further adjustment for alcohol consumption and regular medication, older age was associated with lower subjective stress (P = 0.043). Conclusions: The present results suggest that subjective self-reported stress is associated with objective physiological stress, but they are also apparently affected by different factors. However, some of the found associations among these overweight and psychologically distressed participants with low inter-individual variation in PA are rather weak and the clinical value of the present findings should be studied further among participants with greater heterogeneity of stress, PA and body composition. However, these findings suggest that objective stress assessment provides an additional aspect to stress evaluation. Furthermore, the results provide valuable information for developing stress assessment methods.
  • Leppänen, Jonna; Randell, Kaisa; Schwab, Ursula; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Keski-Nisula, Leea; Laitinen, Tomi; Heinonen, Seppo (2020)
    Background This study was made to figure out, does low and high estradiol levels during in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles have a different effect on carotid artery distensibility (Cdis), carotid artery diameter (Cdia), blood pressure and metabolic factors? Can the stimulation protocol be considered safe to women's vasculature? Methods We studied 28 women having a long agonist protocol IVF-treatment in Kuopio University Hospital during the years 2011-2016. Patients were examined at three time points: in the beginning of their own period (low estradiol), during the gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue downregulation (low estradiol) and during the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulation (high estradiol). Women served as their own controls and their menstrual phase (2- to 5-day period after the beginning of menstruation with low estrogen) was used as the reference. Cdis and Cdia were assessed using ultrasound. Blood pressure, weight, estradiol levels and lipids were monitored. Results Cdis, Cdia, systolic and diastolic blood pressures peaked during the GnRH-analogue treatment with the lowest estradiol levels. Cdis, Cdia and systolic blood pressures declined by 11% (P = 0.002), 3,8% (P <0.001) and 2,5% (P = 0.026) during the FSH-stimulation when the estradiol levels were high. Cdis correlated significantly (P <0.05) with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides in high estrogenic environment and with diastolic blood pressure (P <0.05) when estrogen profiles were low. Conclusions Carotid artery stiffens during the high estradiol levels compared to low levels and this was not explained by the higher diameter of the carotid artery, hyperlipidemia or blood pressure profiles. All the changes in Cdis and Cdia are variations of normal, and if there is no history of cardiovascular problems, it can be considered, that the stimulation protocol is not hazardous to vasculature.