Browsing by Subject "AMMONIA-SYNTHESIS"

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  • Hämäläinen, Jani; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Meinander, Kristoffer; Mattinen, Miika; Vehkamäki, Marko; Räisänen, Jyrki; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku (2018)
    Abstract Rhenium is both a refractory metal and a noble metal that has attractive properties for various applications. Still, synthesis and applications of rhenium thin films have been limited. We introduce herein the growth of both rhenium metal and rhenium nitride thin films by the technologically important atomic layer deposition (ALD) method over a wide deposition temperature range using fast, simple, and robust surface reactions between rhenium pentachloride and ammonia. Films are grown and characterized for compositions, surface morphologies and roughnesses, crystallinities, and resistivities. Conductive rhenium subnitride films of tunable composition are obtained at deposition temperatures between 275 and 375 °C, whereas pure rhenium metal films grow at 400 °C and above. Even a just 3 nm thick rhenium film is continuous and has a low resistivity of about 90 µΩ cm showing potential for applications for which also other noble metals and refractory metals have been considered.