Browsing by Subject "AMYGDALA"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-8 of 8
  • Afdile, Mamdooh; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Glerean, Enrico; Smirnov, Dmitry; Alho, Jussi; Äimälä, Anna; Sams, Mikko (2019)
    We are constantly categorizing other people as belonging to our in-group (one of us') or out-group (one of them'). Such grouping occurs fast and automatically and can be based on others' visible characteristics such as skin color or clothing style. Here we studied neural underpinnings of implicit social grouping not often visible on the face, male sexual orientation. A total of 14 homosexuals and 15 heterosexual males were scanned in functional magnetic resonance imaging while watching a movie about a homosexual man, whose face was also presented subliminally before (subjects did not know about the character's sexual orientation) and after the movie. We discovered significantly stronger activation to the man's face after seeing the movie in homosexual but not heterosexual subjects in medial prefrontal cortex, frontal pole, anterior cingulate cortex, right temporal parietal junction and bilateral superior frontal gyrus. In previous research, these brain areas have been connected to social perception, self-referential thinking, empathy, theory of mind and in-group perception. In line with previous studies showing biased perception of in-/out-group faces to be context dependent, our novel approach further demonstrates how complex contextual knowledge gained under naturalistic viewing can bias implicit social perception.
  • Ilomäki, Miro; Lindblom, Jallu; Salmela, Viljami; Flykt, Marjo Susanna; Vänskä, Mervi; Salmi, Juha; Tolonen, Tuija; Alho, Kimmo; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Wikman, Patrik (2022)
    Exposure to early life stress (ELS) is associated with a variety of detrimental psychological and neurodevelopmental effects. Importantly, ELS has been associated with regional alterations and aberrant connectivity in the structure and functioning of brain regions involved in emotion processing and self-regulation, creating vulnerability to mental health problems. However, longitudinal research regarding the impact of ELS on functional connectivity between brain regions in the default mode network (DMN) and fronto-limbic network (FLN), both implicated in emotion-related processes, is relatively scarce. Neuroimaging research on ELS has mostly focused on single nodes or bi-nodal connectivity instead of functional networks. We examined how ELS is associated with connectivity patterns within the DMN and FLN during rest in early adulthood. The participants (n = 86; 47 females) in the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study were young adults (18-21 years old) whose families had participated in a longitudinal study since pregnancy. ELS was assessed both prospectively (parental reports of family relationship problems and mental health problems during pregnancy and infancy) and retrospectively (self-reported adverse childhood experiences). Inter-subject representational similarity analysis (IS-RSA) and multivariate distance matrix regression (MDMR) were used to analyze the association between ELS and the chosen networks. The IS-RSA results suggested that prospective ELS was associated with complex alterations within the DMN, and that retrospective ELS was associated with alterations in the FLN. MDMR results, in turn, suggested that that retrospective ELS was associated with DMN connectivity. Mean connectivity of the DMN was also associated with retrospective ELS. Analyses further showed that ELS-related alterations in the FLN were associated with increased connectivity between the prefrontal and limbic regions, and between different prefrontal regions. These results suggest that exposure to ELS in infancy might have long-lasting influences on functional brain connectivity that persist until early adulthood. Our results also speak for the importance of differentiating prospective and retrospective assessment methods to understand the specific neurodevelopmental effects of ELS.
  • Komulainen, Emma; Glerean, Enrico; Heikkilä, Roope; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Raij, Tuukka T.; Isometsä, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper (2021)
    One-week treatment with escitalopram decreases amygdala responses to fearful facial expressions in depressed patients, but it remains unknown whether it also modulates processing of complex and freely processed emotional stimuli resembling daily life emotional situations. Inter-subject correlation (ISC) offers a means to track brain activity during complex, dynamic stimuli in a model-free manner. Twenty-nine treatment-seeking patients with major depressive disorder were randomized in a double-blind study design to receive either escitalopram or placebo for one week, after which functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed. During fMRI the participants listened to spoken emotional narratives. Level of ISC between the escitalopram and the placebo group was compared across all the narratives and separately for the episodes with positive and negative valence. Across all the narratives, the escitalopram group had higher ISC in the default mode network of the brain as well as in the fronto-temporal narrative processing regions, whereas lower ISC was seen in the middle temporal cortex, hippocampus and occipital cortex. Escitalopram increased ISC during positive parts of the narratives in the precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate and fronto-insular cortex, whereas there was no significant synchronization in brain responses to positive vs negative events in the placebo group. Increased ISC may imply improved emotional synchronization with others, particularly during observation of positive events. Further studies are needed to test whether this contributes to the later therapeutic effect of escitalopram.
  • Tikker, Laura; Casarotto, Plinio; Singh, Parul; Biojone, Caroline; Piepponen, T. Petteri; Estartus, Nuri; Seelbach, Anna; Sridharan, Ravindran; Laukkanen, Liina; Castren, Eero; Partanen, Juha (2020)
    Serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe (DR) nucleus are associated with several psychiatric disorders including depression and anxiety disorders, which often have a neurodevelopmental component. During embryonic development, GATA transcription factors GATA2 and GATA3 operate as serotonergic neuron fate selectors and regulate the differentiation of serotonergic neuron subtypes of DR. Here, we analyzed the requirement of GATA cofactor ZFPM1 in the development of serotonergic neurons using Zfpm1 conditional mouse mutants. Our results demonstrated that, unlike the GATA factors, ZFPM1 is not essential for the early differentiation of serotonergic precursors in the embryonic rhombomere 1. In contrast, in perinatal and adult male and female Zfpm1 mutants, a lateral subpopulation of DR neurons (ventrolateral part of the DR) was lost, whereas the number of serotonergic neurons in a medial subpopulation (dorsal region of the medial DR) had increased. Additionally, adult male and female Zfpm1 mutants had reduced serotonin concentration in rostral brain areas and displayed increased anxiety-like behavior. Interestingly, female Zfpm1 mutant mice showed elevated contextual fear memory that was abolished with chronic fluoxetine treatment. Altogether, these results demonstrate the importance of ZFPM1 for the development of DR serotonergic neuron subtypes involved in mood regulation. It also suggests that the neuronal fate selector function of GATAs is modulated by their cofactors to refine the differentiation of neuronal subtypes.
  • Mennesson, Marie; Rydgren, Emilie; Lipina, Tatiana; Sokolowska, Ewa; Kulesskaya, Natalia; Morello, Francesca; Ivakine, Evgueni; Voikar, Vootele; Risbrough, Victoria; Partanen, Juha; Hovatta, Iiris (2019)
    NETO1 and NETO2 are auxiliary subunits of kainate receptors (KARs). They interact with native KAR subunits to modulate multiple aspects of receptor function. Variation in KAR genes has been associated with psychiatric disorders in humans, and in mice, knockouts of the Grik1 gene have increased, while Grik2 and Grik4 knockouts have reduced anxiety-like behavior. To determine whether the NETO proteins regulate anxiety and fear through modulation of KARs, we undertook a comprehensive behavioral analysis of adult Neto1(-/-) and Neto2(-/-) mice. We observed no differences in anxiety-like behavior. However, in cued fear conditioning, Neto2(-/-), but not Neto1(-/-) mice, showed higher fear expression and delayed extinction compared to wild type mice. We established, by in situ hybridization, that Neto2 was expressed in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons throughout the fear circuit including the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. Finally, we demonstrated that the relative amount of synaptosomal KAR GLUK2/3 subunit was 20.8% lower in the ventral hippocampus and 36.5% lower in the medial prefrontal cortex in Neto2(-/-) compared to the Neto2(+/+) mice. The GLUK5 subunit abundance was reduced 23.8% in the ventral hippocampus and 16.9% in the amygdala. We conclude that Neto2 regulates fear expression and extinction in mice, and that its absence increases conditionability, a phenotype related to post-traumatic stress disorder and propose that this phenotype is mediated by reduced KAR subunit abundance at synapses of fear-associated brain regions.
  • Wikman, Patrik; Rinne, Teemu; Petkov, Christopher I. (2019)
    In natural settings, the prospect of reward often influences the focus of our attention, but how cognitive and motivational systems influence sensory cortex is not well understood. Also, challenges in training nonhuman animals on cognitive tasks complicate cross-species comparisons and interpreting results on the neurobiological bases of cognition. Incentivized attention tasks could expedite training and evaluate the impact of attention on sensory cortex. Here we develop an Incentivized Attention Paradigm (IAP) and use it to show that macaque monkeys readily learn to use auditory or visual reward cues, drastically influencing their performance within a simple auditory task. Next, this paradigm was used with functional neuroimaging to measure activation modulation in the monkey auditory cortex. The results show modulation of extensive auditory cortical regions throughout primary and non-primary regions, which although a hallmark of attentional modulation in human auditory cortex, has not been studied or observed as broadly in prior data from nonhuman animals. Psycho-physiological interactions were identified between the observed auditory cortex effects and regions including basal forebrain sites along acetylcholinergic and dopaminergic pathways. The findings reveal the impact and regional interactions in the primate brain during an incentivized attention engaging auditory task.
  • Wei, Hong; Ailanen, Liisa; Morales, Miguel; Koivisto, Ari; Pertovaara, Antti (2022)
    Netrin-1, a chemoattractant expressed by floor plate cells, and one of its receptors (deleted in colorectal cancer) has been associated with pronociceptive actions in a number of pain conditions. Here, we addressed the question of whether spinal TRPC4/C5 or TRPA1 are among the downstream receptors contributing to pronociceptive actions induced by netrin-1. The experiments were performed on rats using a chronic intrathecal catheter for administration of netrin-1 and antagonists of TRPC4/C5 or TRPA1. Pain sensitivity was assessed behaviorally by using mechanical and heat stimuli. Effect on the discharge rate of rostral ventromedial medullary (RVM) pain control neurons was studied in lightly anesthetized animals. Netrin-1, in a dose-related fashion, induced mechanical hypersensitivity that lasted up to three weeks. Netrin-1 had no effect on heat nociception. Mechanical hypersensitivity induced by netrin-1 was attenuated by TRPA1 antagonist Chembridge-5861528 and by the control analgesic compound pregabalin both during the early (first two days) and late (third week) phase of hypersensitivity. TRPC4/C5 antagonist ML-204 had a weak antihypersensitivity effect that was only in the early phase, whereas TRPC4/C5 antagonist HC-070 had no effect on hypersensitivity induced by netrin-1. The discharge rate in pronociceptive ON-like RVM neurons was increased by netrin-1 during the late but not acute phase, whereas netrin-1 had no effect on the discharge rate of antinociceptive RVM OFF-like neurons. The results suggest that spinal TRPA1 receptors and pronociceptive RVM ON-like neurons are involved in the maintenance of submodality-selective pronociceptive actions induced by netrin-1 in the spinal cord.
  • Mohr, Florian; Hurrle, Thomas; Burggraaff, Lindsey; Langer, Lukas; Bemelmans, Martijn P.; Knab, Maximilian; Nieger, Martin; van Westen, Gerard J. P.; Heitman, Laura H.; Braese, Stefan (2021)
    We report the development and extensive structure-activity relationship evaluation of a series of modified coumarins as cannabinoid receptor ligands. In radioligand, and [S-35]GTP gamma S binding assays the CB receptor binding affinities and efficacies of the new ligands were determined. Furthermore, we used a ligand-based docking approach to validate the empirical observed results. In conclusion, several crucial structural requirements were identified. The most potent coumarins like 3-butyl-7-(1-butylcyclopentyl)-5-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (36b, K-i CB2 13.7 nM, EC50 18 nM), 7-(1-butylcyclohexyl)-5-hydroxy-3-propyl-2H-chromen-2-one (39b, K-i CB2 6.5 nM, EC50 4.51 nM) showed a CB2 selective agonistic profile with low nanomolar affinities. (C) 2021 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.