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  • Murphy, Natalie A.; Arthur, Karissa C.; Tienari, Pentti J.; Houlden, Henry; Chio, Adriano; Traynor, Bryan J. (2017)
    A pathogenic hexanucleotide repeat expansion within the C9orf72 gene has been identified as the major cause of two neurodegenerative syndromes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). This mutation is known to have incomplete penetrance, with some patients developing disease in their twenties and a small portion of carriers surviving to their ninth decade without developing symptoms. Describing penetrance by age among C9orf72 carriers and identifying parameters that alter onset age are essential to better understanding this locus and to enhance predictive counseling. To do so, data from 1,170 individuals were used to model penetrance. Our analysis showed that the penetrance was incomplete and age-dependent. Additionally, familial and sporadic penetrance did not significantly differ from one another; ALS cases exhibited earlier age of onset than FTD cases; and individuals with spinal-onset exhibited earlier age of onset than those with bulbar-onset. The older age of onset among female cases in general, and among female bulbar-onset cases in particular, was the most striking finding, and there may be an environmental, lifestyle, or hormonal factor that is influencing these penetrance patterns. These results will have important applications for future clinical research, the identification of disease modifiers, and genetic counseling.
  • Harjuhaahto, Sandra; Rasila, Tiina S.; Molchanova, Svetlana M.; Woldegebriel, Rosa; Kvist, Jouni; Konovalova, Svetlana; Sainio, Markus T.; Pennonen, Jana; Torregrosa-Munumer, Ruben; Ibrahim, Hazem; Otonkoski, Timo; Taira, Tomi; Ylikallio, Emil; Tyynismaa, Henna (2020)
    Mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins CHCHD2 and CHCHD10 have roles in motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy and axonal neuropathy and in Parkinson's disease. They form a complex of unknown function. Here we address the importance of these two proteins in human motor neurons. We show that gene edited human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) lacking either CHCHD2 or CHCHD10 are viable and can be differentiated into functional motor neurons that fire spontaneous and evoked action potentials. Mitochondria in knockout iPSC and motor neurons sustain ultrastructure but show increased proton leakage and respiration, and reciprocal compensatory increases in CHCHD2 or CHCHD10. Knockout motor neurons have largely overlapping transcriptome profiles compared to isogenic control line, in particular for synaptic gene expression. Our results show that the absence of either CHCHD2 or CHCHD10 alters mitochondrial respiration in human motor neurons, inducing similar compensatory responses. Thus, pathogenic mechanisms may involve loss of synaptic function resulting from defective energy metabolism.
  • Oksanen, Minna; Lehtonen, Sarka; Jaronen, Merja; Goldsteins, Gundars; Hämäläinen, Riikka H.; Koistinaho, Jari (2019)
    Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the brain. They were long considered only as passive support for neuronal cells. However, recent data have revealed many active roles for these cells both in maintenance of the normal physiological homeostasis in the brain as well as in neurodegeneration and disease. Moreover, human astrocytes have been found to be much more complex than their rodent counterparts, and to date, astrocytes are known to actively participate in a multitude of processes such as neurotransmitter uptake and recycling, gliotransmitter release, neuroenergetics, inflammation, modulation of synaptic activity, ionic balance, maintenance of the blood–brain barrier, and many other crucial functions of the brain. This review focuses on the role of astrocytes in human neurodegenerative disease and the potential of the novel stem cell-based platforms in modeling astrocytic functions in health and in disease.
  • Wu, Ying-Chieh; Sonninen, Tuuli-Maria; Peltonen, Sanni; Koistinaho, Jari; Lehtonen, Sarka (2021)
    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) regulates the delivery of oxygen and important nutrients to the brain through active and passive transport and prevents neurotoxins from entering the brain. It also has a clearance function and removes carbon dioxide and toxic metabolites from the central nervous system (CNS). Several drugs are unable to cross the BBB and enter the CNS, adding complexity to drug screens targeting brain disorders. A well-functioning BBB is essential for maintaining healthy brain tissue, and a malfunction of the BBB, linked to its permeability, results in toxins and immune cells entering the CNS. This impairment is associated with a variety of neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Here, we summarize current knowledge about the BBB in neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, we focus on recent progress of using human-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived models to study the BBB. We review the potential of novel stem cell-based platforms in modeling the BBB and address advances and key challenges of using stem cell technology in modeling the human BBB. Finally, we highlight future directions in this area.
  • Hotta, Jaakko; Zhou, Guangyu; Harno, Hanna; Forss, Nina; Hari, Riitta (2017)
    Introduction: Many central pathophysiological aspects of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) are still unknown. Although brain-imaging studies are increasingly supporting the contribution of the central nervous system to the generation and maintenance of the CRPS pain, the brain's white-matter alterations are seldom investigated. Methods: In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging to explore white-matter changes in twelve CRPS-type-1 female patients suffering from chronic right upper-limb pain compared with twelve healthy control subjects. Results: Tract-based spatial-statistics analysis revealed significantly higher mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity in the CRPS patients, suggesting that the structural connectivity is altered in CRPS. All these measures were altered in the genu, body, and splenium of corpus callosum, as well as in the left anterior and posterior and the right superior parts of the corona radiata. Axial diffusivity was significantly correlated with clinical motor symptoms at whole-brain level, supporting the physiological significance of the observed white-matter abnormalities. Conclusions: Altogether, our findings further corroborate the involvement of the central nervous system in CRPS.
  • Choo, Xin Yi; Liddell, Jeffrey R.; Huuskonen, Mikko T.; Grubman, Alexandra; Moujalled, Diane; Roberts, Jessica; Kysenius, Kai; Patten, Lauren; Quek, Hazel; Oikari, Lotta E.; Duncan, Clare; James, Simon A.; McInnes, Lachlan E.; Hayne, David J.; Donnelly, Paul S.; Pollari, Eveliina; Vähätalo, Suvi; Lejavova, Katarina; Kettunen, Mikko; Malm, Tarja; Koistinaho, Jari; White, Anthony R.; Kanninen, Katja M. (2018)
    Background: Neuroinflammation and biometal dyshomeostasis are key pathological features of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Inflammation and biometals are linked at the molecular level through regulation of metal buffering proteins such as the metallothioneins. Even though the molecular connections between metals and inflammation have been demonstrated, little information exists on the effect of copper modulation on brain inflammation. Methods: We demonstrate the immunomodulatory potential of the copper bis(thiosemicarbazone) complex Cu-II(atsm) in an neuroinflammatory model in vivo and describe its anti-inflammatory effects on microglia and astrocytes in vitro. Results: By using a sophisticated in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach, we report the efficacy of Cu-II(atsm) in reducing acute cerebrovascular inflammation caused by peripheral administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cu-II(atsm) also induced anti-inflammatory outcomes in primary microglia [significant reductions in nitric oxide (NO), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)] and astrocytes [significantly reduced NO, MCP-1, and interleukin 6 (IL-6)] in vitro. These anti-inflammatory actions were associated with increased cellular copper levels and increased the neuroprotective protein metallothionein-1 (MT1) in microglia and astrocytes. Conclusion: The beneficial effects of Cu-II(atsm) on the neuroimmune system suggest copper complexes are potential therapeutics for the treatment of neuroinflammatory conditions.
  • Genome Aggregation Database Prod T; Genome Aggregation Database Consor; Minikel, Eric Vallabh; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Martin, Hilary C.; Daly, Mark J.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Färkkilä, Martti; Groop, Leif; Holi, Matti M.; Kallela, Mikko; Kaprio, Jaakko; Palotie, Aarno; Ripatti, Samuli; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Wessman, Maija (2020)
    Naturally occurring human genetic variants that are predicted to inactivate protein-coding genes provide an in vivo model of human gene inactivation that complements knockout studies in cells and model organisms. Here we report three key findings regarding the assessment of candidate drug targets using human loss-of-function variants. First, even essential genes, in which loss-of-function variants are not tolerated, can be highly successful as targets of inhibitory drugs. Second, in most genes, loss-of-function variants are sufficiently rare that genotype-based ascertainment of homozygous or compound heterozygous 'knockout' humans will await sample sizes that are approximately 1,000 times those presently available, unless recruitment focuses on consanguineous individuals. Third, automated variant annotation and filtering are powerful, but manual curation remains crucial for removing artefacts, and is a prerequisite for recall-by-genotype efforts. Our results provide a roadmap for human knockout studies and should guide the interpretation of loss-of-function variants in drug development.
  • ITALSGEN Consortium; Genomic Translation ALS Care GTAC; ALS Sequencing Consortium; NYGC ALS Consortium; Answer ALS Fdn; Clinical Res ALS Related Disorders; SLAGEN Consortium; French ALS Consortium; Project MinE ALS Sequencing Consor (2018)
    To identify novel genes associated with ALS, we undertook two lines of investigation. We carried out a genome-wide association study comparing 20,806 ALS cases and 59,804 controls. Independently, we performed a rare variant burden analysis comparing 1,138 index familial ALS cases and 19,494 controls. Through both approaches, we identified kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) as a novel gene associated with ALS. Interestingly, mutations predominantly in the N-terminal motor domain of KIF5A are causative for two neurodegenerative diseases: hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG10) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 (CMT2). In contrast, ALS-associated mutations are primarily located at the C-terminal cargo-binding tail domain and patients harboring loss-of-function mutations displayed an extended survival relative to typical ALS cases. Taken together, these results broaden the phenotype spectrum resulting from mutations in KIF5A and strengthen the role of cytoskeletal defects in the pathogenesis of ALS.
  • Feigin, Valery L.; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola; Alabed, Samer; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Ansari, Hossein; Anwari, Palwasha; Arnlov, Johan; Asayesh, Hamid; Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal; Atey, Tesfay Mehari; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur; Azarpazhooh, Mahmood Reza; Barac, Aleksandra; Barboza, Miguel; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Baernighausen, Till; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhane, Adugnaw; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Birlik, Sait Mentes; Biryukov, Stan; Boneya, Dube Jara; Bulto, Lemma NegesaBulto; Carabin, Helene; Casey, Daniel; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Chen, Honglei; Chitheer, Abdulaal A.; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Kivimaki, Mika; Meretoja, Atte; Weiderpass, Elisabete; GBD 2015 Neurological Disorders (2017)
    Background Comparable data on the global and country-specific burden of neurological disorders and their trends are crucial for health-care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study provides such information but does not routinely aggregate results that are of interest to clinicians specialising in neurological conditions. In this systematic analysis, we quantified the global disease burden due to neurological disorders in 2015 and its relationship with country development level. Methods We estimated global and country-specific prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), years of life lost (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) for various neurological disorders that in the GBD classification have been previously spread across multiple disease groupings. The more inclusive grouping of neurological disorders included stroke, meningitis, encephalitis, tetanus, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron disease, migraine, tension-type headache, medication overuse headache, brain and nervous system cancers, and a residual category of other neurological disorders. We also analysed results based on the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a compound measure of income per capita, education, and fertility, to identify patterns associated with development and how countries fare against expected outcomes relative to their level of development. Findings Neurological disorders ranked as the leading cause group of DALYs in 2015 (250.7 [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 229.1 to 274.7] million, comprising 10.2% of global DALYs) and the second-leading cause group of deaths (9.4 [9.1 to 9.7] million], comprising 16.8% of global deaths). The most prevalent neurological disorders were tensiontype headache (1505 9 [UI 1337.3 to 1681.6 million cases]), migraine (958.8 [872.1 to 1055.6] million), medication overuse headache (58.5 [50.8 to 67.4 million]), and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (46.0 [40.2 to 52.7 million]). Between 1990 and 2015, the number of deaths from neurological disorders increased by 36.7%, and the number of DALYs by 7.4%. These increases occurred despite decreases in age-standardised rates of death and DALYs of 26.1% and 29.7%, respectively; stroke and communicable neurological disorders were responsible for most of these decreases. Communicable neurological disorders were the largest cause of DALYs in countries with low SDI. Stroke rates were highest at middle levels of SDI and lowest at the highest SDI. Most of the changes in DALY rates of neurological disorders with development were driven by changes in YLLs. Interpretation Neurological disorders are an important cause of disability and death worldwide. Globally, the burden of neurological disorders has increased substantially over the past 25 years because of expanding population numbers and ageing, despite substantial decreases in mortality rates from stroke and communicable neurological disorders. The number of patients who will need care by clinicians with expertise in neurological conditions will continue to grow in coming decades. Policy makers and health-care providers should be aware of these trends to provide adequate services.
  • Papp, Zoltan; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Alvarez, Julian; Bettex, Dominique; Bouchez, Stefan; Brito, Dulce; Cerny, Vladimir; Comin-Colet, Josep; Crespo-Leiro, Marisa G.; Delgado, Juan F.; Edes, Istvan; Eremenko, Alexander A.; Farmakis, Dimitrios; Fedele, Francesco; Fonseca, Candida; Fruhwald, Sonja; Girardis, Massimo; Guarracino, Fabio; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Heringlake, Matthias; Herpain, Antoine; Heunks, Leo M. A.; Husebye, Tryggve; Ivancan, Visnja; Karason, Kristjan; Kaul, Sundeep; Kivikko, Matti; Kubica, Janek; Masip, Josep; Matskeplishvili, Simon; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Nieminen, Markku S.; Oliva, Fabrizio; Papp, Julius G.; Parissis, John; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Poder, Pentti; Poelzl, Gerhard; Reinecke, Alexander; Ricksten, Sven-Erik; Riha, Hynek; Rudiger, Alain; Sarapohja, Toni; Schwinger, Robert H. G.; Toller, Wolfgang; Tritapepe, Luigi; Tschoepe, Carsten; Wikstroem, Gerhard; von Lewinski, Dirk; Vrtovec, Bojan; Pollesello, Piero (2020)
    Levosimendan was first approved for clinical use in 2000, when authorization was granted by Swedish regulatory authorities for the hemodynamic stabilization of patients with acutely decompensated chronic heart failure (HF). In the ensuing 20 years, this distinctive inodilator, which enhances cardiac contractility through calcium sensitization and promotes vasodilatation through the opening of adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channels on vascular smooth muscle cells, has been approved in more than 60 jurisdictions, including most of the countries of the European Union and Latin America. Areas of clinical application have expanded considerably and now include cardiogenic shock, takotsubo cardiomyopathy, advanced HF, right ventricular failure, pulmonary hypertension, cardiac surgery, critical care, and emergency medicine. Levosimendan is currently in active clinical evaluation in the United States. Levosimendan in IV formulation is being used as a research tool in the exploration of a wide range of cardiac and noncardiac disease states. A levosimendan oral form is at present under evaluation in the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To mark the 20 years since the advent of levosimendan in clinical use, 51 experts from 23 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Ukraine) contributed to this essay, which evaluates one of the relatively few drugs to have been successfully introduced into the acute HF arena in recent times and charts a possible development trajectory for the next 20 years.
  • Saleheen, Danish; Zhao, Wei; Young, Robin; Nelson, Christopher P.; Ho, WeangKee; Ferguson, Jane F.; Rasheed, Asif; Ou, Kristy; Nurnberg, Sylvia T.; Bauer, Robert C.; Goel, Anuj; Do, Ron; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Hartiala, Jaana; Zhang, Weihua; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sinisalo, Juha; Kanoni, Stavroula; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Marouli, Eirini; Kristiansson, Kati; Zhao, Jing Hua; Scott, Robert; Gauguier, Dominique; Shah, Svati H.; Smith, Albert Vernon; van Zuydam, Natalie; Cox, Amanda J.; Willenborg, Christina; Kessler, Thorsten; Zeng, Lingyao; Province, Michael A.; Ganna, Andrea; Lind, Lars; Pedersen, Nancy L.; White, Charles C.; Joensuu, Anni; Kleber, Marcus Edi; Hall, Alistair S.; Maerz, Winfried; Salomaa, Veikko; O'Donnell, Christopher; Ingelsson, Erik; Feitosa, Mary F.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Bowden, Donald W.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Perola, Markus; PROMIS; Cardiogramplusc4D (2017)
    BACKGROUND: Common diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD) are complex in etiology. The interaction of genetic susceptibility with lifestyle factors may play a prominent role. However, gene-lifestyle interactions for CHD have been difficult to identify. Here, we investigate interaction of smoking behavior, a potent lifestyle factor, with genotypes that have been shown to associate with CHD risk. METHODS: We analyzed data on 60 919 CHD cases and 80 243 controls from 29 studies for gene-smoking interactions for genetic variants at 45 loci previously reported to be associated with CHD risk. We also studied 5 loci associated with smoking behavior. Study-specific gene-smoking interaction effects were calculated and pooled using fixed-effects meta-analyses. Interaction analyses were declared to be significant at a P value of <1.0x10(-3) (Bonferroni correction for 50 tests). RESULTS: We identified novel gene-smoking interaction for a variant upstream of the ADAMTS7 gene. Every T allele of rs7178051 was associated with lower CHD risk by 12% in never-smokers (P= 1.3x10(-16)) in comparison with 5% in ever-smokers (P= 2.5x10(-4)), translating to a 60% loss of CHD protection conferred by this allelic variation in people who smoked tobacco (interaction P value= 8.7x10(-5)). The protective T allele at rs7178051 was also associated with reduced ADAMTS7 expression in human aortic endothelial cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Exposure of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells to cigarette smoke extract led to induction of ADAMTS7. CONCLUSIONS: Allelic variation at rs7178051 that associates with reduced ADAMTS7 expression confers stronger CHD protection in never-smokers than in ever-smokers. Increased vascular ADAMTS7 expression may contribute to the loss of CHD protection in smokers.
  • Genin, Emmanuelle C.; Bannwarth, Sylvie; Lespinasse, Francoise; Ortega-Vila, Bernardo; Fragaki, Konstantina; Itoh, Kie; Villa, Elodie; Lacas-Gervais, Sandra; Jokela, Manu; Auranen, Mari; Ylikallio, Emil; Mauri-Crouzet, Alessandra; Tyynismaa, Henna; Vihola, Anna; Auge, Gaelle; Cochaud, Charlotte; Sesaki, Hiromi; Ricci, Jean-Ehrland; Udd, Bjarne; Vives-Bauza, Cristofol; Paquis-Flucklinger, Veronique (2018)
    Following the involvement of CHCHD10 in FrontoTemporal-Dementia-Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (FTD-ALS) clinical spectrum, a founder mutation (p.Gly66Val) in the same gene was identified in Finnish families with late onset spinal motor neuronopathy (SMAJ). SMAJ is a slowly progressive form of spinal muscular atrophy with a life expectancy within normal range. In order to understand why the p.Ser59Leu mutation, responsible for severe FTD-ALS, and the p.Gly66Val mutation could lead to different levels of severity, we compared their effects in patient cells. Unlike affected individuals bearing the p.Ser59Leu mutation, patients presenting with SMAJ phenotype have neither mitochondrial myopathy nor mtDNA instability. The expression of CHCHD10(S59L) mutant allele leads to disassembly of mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) with mitochondria] dysfunction and loss of cristae in patient fibroblasts. We also show that G66V fibroblasts do not display the loss of MICOS complex integrity and mitochondrial damage found in S59L cells. However, S59L and G66V fibroblasts show comparable accumulation of phosphorylated mitochondrial TDP-43 suggesting that the severity of phenotype and mitochondrial damage do not depend on mitochondrial TDP-43 localization. The expression of the CHCHD10(G66V) allele is responsible for mitochondrial network fragmentation and decreased sensitivity towards apoptotic stimuli, but with a less severe effect than that found in cells expressing the CHCHD10(S59L) allele. Taken together, our data show that cellular phenotypes associated with p.Ser59Leu and p.Gly66Val mutations in CHCHD10 are different; loss of MICOS complex integrity and mitochondrial dysfunction, but not TDP-43 mitochondrial localization, being likely essential to develop a severe motor neuron disease.
  • Al-Tahan, Sejad; Al-Obeidi, Ebaa; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Lakatos, Anita; Weiss, Lan; Grafe, Marjorie; Palmio, Johanna; Wicklund, Matt; Harati, Yadollah; Omizo, Molly; Udd, Bjarne; Kimonis, Virginia (2018)
    Over fifty missense mutations in the gene coding for valosin-containing protein (VCP) are associated with a unique autosomal dominant adult-onset progressive disease associated with combinations of proximo-distal inclusion body myopathy (IBM), Paget's disease of bone (PDB), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We report the clinical, histological, and molecular findings in four new patients/families carrying novel VCP mutations: c.474 G > A (p.M158I); c.478 G > C (p.A160P); c.383G > C (p.G128A); and c.382G > T (p.G128C). Clinical features included myopathy, PDB, ALS and Parkinson's disease though frontotemporal dementia was not an associated feature in these families. One of the patients was noted to have severe manifestations of PDB and was suspected of having neoplasia. There were wide inter- and intra-familial variations making genotype-phenotype correlations difficult between the novel mutations and frequency or age of onset of IBM, PDB, FTD, ALS and Parkinson's disease. Increasing awareness of the full spectrum of clinical presentations will improve diagnosis of VCP-related diseases and thus proactively manage or prevent associated clinical features such as PDB. (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Kuuluvainen, Liina; Kaivola, Karri; Mönkäre, Saana; Laaksovirta, Hannu; Jokela, Manu; Udd, Bjarne; Valori, Miko; Pasanen, Petra; Paetau, Anders; Traynor, Bryan J.; Stone, David J.; Schleutker, Johanna; Pöyhönen, Minna; Tienari, Pentti J.; Myllykangas, Liisa (2019)
    Objective To characterize the clinical and neuropathologic features of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) p.Ala90Val mutation, as well as the mutation frequency and the role of oligogenic mechanisms in disease penetrance. Methods An index patient with autopsy-proven ALS was discovered to have the SOD1 p.Ala90Val mutation, which was screened in 2 Finnish ALS cohorts (n = 453). Additional contributing variants were analyzed from whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing data. Results Seven screened patients (1.5%) were found to carry the SOD1 heterozygous mutation. Allele-sharing analysis suggested a common founder haplotype. Common clinical features included limb-onset, long disease course, and sensory symptoms. No TDP43 pathology was observed. All cases were apparently sporadic, and pedigree analysis demonstrated that the mutation has reduced penetrance. Analysis of other contributing genes revealed a unique set of additional variants in each patient. These included previously described rare ANG and SPG11 mutations. One patient was compound heterozygous for SOD1 p.Ala90Val and p.Asp91Ala. Conclusions Our data suggest that the penetrance of SOD1 p.Ala90Val is modulated by other genes and indicates highly individual oligogenic basis of apparently sporadic ALS. Additional genetic variants likely contributing to disease penetrance were very heterogeneous, even among Finnish patients carrying the SOD1 founder mutation.
  • Sonninen, Tuuli-Maria; Goldsteins, Gundars; Laham-Karam, Nihay; Koistinaho, Jari; Lehtonen, Sarka (2020)
    Protein homeostasis (proteostasis) disturbances and inflammation are evident in normal aging and some age-related neurodegenerative diseases. While the proteostasis network maintains the integrity of intracellular and extracellular functional proteins, inflammation is a biological response to harmful stimuli. Cellular stress conditions can cause protein damage, thus exacerbating protein misfolding and leading to an eventual overload of the degradation system. The regulation of proteostasis network is particularly important in postmitotic neurons due to their limited regenerative capacity. Therefore, maintaining balanced protein synthesis, handling unfolding, refolding, and degrading misfolded proteins are essential to preserve all cellular functions in the central nervous sysytem. Failing proteostasis may trigger inflammatory responses in glial cells, and the consequent release of inflammatory mediators may lead to disturbances in proteostasis. Here, we review the mechanisms of proteostasis and inflammatory response, emphasizing their role in the pathological hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Furthermore, we discuss the interplay between proteostatic stress and excessive immune response that activates inflammation and leads to dysfunctional proteostasis.
  • Palmio, Johanna; Evilä, Anni; Bashir, Ayat; Norwood, Fiona; Viitaniemi, Kati; Vihola, Anna; Huovinen, Sanna; Straub, Volker; Hackman, Peter; Hirano, Michio; Bushby, Kate; Udd, Bjarne (2016)
  • Brandstack, Nina; Kurki, T.; Laalo, J.; Kauko, T.; Tenovuo, O. (2016)
    Reproducibility of two different methods for quantifying fiber tracts by using a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequence suitable for clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols was evaluated. DTI of 15 subjects was used to analyze intra-rater and inter-rater reproducibility. Another 10 subjects underwent MRI twice for assessment of between-scan reliability. Ten long association tracts were defined by fiber tracking using inclusion and exclusion regions of interest (ROIs). Whole-tract analysis and tractography-based core analysis were performed, and the effect of fractional anisotropy (FA 0.15/0.30) and turning angle threshold (27A degrees/60A degrees) on reproducibility was evaluated. Additionally, ROI measurements were performed in the core of the tracts. For the tract-based methods, intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities of FA and mean diffusivity (MD) measurements were excellent. Between-scan reproducibility was good or excellent in 127 of 130 of the measurements. There was no systematic difference in the reproducibility of the FA, MD, and volume measurements depending on the FA or turning angle threshold. For the cross-sectional ROI measurements, reliability showed large variation from poor to excellent depending on the tract. Compared with the commonly used cross-sectional core ROI method, the tract-based analyses seem to be a more robust way to identify and measure white matter tracts of interest, and provide a novel reproducible tool to perform core analysis.