Browsing by Subject "ANALYZER"

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  • Zellweger, Christoph; Emmenegger, Lukas; Firdaus, Mohd; Hatakka, Juha; Heimann, Martin; Kozlova, Elena; Spain, T. Gerard; Steinbacher, Martin; van der Schoot, Marcel V.; Buchmann, Brigitte (2016)
    Until recently, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) measurements were made almost exclusively using nondispersive infrared (NDIR) absorption and gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC/FID) techniques, respectively. Recently, commercially available instruments based on spectroscopic techniques such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have become more widely available and affordable. This resulted in a widespread use of these techniques at many measurement stations. This paper is focused on the comparison between a CRDS "travelling instrument" that has been used during performance audits within the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) with instruments incorporating other, more traditional techniques for measuring CO2 and CH4 (NDIR and GC/FID). We demonstrate that CRDS instruments and likely other spectroscopic techniques are suitable for WMO/GAW stations and allow a smooth continuation of historic CO2 and CH4 time series. Moreover, the analysis of the audit results indicates that the spectroscopic techniques have a number of advantages over the traditional methods which will lead to the improved accuracy of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 measurements.
  • Honkanen, Ari-Pekka; Huotari, Simo (2021)
    Toroidally and spherically bent single crystals are widely employed as optical elements in hard X-ray spectrometry at synchrotron and free-electron laser light sources, and in laboratory-scale instruments. To achieve optimal spectrometer performance, a solid theoretical understanding of the diffraction properties of such crystals is essential. In this work, a general method to calculate the internal stress and strain fields of toroidally bent crystals and how to apply it to predict their diffraction properties is presented. Solutions are derived and discussed for circular and rectangular spherically bent wafers due to their prevalence in contemporary instrumentation.
  • Cai, Runlong; Jiang, Jingkun; Mirme, Sander; Kangasluoma, Juha (2019)
    Measuring aerosol size distributions accurately down to similar to 1 nm is a key to nucleation studies, and it requires developments and improvements in instruments such as electrical mobility spectrometers in use today. The key factors characterizing the performance of an electrical mobility spectrometer for sub-3 nm particles are discussed in this study. A parameter named as Pi is proposed as a figure of merit for the performance of an electrical mobility spectrometer in the sub-3 nm size range instead of the overall detection efficiency. Pi includes the overall detection efficiency, the measurement time in each size bin, the aerosol flow rate passing through the detector, and the aerosol-to-sheath flow ratio of the differential mobility analyzer. The particle raw count number recorded by the detector can be estimated using Pi at a given aerosol size distribution function, dN/dlogd(p)( ). The limit of detection for the spectrometer and the statistical uncertainty of the measured aerosol size distribution can also be readily estimated using Pi. In addition to Pi, the size resolution of an electrical mobility analyzer is another factor characterizing the systematic errors originated from particle sizing. Four existing electrical mobility spectrometers designed for measuring sub-3 nm aerosol size distributions, including three scanning/differential mobility particle spectrometers and one differential mobility analyzer train, are examined. Their optimal performance is evaluated using Pi and the size resolution. For example, the Pi value and the size resolution of a diethylene-glycol differential mobility particle spectrometer for 1.5 nm particles are 8.0 x 10(-4) cm(3) and 5.7, respectively. The corresponding relative uncertainty of the measured size distribution is approximately 9.6% during an atmospheric new particle formation event with a dN/dlogd(p) of 5 x 10(5) cm(-3) . Assuming an adjustable sheath flow rate of the differential mobility analyzer, the optimal size resolution is approximately 5-9 when measuring atmospheric new particle formation events.
  • Steiner, G.; Franchin, A.; Kangasluoma, J.; Kerminen, V. -M.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T. (2017)
    Measuring aerosols and molecular clusters below the 3 nm size limit is essential to increase our understanding of new particle formation. Instruments for the detection of sub-3 nm aerosols and clusters exist and need to be carefully calibrated and characterized. So far calibrations and laboratory tests have been carried out using mainly electrically charged aerosols, as they are easier to handle experimentally. However, the charging state of the cluster is an important variable to take into account. Furthermore, instrument characterization performed with charged aerosols could be biased, preventing a correct interpretation of data when electrically neutral sub-3 nm aerosols are involved. This article presents the first steps to generate electrically neutral molecular clusters as standards for calibration. We show two methods: One based on the neutralization of well-known molecular clusters (mobility standards) by ions generated in a switchable aerosol neutralizer. The second is based on the controlled neutralization of mobility standards with mobility standards of opposite polarity in a recombination cell. We highlight the challenges of these two techniques and, where possible, point out solutions. In addition, we give an outlook on the next steps toward generating well-defined neutral molecular clusters with a known chemical composition and concentration.