Browsing by Subject "ANISOTROPY"

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  • Salo, Raimo A.; Belevich, Ilya; Jokitalo, Eija; Gröhn, Olli; Sierra, Alejandra (2021)
    Validation and interpretation of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) requires detailed understanding of the actual microstructure restricting the diffusion of water molecules. In this study, we used serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM), a three-dimensional electron microscopy (3D-EM) technique, to image seven white and grey matter volumes in the rat brain. SBEM shows excellent contrast of cellular membranes, which are the major components restricting the diffusion of water in tissue. Additionally, we performed 3D structure tensor (3D-ST) analysis on the SBEM volumes and parameterised the resulting orientation distributions using Watson and angular central Gaussian (ACG) probability distributions as well as spherical harmonic (SH) decomposition. We analysed how these parameterisations described the underlying orientation distributions and compared their orientation and dispersion with corresponding parameters from two dMRI methods, neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) and constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD). Watson and ACG parameterisations and SH decomposition captured well the 3D-ST orientation distributions, but ACG and SH better represented the distributions due to its ability to model asymmetric dispersion. The dMRI parameters corresponded well with the 3D-ST parameters in the white matter volumes, but the correspondence was less evident in the more complex grey matter. SBEM imaging and 3D-ST analysis also revealed that the orientation distributions were often not axially symmetric, a property neatly captured by the ACG distribution. Overall, the ability of SBEM to image diffusion barriers in intricate detail, combined with 3D-ST analysis and parameterisation, provides a step forward toward interpreting and validating the dMRI signals in complex brain tissue microstructure.
  • Myllys, M.; Henri, P.; Vallieres, X.; Gilet, N.; Nilsson, H.; Palmerio, E.; Turc, L.; Wellbrock, A.; Goldstein, R.; Witasse, O. (2021)
    Context. The Mutual Impedance Probe (RPC-MIP) carried by the Rosetta spacecraft monitored both the plasma density and the electric field in the close environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P), as the instrument was operating alternatively in two main modes: active and passive. The active mode is used primarily to perform plasma density measurements, while the passive mode enables the instrument to work as a wave analyzer. Aims. We are reporting electric field emissions at the plasma frequency near comet 67P observed by RPC-MIP passive mode. The electric field emissions are related to Langmuir waves within the cometary ionized environment. In addition, this study gives feedback on the density measurement capability of RPC-MIP in the presence of cold electrons. Methods. We studied the occurrence rate of the electric field emissions as well as their dependence on solar wind structures like stream interaction regions (SIRs) and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Results. We are showing that strong electric field emissions at the plasma frequency near 67P were present sporadically throughout the period when Rosetta was escorting the comet, without being continuous, as the occurrence rate is reported to be of about 1% of all the measured RPC-MIP passive spectra showing strong electric field emissions. The Langmuir wave activity monitored by RPC-MIP showed measurable enhancements during SIR or CME interactions and near perihelion. Conclusions. According to our results, Langmuir waves are a common feature at 67P during the passage of SIRs. Comparing the plasma frequency given by the RPC-MIP passive mode during Langmuir wave periods with the RPC-MIP active mode observations, we conclude that the measurement accuracy of RPC-MIP depends on the operational submode when the cold electron component dominates the electron density.
  • Viciano-Chumillas, Marta; Koprowiak, Florian; Mutikainen, Ilpo; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Mallah, Talal; Bolvin, Helene (2017)
    We report a bimetallic holmium(III) complex showing a S-shaped magnetic hysteresis at low temperature. The complex is investigated by x-ray crystallography, magnetometry, single crystal microsquid measurements, and first-principles calculations. A model Hamiltonian including electronic and nuclear magnetic moments is used to fit all experimental data. We conclude that the Ho(III) may be described as non-Kramers doublets with respective gaps of Delta(A) = 0.8 and Delta(B) = 10 cm(-1) and that there is a small ferromagnetic coupling of J = 1 cm(-1) ((H) over cap (S) = -JS(A) . S-B). As in previous works, the hysteresis arise from the hyperfine structure of the Ho(III) ions. The S-shaped form of the hysteresis reflects the avoided crossing of the electronic states in the non-Kramers doublets.
  • Berger, Raphael J. F.; Dimitrova, Maria; Nasibullin, Rinat T.; Valiev, Rashid R.; Sundholm, Dage (2022)
    Magnetically induced ring currents are calculated from the magnetic shielding tensor by employing the Ampere-Maxwell law. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by integrating the zz component of the shielding tensor along the symmetry axis of highly symmetric ring-shaped aromatic, antiaromatic and nonaromatic molecules. The calculated ring-current strengths agree perfectly with the ones obtained by integrating the current-density flux passing through a plane cutting half the molecular ring. The method can be used in combination with all electronic structure codes capable of calculating nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding tensors in general points in space. We also show that nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS) along the symmetry axis are related to the spatial derivative of the strength of the global ring-current along the z axis.
  • Liu, C.M.; Vaivads, A.; Graham, D.B.; Khotyaintsev, Yu V.; Fu, H.S.; Johlander, A.; André, M.; Giles, B.L. (2019)
    Electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) have been reported inside reconnection jets, but their source and role remain unclear hitherto. Here we present the first observational evidence of ESWs generation by cold ion beams inside the jet, by using high-cadence measurements from the Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft in the Earth's magnetotail. Inside the jet, intense ESWs with amplitude up to 30 mV m(-1) and potential up to similar to 7% of the electron temperature are observed in association with accelerated cold ion beams. Instability analysis shows that the ion beams are unstable, providing free energy for the ESWs. The waves are observed to thermalize the beams, thus providing a new channel for ion heating inside the jet. Our study suggests that electrostatic turbulence can play an important role in the jet dynamics.
  • Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J.; The ALICE collaboration (2017)
    We report a precise measurement of the J/psi elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The J/psi mesons are reconstructed at midrapidity (|y| <0.9) in the dielectron decay channel and at forward rapidity (2.5 <y <4.0) in the dimuon channel, both down to zero transverse momentum. At forward rapidity, the elliptic flow v(2) of the J/psi is studied as a function of the transverse momentum and centrality. A positive v(2) is observed in the transverse momentum range 2
  • Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J.; The ALICE collaboration (2017)
    The transverse momentum (p(T)) spectra and elliptic flow coefficient (v(2)) of deuterons and anti-deuterons at mid-rapidity (|y| <0.5) are measured with the ALICE detector at the LHC in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV. The measurement of the p(T) spectra of (anti-)deuterons is done up to 8 GeV/c in 0-10% centrality class and up to 6 GeV/c in 10-20% and 20-40% centrality classes. The v(2) is measured in the 0.8 <p(T) <5 GeV/c interval and in six different centrality intervals (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-50%) using the scalar product technique. Measured pi(+/-), K-+/- and p+(p) over bar transverse-momentum spectra and v(2) are used to predict the deuteron p(T) spectra and v(2) within the Blast-Wave model. The predictions are able to reproduce the v(2) coefficient in the measured p(T) range and the transverse-momentum spectra for p(T) > 1.8 GeV/c within the experimental uncertainties. The measurement of the coalescence parameter B-2 is performed, showing a p(T) dependence in contrast with the simplest coalescence model, which fails to reproduce also the measured v(2) coefficient. In addition, the coalescence parameter B-2 and the elliptic flow coefficient in the 20-40% centrality interval are compared with the AMPT model which is able, in its version without string melting, to reproduce the measured v(2)(p(T)) and the B-2(p(T)) trend.
  • PHENIX Collaboration; Adare, A.; Kim, D. J.; Rak, J. (2019)
    We present measurements of azimuthal correlations of charged hadron pairs in root s(NN) = 200 GeV Au + Au collisions for the trigger and associated particle transverse-momentum ranges of 1 <p(T)(t) <10 GeV/c and 0.5 <p(T)(a) <10 GeV/c. After subtraction of an underlying event using a model that includes higher-order azimuthal anisotropy v(2), v(3,) and v(4), the away-side yield of the highest trigger-p(T)(p(T)(t) > 4 GeV/c) correlations is suppressed compared with that of correlations measured in p + p collisions. At the lowest associated particle p(T)(0.5 <p(T)(a) <1 GeV/c), the away-side shape and yield are modified relative to those in p + p collisions. These observations are consistent with the scenario of radiative-jet energy loss. For the low-p(T) trigger correlations (2 <p(T)(t) <4 GeV/c), a finite away-side yield exists and we explore the dependence of the shape of the away-side within the context of an underlying-event model. Correlations are also studied differentially versus event-plane angle Psi(2) and Psi(3). The angular correlations show an asymmetry when selecting the sign of the difference between the trigger-particle azimuthal angle and the Psi(2) event plane. This asymmetry and the measured suppression of the pair yield out-of-plane is consistent with a path-length-dependent energy loss. No Psi(3) dependence can be resolved within experimental uncertainties.
  • Taylor, George; Rost, Sebastian; Houseman, Gregory A.; Hillers, Gregor (2019)
    We use observations of surface waves in the ambient noise field recorded at a dense seismic array to image the North Anatolian Fault zone (NAFZ) in the region of the 1999 magnitude 7.6 Izmit earthquake in western Turkey. The NAFZ is a major strike-slip fault system extending similar to 1200 km across northern Turkey that poses a high level of seismic hazard, particularly to the city of Istanbul. We obtain maps of phase velocity variation using surface wave tomography applied to Rayleigh and Love waves and construct high-resolution images of S-wave velocity in the upper 10 km of a 70 x 30 km region around Lake Sapanca. We observe low S-wave velocities (<2.5 km s(-1)) associated with the Adapazari and Pamukova sedimentary basins, as well as the northern branch of the NAFZ. In the Armutlu Block, between the two major branches of the NAFZ, we image higher velocities (> 3.2 km s(-1)) associated with a shallow crystalline basement. We measure azimuthal anisotropy in our phase velocity observations, with the fast direction seeming to align with the strike of the fault at periods shorter than 4 s. At longer periods up to 10 s, the fast direction aligns with the direction of maximum extension for the region (similar to 45 degrees). The signatures of both the northern and southern branches of the NAFZ are clearly associated with strong gradients in seismic velocity that also denote the boundaries of major tectonic units. Our results support the conclusion that the development of the NAFZ has exploited this pre-existing contrast in physical properties.
  • Paukkunen, Hannu (2015)
    The concept of centrality in high-energy nuclear collisions has recently become a subject of an active debate. In particular, the experimental methods to determine the centrality that have given reasonable results for many observables in high-energy lead-lead collisions at the LHC have led to surprising behavior in the case of proton-lead collisions. In this letter, we discuss the possibility to calibrate the experimental determination of centrality by asymmetries caused by mutually different spatial distributions of protons and neutrons inside the nuclei - a well-known phenomenon in nuclear physics known as the neutron-skin effect. (C) 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2019)
    Event-by-event fluctuations in the elliptic-flow coefficient v(2) are studied in PbPb collisions at root S-NN = 5.02 TeV using the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. Elliptic-flow probability distributions p(v(2)) for charged particles with transverse momentum 0.3 < p(T) < 3.0 GeV/c and pseudorapidity vertical bar eta vertical bar < 1.0 are determined for different collision centrality classes. The moments of the p(v(2)) distributions are used to calculate the v(2) coefficients based on cumulant orders 2, 4, 6, and 8. A rank ordering of the higher-order cumulant results and nonzero standardized skewness values obtained for the p(v(2)) distributions indicate non-Gaussian initial-state fluctuations. Bessel-Gaussian and elliptic power fits to the flow distributions are studied to characterize the initial-state spatial anisotropy. (C) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Poutanen, T.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Valiviita, J.; Planck Collaboration (2014)
  • Ade, P. A. R.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Poutanen, T.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Valiviita, J.; Planck Collaboration (2014)
  • Ade, P. A. R.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Poutanen, T.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Tuovinen, J.; Valiviita, J.; Planck Collaboration (2014)
  • Aghanim, N.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Valiviita, J.; Planck Collaboration (2014)
  • Planck Collaboration; Akrami, Y.; Keihanen, E.; Kiiveri, K.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Savelainen, M.; Suur-Uski, A-S; Valiviita, J.; Lindholm, V. (2020)
    The largest temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the dipole, which has been measured with increasing accuracy for more than three decades, particularly with the Planck satellite. The simplest interpretation of the dipole is that it is due to our motion with respect to the rest frame of the CMB. Since current CMB experiments infer temperature anisotropies from angular intensity variations, the dipole modulates the temperature anisotropies with the same frequency dependence as the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect. We present the first, and significant, detection of this signal in the tSZ maps and find that it is consistent with direct measurements of the CMB dipole, as expected. The signal contributes power in the tSZ maps, which is modulated in a quadrupolar pattern, and we estimate its contribution to the tSZ bispectrum, noting that it contributes negligible noise to the bispectrum at relevant scales.
  • Leahy, J. P.; Bersanelli, M.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Ganga, K.; Leach, S. M.; Moss, A.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Poutanen, T.; Sandri, M.; Scott, D.; Tauber, J.; Valenziano, L.; Villa, F.; Wilkinson, A.; Zonca, A.; Baccigalupi, C.; Borrill, J.; Butler, R. C.; Cuttaia, F.; Davis, R. J.; Frailis, M.; Francheschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Gregorio, A.; Leonardi, R.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Meinhold, P.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Morgante, G.; Prezeau, G.; Rocha, G.; Stringhetti, L.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M. (2010)
  • Pyykkö, Pekka; Taubert, Stefan (2022)
    The electronic structure and stability of M '@M-n systems is considered using DFT. The metal atom M ' is a rare earth, actinide, or a d transition metal, and M is a coinage (Group 11) metal. The sigma aromaticity along the M-n ring is emphasized. As a further indicator for it, the magnetically induced currents along the ring are studied, and found to be considerably larger than the aromatic pi currents in benzene. A name saturnenes is suggested for these atom-inside-ring systems. Attention is also called for the known analogous stick-inside-ring systems.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Eerola, P.; Forthomme, Laurent; Kirschenmann, H.; Österberg, K.; Voutilainen, M.; Brücken, Erik; Garcia, F.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J.K.; Karimäki, V.; Kim, Minsuk; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Pekkanen, Juska; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Viinikainen, Jussi; Tuuva, T. (2021)
    Measurements of the second Fourier harmonic coefficient (v(2)) of the azimuthal distributions of prompt and nonprompt D-0 mesons produced in pp and pPb collisions are presented. Nonprompt D-0 mesons come from beauty hadron decays. The data samples are collected by the CMS experiment at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies of 13 and 8.16 TeV, respectively. In high multiplicity pp collisions, v(2) signals for prompt charm hadrons are reported for the first time, and are found to be comparable to those for light-flavor hadron species over a transverse momentum (pT) range of 2-6 GeV. Compared at similar event multiplicities, the prompt D-0 meson v(2) values in pp and pPb collisions are similar in magnitude. The v(2) values for open beauty hadrons are extracted for the first time via nonprompt D-0 mesons in pPb collisions. For pT in the range of 2-5 GeV, the results suggest that v(2) for nonprompt D-0 mesons is smaller than that for prompt D-0 mesons. These new measurements indicate a positive charm hadron v(2) in pp collisions and suggest a mass dependence in v(2) between charm and beauty hadrons in the pPb system. These results provide insights into the origin of heavy-flavor quark collectivity in small systems. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Obrochta, S. P.; Andren, T.; Fazekas, S. Z.; Lougheed, B. C.; Snowball, I.; Yokoyama, Y.; Miyairi, Y.; Kondo, R.; Kotilainen, A. T.; Hyttinen, O.; Fehr, A. (2017)
    Laminated, organic-rich silts and clays with high dissolved gas content characterize sediments at IODP Site M0063 in the Landsort Deep, which at 459 m is the deepest basin in the Baltic Sea. Cores recovered from Hole M0063A experienced significant expansion as gas was released during the recovery process, resulting in high sediment loss. Therefore, during operations at subsequent holes, penetration was reduced to 2 m per 3.3 m core, permitting expansion into 1.3 m of initially empty liner. Fully filled liners were recovered from Holes B through E, indicating that the length of recovered intervals exceeded the penetrated distance by a factor of > 1.5. A typical down-core logarithmic trend in gamma density profiles, with anomalously low-density values within the upper similar to 1 m of each core, suggests that expansion primarily occurred in this upper interval. Thus, we suggest that a simple linear correction is inappropriate. This interpretation is supported by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data that indicate vertical stretching in the upper similar to 1.5 m of expanded cores. Based on the mean gamma density profiles of cores from Holes M0063C and D, we obtain an expansion function that is used to adjust the depth of each core to conform to its known penetration. The variance in these profiles allows for quantification of uncertainty in the adjusted depth scale. Using a number of bulk C-14 dates, we explore how the presence of multiple carbon source pathways leads to poorly constrained radiocarbon reservoir age variability that significantly affects age and sedimentation rate calculations.