Browsing by Subject "ANKLE-BRACHIAL INDEX"

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  • Wickstrom, Jan-Erik; Jalkanen, Juho M.; Venermo, Maarit; Hakovirta, Harri H. (2017)
    Background and aims: Limited data exist on the association of the anatomical distribution of atherosclerotic lesions and the extent of atherosclerosis at defined arterial segments with life expectancy. We recently presented a new classification of the extent of atherosclerosis in crural vessels and showed that Crural Index (CIx) was associated with mid-term survival of symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients. This study evaluates the significance of the extent of crural atherosclerosis on long-term cardiovascular mortality. Methods: 887 consecutive patients with PAD, admitted for digital subtraction angiography (DSA) at Turku University Hospital Department of Vascular Surgery (Turku, Finland) between January 1st, 2009 and July 30th, 2011, were retrospectively analysed. Each crural angiographic image was graded according to CIx criteria. Aorto-iliac and femoro-popliteal arterial segments were similarly graded according to modified TASC II criteria. CIx was used as the categorical variable for the extent of atherosclerosis in crural vessels for survival analysis. Survival was also evaluated with respect to which arterial segment was most severely affected. Causes of death were provided by the Cause of Death Registry of Statistics Finland, updated on January 23rd, 2017. Results: Altogether, 408 (46%) patients died during follow-up. The majority of deaths were due to cardiovascular causes (n = 246, 60%). Cardiovascular mortality was strongly associated with a high CIx (CIx III (Hazard ratio (HR) 2.16, Confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.23-3.80, p = 0.007)) and CIx IV (HR 3.513, 95% CI 1.93-4.565, p <0.001), as compared to CIx 0. In patients having the crural segment as the most severely affected arterial segment, cardiovascular mortality was significantly increased (HR 2.321, 95% CI 1.45-3.73, p <0.001), as was overall mortality (HR 2.177, 95% CI 1.53-3.10, p <0.001). Conclusions: High Crural Index and extensive crural vessel atherosclerosis are associated with long-term cardiovascular mortality, and both may serve as useful indicators of survival among patients with symptomatic PAD. (c) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Aboyans, Victor; Ricco, Jean-Baptiste; Bartelink, Marie-Louise E. L.; Bjorck, Martin; Brodmann, Marianne; Cohnert, Tina; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Czerny, Martin; De Carlo, Marco; Debus, Sebastian; Espinola-Klein, Christine; Kahan, Thomas; Kownator, Serge; Mazzolai, Lucia; Naylor, A. Ross; Roffi, Marco; Roether, Joachim; Sprynger, Muriel; Tendera, Michal; Tepe, Gunnar; Venermo, Maarit; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Desormais, Ileana; Widimsky, Petr; Kolh, Philippe; Agewall, Stefan; Bueno, Hector; Coca, Antonio; De Borst, Gert J.; Delgado, Victoria; Dick, Florian; Erol, Cetin; Ferrini, Marc; Kakkos, Stavros; Katus, Hugo A.; Knuuti, Juhani; Lindholt, Jes; Mattle, Heinrich; Pieniazek, Piotr; Piepoli, Massimo Francesco; Scheinert, Dierk; Sievert, Horst; Simpson, Iain; Sulzenko, Jakub; Tamargo, Juan; Tokgozoglu, Lale; Torbicki, Adam; Tsakountakis, Nikolaos; Tunon, Jose; Vega de Ceniga, Melina; Windecker, Stephan; Zamorano, Jose Luis (2018)
    Document covering atherosclerotic disease of extracranial carotid and vertebral, mesenteric, renal, upper and lower extremity arteries Endorsed by: the European Stroke Organization (ESO) The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS) Authors/Task Force Members (a), Victor Aboyans (*), Jean- Baptiste Ricco (*), Marie- Louise E. L. Bartelink, Martin Bjorck, Marianne Brodmann, Tina Cohnert, Jean-Philippe Collet, Martin Czerny, Marco De Carlo, Sebastian Debus, Christine Espinola-Klein, Thomas Kahan, Serge Kownator, Lucia Mazzolai, A. Ross Naylor, Marco Roffi, Joachim Rother, Muriel Sprynger, Michal Tendera, Gunnar Tepe, Maarit Venermo, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Ileana Desormais Document Reviewers (b), Petr Widimsky, Philippe Kolh, Stefan Agewall, Hector Bueno, Antonio Coca, Gert J. De Borst, Victoria Delgado, Florian Dick, Cetin Erol, Marc Ferrini, Stavros Kakkos, Hugo A. Katus, Juhani Knuuti, Jes Lindholt, Heinrich Mattle, Piotr Pieniazek, Massimo Francesco Piepoli, Dierk Scheinert, Horst Sievert, Iain Simpson, Jakub Sulzenko, Juan Tamargo, Lale Tokgozoglu, Adam Torbicki, Nikolaos Tsakountakis, Jose Tunon, Melina Vega de Ceniga, Stephan Windecker, Jose Luis Zamorano
  • Forsythe, Rachael O.; Apelqvist, Jan; Boyko, Edward J.; Fitridge, Robert; Hong, Joon Pio; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Mills, Joseph L.; Nikol, Sigrid; Reekers, Jim; Venermo, Maarit; Zierler, R. Eugene; Schaper, Nicolaas C.; Hinchliffe, Robert J. (2020)
    Abstract Clinical outcomes of patients with diabetes, foot ulceration, and peripheral artery disease (PAD) are difficult to predict. The prediction of important clinical outcomes, such as wound healing and major amputation, would be a valuable tool to help guide management and target interventions for limb salvage. Despite the existence of a number of classification tools, no consensus exists as to the most useful bedside tests with which to predict outcome. We here present an updated systematic review from the International Working Group of the Diabetic Foot, comprising 15 studies published between 1980 and 2018 describing almost 6800 patients with diabetes and foot ulceration. Clinical examination findings as well as six non-invasive bedside tests were evaluated for their ability to predict wound healing and amputation. The most useful tests to inform on the probability of healing were skin perfusion pressure?≥?40?mmHg, toe pressure?≥?30?mmHg, or TcPO2 ≥?25?mmHg. With these thresholds, all of these tests increased the probability of healing by greater than 25% in at least one study. To predict major amputation, the most useful tests were ankle pressure?
  • Heikkila, Katriina; Coughlin, Patrick A.; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Halonen, Jaana (2019)
    Background and aims: Physical activity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and an important therapy in individuals with intermittent claudication. However, its role in the development of peripheral artery disease (PAD) is unclear. We have examined the evidence of the association between physical activity and development of PAD. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL Plus in August 2018 for original studies of physical activity and PAD. Studies reporting prevalence or incidence of PAD by categories of physical activity (an amount of activity per unit of time) were included. In addition, we analysed unpublished individual-level data from two register-linked cohort studies, Finnish Public Sector Study (n=63,924) and Whitehall II (n=10,200). Due to heterogeneity in the assessment of physical activity and PAD, we provide a qualitative synthesis of the findings. Results: Evidence from 18 studies (15 cross-sectional/case-control and 7 prospective studies) of the association between physical activity and PAD in total of 152,188 participants, including 3971 PAD patients, suggests that individuals with a diagnosis or clinical findings of PAD were less physically active, regardless of whether activity was self-reported or measured using accelerometers. The findings from the longitudinal studies point to more intense physical activity being associated with lower odds of developing PAD; however, the study-specific findings lacked power to precisely estimate this relationship. Conclusions: Individuals with PAD were less physically active than those without PAD. The longitudinal findings suggest that physical activity decreases the risk of PAD, although better powered studies are needed to confirm this.
  • Laivuori, Mirjami; Hakovirta, Harri; Kauhanen , Petteri; Sinisalo, Juha; Sund, Reijo; Albäck, Anders; Venermo, Maarit (2021)
    Objective: Toe pressure (TP) is an accurate indicator of the peripheral vascular status of a patient and thus cardiovascular risk, with less susceptibility to errors than ankle-brachial index (ABI). This study aimed to analyze how ABI and TP measurements associate with overall survival and cardiovascular death and to analyze the TP of patients with ABI of 0.9 to 1.3. Methods: The first ABI and TP measurements of a consecutive 6784 patients treated at the Helsinki University Hospital vascular surgery clinic between 1990 and 2009 were analyzed. Helsinki University Vascular Registry and the national Cause of Death Registry provided the data. Results: The poorest survival was in patients with ABI >1.3 (10-year survival, 15.3%; hazard ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-2.6; P <.0001; reference group, ABI 0.9-1.3), followed by the patients with TP = 80 mm Hg). The best 10-year survival was in patients with TP >= 80 mm Hg (43.9%). Of the 642 patients with normal ABI (0.9-1.3), 18.7% had a TP 50 mm Hg. Conclusions: Low TP is associated significantly with survival and cardiovascular mortality. Patients with a normal ABI may have lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) and a considerable risk for a cardiovascular event. If only the ABI is measured in addition to clinical examination, a substantial proportion of patients may be left without LEAD diagnosis or adequate treatment of cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, especially if ABI is normal, LEAD is excluded only if TPs are also measured and are normal.