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  • Relas, Heikki; Kosola, Silja (2019)
    ObjectivesAcross diagnosis groups, transition of adolescents and young adults from children's hospitals to adult care associates with decreased treatment adherence and suboptimal treatment results. Our aim was to compare the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and disease activity of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients after the transfer of care to the adult clinic and adult patients in the same outpatient clinic.MethodsAll consecutive JIA patients aged 16 to 20years who visited the transition clinic between September 2016 and August 2017 and all consecutive adult onset arthritis patients between December 2016 and August 2017 in the rheumatology outpatient clinic of Helsinki University Hospital were evaluated. HRQoL was measured by a generic instrument, 15D.ResultsA total of 291 patients, 130 JIA, and 161 adults were identified with respective median disease durations of 6.5 and 4.0years. Adults had lower HRQoL measured by 15D (median 0.90 vs. 0.96, P
  • Kaijasilta, Juha-Pekka; Kerola, Anne M.; Tuompo, Riitta; Relas, Heikki; Loimaala, Antti; Koivu, Hannu; Schildt, Jukka; Kerola, Tuomas; Eklund, Kari; Kauppi, Markku J.; Nieminen, Tuomo V.M. (2022)
    Aim: Inflammatory signals in the sacroiliac (SI) joints and the aorta of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) were graded by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging before and after treatment with sulfasalazine (SSZ) or adalimumab (ADA). Methods: Patients with axSpA, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) ≥ 4, were recruited. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug-naïve patients started SSZ for 12 weeks, whereas those with prestudy treatment with or contraindication to SSZ commenced ADA for 16 weeks. In addition, those patients in the SSZ group with insufficient response commenced ADA for 16 weeks. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT was performed after inclusion and after treatment with SSZ and ADA. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was assessed for the aorta and the SI joints, and maximal target-to-blood-pool ratio (TBRmax) only for the aorta. Results: Among five SSZ patients, mean ± SD BASDAI was 4.7 ± 1.6 before and 3.5 ± 1.4 after treatment (p =.101). In 13 ADA patients, the BASDAI decreased from 5.4 ± 1.6 to 2.8 ± 2.2 (p <.001). Among the SSZ patients, SUVmax in SI joints decreased from 2.35 ± 0.55 to 1.51 ± 0.22 (−35.8%, p =.029). Aortic TBRmax decreased from 1.59 ± 0.43 to 1.26 ± 0.26 (−33.2%, p =.087). In the ADA patients, SUVmax in the SI joints was 1.92 ± 0.65 before and 1.88 ± 0.54 after treatment (−1.8%, p =.808) and TBRmax in the aorta 1.50 ± 0.60 before and 1.40 ± 0.26 after treatment (−6.7%, p =.485). Conclusions: Our small open-label study showed that SSZ may reduce PET-CT-detectable inflammation in the SI joints, with a trend towards a reduction in the aorta.
  • Mauramo, Matti; Ramseier, Adrian Markus; Buser, Andreas; Tiercy, Jean-Marie; Weiger, Roland; Waltimo, Tuomas (2014)
  • Perazzio, Sandro F.; Allenspach, Eric J.; Eklund, Kari K.; Varjosalo, Markku; Shinohara, Michi M.; Torgerson, Troy R.; Seppänen, Mikko R. J. (2020)
    Behcet's disease (BD) is a heterogeneous multi-organ disorder in search of a unified pathophysiological theory and classification. The disease frequently has overlapping features resembling other disease clusters, such as vasculitides, spondyloarthritides and thrombophilias with similar genetic risk variants, namelyHLA-B*51,ERAP1,IL-10,IL-23R. Many of the BD manifestations, such as unprovoked recurrent episodes of inflammation and increased expression of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF alpha, overlap with those of the hereditary monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes, positioning BD at the crossroads between autoimmune and autoinflammatory syndromes. BD-like disease associates with various inborn errors of immunity, including familial Mediterranean fever, conditions related to dysregulated NF-kappa B activation (egTNFAIP3,NFKB1,OTULIN,RELA,IKBKG) and either constitutional trisomy 8 or acquired trisomy 8 in myelodysplastic syndromes. We review here the recent advances in the immunopathology of BD, BD-like diseases and the NF-kappa B pathway suggesting new elements in the elusive BD etiopathogenesis.
  • Aaltonen, K. J.; Joensuu, J. T.; Pirilä, L.; Kauppi, M.; Uutela, T.; Varjolahti-Lehtinen, T.; Yli-Kerttula, T.; Isomäki, P.; Nordström, D.; Sokka, T. (2017)
    Objective: A systematic review found that an average of 27% of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors discontinue their treatment within 1year. The aim of this study was to assess drug survival on TNF inhibitors among patients with RA.Methods: Patients were identified from the National Register for Biologic Treatment in Finland (ROB-FIN), which is a longitudinal cohort study established to monitor the effectiveness and safety of biologic drugs in rheumatic diseases. Inclusion was limited to TNF-inhibitor treatments started as the patient's first, second, or third biologic treatment between 2004 and 2014. Follow-up was truncated at 36months. The results of a time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model were reported as adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Results: Of the 4200 TNF-inhibitor treatment periods identified from ROB-FIN, 3443 periods from 2687 patients met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-seven per cent of the patients discontinued their treatment within 12months. Infliximab (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.5) and certolizumab pegol (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.3) had lower drug survival compared to golimumab. A similar trend was seen with adalimumab (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.90-1.7) and etanercept (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.87-1.6). Concomitant use of methotrexate (MTX) was associated with improved drug survival (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.64-0.90) in comparison with TNF-inhibitor monotherapy.Conclusions: Golimumab was better in terms of drug survival than infliximab or certolizumab pegol and at least as good as adalimumab and etanercept. Concomitant use of MTX improved drug survival on TNF inhibitors.
  • Aaltonen, Kalle; Heinonen, Arto; Joensuu, Jaana; Parmanne, Pinja; Karjalainen, Anna; Varjolahti-Lehtinen, Tuire; Uutela, Toini; Puurtinen-Vilkki, Maija; Arstila, Leena; Blom, Marja; Sokka, Tuulikki; Nordström, Dan (2017)
    Background and objectives: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-inhibitors are used to treat psoriatic arthritis (PsA), but only a limited number of observational studies on this subject have been published thus far. The aim of this research was to analyze the effectiveness and drug survival of TNF-inhibitors in the treatment of PsA. Methods: PsA patients identified from the National Register for Biologic Treatment in Finland (ROB-FIN) starting their first, second, or third TNF-inhibitor treatment between 2004 and 2014 were included. Effectiveness was measured using ACR and EULAR response criteria and modeled using ordinal logistic regression. Treatment persistence was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The study comprised 765 patients and 990 TNF-inhibitor treatment courses. EULAR moderate treatment responses at 6 months were achieved by 68% and 37% of the users of the first and the second or the third biologic, respectively. The probabilities of discontinuing the treatment within 12 and 24 months were 20% and 28%, respectively. Adjusted treatment responses to all TNF-inhibitors were similar; however, co-therapy with conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) was not associated with better effectiveness. Adalimumab [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CD: 0.44-0.88] was superior to infliximab in drug survival while etanercept (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.55-1.1) and golimumab (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.46-1.2) did not differ from it. Co-medication with csDMARDs did not statistically improve drug survival. Conclusion: All available TNF-inhibitors showed similar treatment responses with or without csDMARDs. Adalimumab was associated with better drug survival when compared to infliximab. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Danish Rheumatology Database DANBI; ARTIS SRQ; Ctr Rheumatology Res ICEBIO; Finnish Register Biological Treatm; Norwegian Antirheumatic Drug Regis; Glintborg, Bente; Lindström, Ulf; Di Giuseppe, Daniela; Hokkanen, Anna-Mari; Nordstrom, Dan; Jacobsson, Lennart T. H. (2022)
    Objective To describe baseline characteristics and to compare treatment effectiveness of secukinumab versus tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) using adalimumab as the main comparator. Methods This was an observational, prospective cohort study. Patients with SpA (clinical ankylosing spondylitis, nonradiographic axial SpA, or undifferentiated SpA) starting secukinumab or a TNFi during 2015-2018 were identified from 5 Nordic clinical rheumatology registries. Data on comorbidities and extraarticular manifestations (psoriasis, uveitis, and inflammatory bowel disease) were captured from national registries (data available in 94% of patients) and included in multivariable analyses. We assessed 1-year treatment retention (crude survival curves, adjusted hazard ratios [HRadj] for treatment discontinuation) and 6-month response rates (Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score [ASDAS] score
  • Mars, NJ; Kerola, AM; Kauppi, MJ; Pirinen, M; Elonheimo, O; Sokka-Isler, T (2019)
    Objectives: Healthcare service needs have changed with the use of effective treatment strategies. Using data from the modern era, we aimed to explore and compare health service-related direct costs in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA).Methods: We linked a longitudinal, population-based clinical data set from Finland's largest non-university hospital's rheumatology clinic with an administrative database on health service-related direct costs in 2014. We compared all-cause costs and costs of comorbidities between adult patients with JIA, PsA, RA, and AxSpA (including ankylosing spondylitis). We also characterized patients with high healthcare resource utilization.Results: Cost distributions were similar between rheumatic diseases (p=0.88). In adulthood, patients with JIA displayed a similar economic burden to much older patients with other inflammatory rheumatic diseases. A minority were high utilizers: among 119 patients with JIA, 15% utilized as much as the remaining 85%. For PsA (213 patients), RA (1086), and AxSpA (277), the high-utilization proportion was 10%. Both low and high utilizers showed rather low disease activity, but in high utilizers, the patient-reported outcomes were slightly worse, with the most distinct differences in pain levels. Of health service-related direct costs, index rheumatic diseases comprised only one-third (43.6% in JIA) and the majority were comorbidity costs.Conclusions: Patients with JIA, PsA, RA, and AxSpA share similar patterns of healthcare resource utilization, with substantial comorbidity costs and a minority being high utilizers. Innovations in meeting these patients' needs are warranted.
  • Ornbjerg, Lykke M.; Linde, Louise; Georgiadis, Stylianos; Rasmussen, Simon H.; Lindström, Ulf; Askling, Johan; Michelsen, Brigitte; Di Giuseppe, Daniela; Wallman, Johan K.; Pavelka, Karel; Zavada, Jakub; Nissen, Michael J.; Jones, Gareth T.; Relas, Heikki; Pirila, Laura; Rotar, Ziga; Geirsson, Arni Jon; Gudbjornsson, Bjorn; Kristianslund, Eirik K.; Horst-Bruinsma, Irene Van Sder; Loft, Anne Gitte; Laas, Karin; Iannone, Florenzo; Corrado, Addolorata; Ciurea, Adrian; Santos, Maria J.; Santos, Helena; Codreanu, Catalin; Akkoc, Nurullah; Gunduz, Ozgul S.; Glintborg, Bente; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Hetland, Merete Lund (2022)
    Objectives: In patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) initiating their first tumor necrosis factor alpha-inhibitor (TNFi), we aimed to identify common baseline predictors of Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS-CRP) inactive disease (primary objective) and clinically important improvement (CII) at 6 months, and drug retention at 12-months across 15 European registries. Methods: Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were collected. Outcomes were investigated per registry and in pooled data using logistic regression analyses on multiply imputed data. Results: The consistency of baseline predictors in individual registries justified pooling the data. In the pooled dataset (n = 21,196), the 6-month rates for ASDAS inactive disease and ASDAS CII were 26% and 51%, and the 12-month drug retention rate 65% in patients with available data (n = 9,845, n = 6,948 and n = 21,196, respectively). Nine common baseline predictors of ASDAS inactive disease, ASDAS CII and 12-month drug retention were identified, and the odds ratios (95%-confidence interval) for ASDAS inactive disease were: age, per year: 0.97 (0.97-0.98), men vs. women: 1.88 (1.60-2.22), current vs. non-smoking: 0.76 (0.63-0.91), HLA-B27 positive vs. negative: 1.51 (1.20-1.91), TNF start year 2015-2018 vs. 2009-2014: 1.24 (1.06-1.45), CRP > 10 vs.
  • T. Virtanen, Anniina; Haikarainen, Teemu; Raivola, Juuli; Silvennoinen, Olli (2019)
    Cytokines, many of which signal through the JAK–STAT (Janus kinase–Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) pathway, play a central role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Currently three JAK inhibitors have been approved for clinical use in USA and/or Europe: tofacitinib for rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ulcerative colitis, baricitinib for rheumatoid arthritis, and ruxolitinib for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The clinical JAK inhibitors target multiple JAKs at high potency and current research has focused on more selective JAK inhibitors, almost a dozen of which currently are being evaluated in clinical trials. In this narrative review, we summarize the status of the pan-JAK and selective JAK inhibitors approved or in clinical trials, and discuss the rationale for selective targeting of JAKs in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.