Browsing by Subject "ANNUAL CYCLE"

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  • Kotilainen, T.; Aphalo, P. J.; Brelsford, C. C.; Böök, H.; Devraj, S.; Heikkilä, A.; Hernandez, R.; Kylling, A.; Lindfors, A.; Robson, T. M. (2020)
    Plants rely on spectral cues present in their surroundings, generated by the constantly changing light environment, to guide their growth and reproduction. Photoreceptors mediate the capture of information by plants from the light environment over a wide range of wavelengths, but despite extensive evidence that plants respond to various light cues, only fragmentary data have been published showing patterns of diurnal, seasonal and geographical variation in the spectral composition of daylight. To illustrate patterns in spectral photon ratios, we measured time series of irradiance spectra at two distinct geographical and climatological locations, Helsinki, Finland and Gual Pahari, India. We investigated the drivers behind variation of the spectral photon ratios measured at these two locations, based on the analysis of over 400 000 recorded spectra. Differences in spectral irradiance were explained by different atmospheric factors identified through multiple regression model analysis and comparison to spectral irradiance at ground level simulated with a radiative transfer model. Local seasonal and diurnal changes in spectral photon ratios were related to solar elevation angle, atmospheric water-vapour content and total ozone column thickness and deviated from their long-term averages to an extent likely to affect plant photobiology. We suggest that future studies should investigate possible effects of varying photon ratios on terrestrial plants. Solar elevation angle especially affects the patterns of B:G and B:R ratios. Water vapour has a large effect on the R:FR photon ratio and modelled climate scenarios predict that increasing global temperatures will result in increased atmospheric water vapour. The development of proxy models, utilising available data from weather and climate models, for relevant photon ratios as a function of solar elevation angle and atmospheric factors would facilitate the interpretation of results from past, present and future field studies of plants and vegetation.
  • Hari, Pertti; Noe, Steffen; Dengel, Sigrid; Elbers, Jan; Gielen, Bert; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kruijt, Bart; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Mammarella, Ivan; Petaja, Tuukka; Schurgers, Guy; Vanhatalo, Anni; Kulmala, Markku; Back, Jaana (2018)
    Photosynthesis provides carbon for the synthesis of macromolecules to construct cells during growth. This is the basis for the key role of photosynthesis in the carbon dynamics of ecosystems and in the biogenic CO2 assimilation. The development of eddy-covariance (EC) measurements for ecosystem CO2 fluxes started a new era in the field studies of photosynthesis. However, the interpretation of the very variable CO2 fluxes in evergreen forests has been problematic especially in transition times such as the spring and autumn. We apply two theoretical needle-level equations that connect the variation in the light intensity, stomatal action and the annual metabolic cycle of photosynthesis. We then use these equations to predict the photosynthetic CO2 flux in five Scots pine stands located from the northern timberline to Central Europe. Our result has strong implications for our conceptual understanding of the effects of the global change on the processes in boreal forests, especially of the changes in the metabolic annual cycle of photosynthesis.
  • Brlík, Vojtěch; Koleček, Jaroslav; Burgess, Malcolm; Hahn, Steffen; Humple, Diana; Krist, Miloš; Ouwehand, Janne; Weiser, Emily L.; Adamík, Peter; Alves, José A.; Arlt, Debora; Barišić, Sanja; Becker, Detlef; Belda, Eduardo J.; Beran, Václav; Both, Christiaan; Bravo, Susana P.; Briedis, Martins; Chutný, Bohumír; Ćiković, Davor; Cooper, Nathan W.; Costa, Joana S.; Cueto, Víctor R.; Emmenegger, Tamara; Fraser, Kevin; Gilg, Olivier; Guerrero, Marina; Hallworth, Michael T.; Hewson, Chris; Jiguet, Frédéric; Johnson, James A.; Kelly, Tosha; Kishkinev, Dmitry; Leconte, Michel; Lislevand, Terje; Lisovski, Simeon; López, Cosme; McFarland, Kent P.; Marra, Peter P.; Matsuoka, Steven M.; Matyjasiak, Piotr; Metzger, Benjamin; Monrós, Juan S.; Neumann, Roland; Newman, Amy; Norris, Ryan; Pärt, Tomas; Pavel, Václav; Perlut, Noah; Piha, Markus; Reneerkens, Jeroen; Rimmer, Christopher C.; Roberto-Charron, Amélie; Scandolara, Chiara; Sokolova, Natalia; Takenaka, Makiko; Tolkmitt, Dirk; van Oosten, Herman; Wellbrock, Arndt H. J.; Wheeler, Hazel; van der Winden, Jan; Witte, Klaudia; Woodworth, Brad; Procházka, Petr (2020)
    Currently, the deployment of tracking devices is one of the most frequently used approaches to study movement ecology of birds. Recent miniaturization of light-level geolocators enabled studying small bird species whose migratory patterns were widely unknown. However, geolocators may reduce vital rates in tagged birds and may bias obtained movement data. There is a need for a thorough assessment of the potential tag effects on small birds, as previous meta-analyses did not evaluate unpublished data and impact of multiple life-history traits, focused mainly on large species and the number of published studies tagging small birds has increased substantially. We quantitatively reviewed 549 records extracted from 74 published and 48 unpublished studies on over 7,800 tagged and 17,800 control individuals to examine the effects of geolocator tagging on small bird species (body mass