Browsing by Subject "ANTECEDENTS"

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  • Nissinen, Terhi S; Maksniemi, Erika; Rothmann, Sebastiaan; Lonka, Kirsti (2022)
    The aim of this study was to investigate how job crafting, work engagement, and workaholism were related in public sector organizations. The participants (N = 213) were civil servants from three Finnish public organizations, representing different professions, such as school personnel, secretaries, directors, parking attendants, and ICT specialists. We duly operationalized job crafting, work engagement, and workaholism by using the Job Crafting Scale, the UWES-9, and the Work Addiction Risk Test. The current study focused on the Finnish public sector, since work engagement is recognized at the governmental level and has been shown to be strongly and positively associated with economic activity and productivity, while workaholism is associated with poor wellbeing. We analyzed the data by using structural equation modeling and found that three job crafting dimensions were strongly intertwined with one another. These dimensions were increasing structural job resources, increasing social job resources, and increasing challenging job demands. In the structural model, dimension "increasing structural job resources" was positively related to work engagement, whereas dimension "decreasing hindering job demands" was negatively associated with workaholism. This study highlighted the relevance of employees learning to balance their job resources and demands. We recommend that, in the public sector, employees be systematically encouraged to practice job crafting behavior by enabling them to increase structural job resources. These results are of high relevance, considering the heavy workload of public sector employees during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Tandon, Anushree; Dhir, Amandeep; Kaur, Puneet; Kushwah, Shiksha; Salo, Jari (2020)
    Consumers' rising interest in organic food has drawn the attention of the academic community. The literature on the topic is growing, but it mostly focuses either on the acceptance of or resistance toward organic food. However, marketing scholars argue that the development of more in-depth insights into consumers' reasoning processes, and especially the roles of values and context-specific reasons are needed. The present study bridges this gap by utilizing the novel behavioral reasoning theory (BRT) framework. Cross-sectional data from 307 consumers and non-consumers from India were collected to investigate associations among attitudes, reasoning, value, and purchase intentions. This research studies the moderating role of food safety concerns and buying involvement. Additionally, the mediating role of reasons and attitudes is examined. The results suggest that value was positively associated with reasons (for and against), whereas attitude and reasons (for) resulted in favorable purchase intentions. Reasons (for and against) fully mediate the association between value and attitude. Furthermore, attitude partially mediates the association of reasons and purchase intentions. The moderation effect was not found for food safety concerns, but a limited effect among studied associations was observed for buying involvement. The findings raise significant implications for marketers and policymakers.
  • Masuda, Aline D.; Sortheix, Florencia M.; Beham, Barbara; Naidoo, Loren J. (2019)
    The current paper examined the associations between Schwartz's (2006) cultural value orientations and individuals' work-family conflict. Results of multilevel analyses across 19 European countries (N = 16,145) showed that the cultural value orientation of embeddedness vs. autonomy, hierarchy vs. egalitarianism, and mastery vs. harmony were related to individuals' higher levels of family-to-work conflict (FWC). Embeddedness vs. autonomy was positively related with work-to-family conflict (WFC). These results hold after controlling for both individual-level predictors of WFC and the GLOBE cultural values of in-group collectivism, gender egalitarianism, performance orientation, and power distance. Whereas gender egalitarianism was negatively related to WFC, in-group collectivism was not related to any form of work-family conflict. Also, performance orientation (PO) related to lower FWC and WFC. Further, our analysis yielded significant indirect effects of embeddedness vs. autonomy and hierarchy vs. egalitarianism on FWC via family demands (household size) and on WFC via working demands (total working hours). Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
  • Ghahramani, Abolfazl (2017)
    The evaluation of safety performance in occupational health and safety assessment series (OHSAS) 18001-certified companies provides useful information about the quality of the management system. A certified organization should employ an adequate level of safety management and a positive safety culture to achieve a satisfactory safety performance. The present study conducted in six manufacturing companies: three OHSAS 18001-certified, and three non-certified to assess occupational health "and safety (OHS) as well as OHSAS 18001 practices. The certified companies had a better OHS practices compared with the non-certified companies. The certified companies slightly differed in OHS and OHSAS 18001 practices and one of the certified companies had the highest activity rates for both practices. The results indicated that the implemented management systems have not developed and been maintained appropriately in the certified companies. The indepth analysis of the collected evidence revealed shortcomings in safety culture improvement in the certified companies. This study highlights the importance of safety culture to continuously improve the quality of OHSAS 18001 and to properly perform OHS/OHSAS 18001 practices in the certified companies.
  • Veijalainen, Jouni; Reunamo, Jyrki; Heikkilä, Minna (2021)
    This paper aims to determine possible gender differences in children’s observed emotional expressions and their relationship with teacher-rated self-regulation (SR) skills in the setting of early childhood education and care (ECEC). Supporting SR and emotional wellbeing in early childhood can be considered a favourable pathway towards holistic development (e.g. Shonkoff et al. [2012]. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatrics, 129(1), e232–e246; Bagdi & Vacca [2005]. Supporting early childhood social-emotional well being: The building blocks for early learning and school success. Early Childhood Education Journal, 33(3), 145–150). The participants included 1213 (44.2%) boys and 1075 (41.0%) girls which were 13–83 months old. The SR data was collected through an evaluation instrument. Emotional expressions (N = 50480) were observed with an independent instrument. The results indicated how girls were observed to have more neutral, calm or peaceful-related emotional expressions, while boys tended to express more surprise, curiosity, anger or frustration-related emotions. Boys’ and girls’ ability for SR was related to their emotional expressions. Boys’ and girls’ SR skills had the same tendency in weak, moderate and good SR categories.
  • Ghahramani, Abolfazl (2016)
    Many organizations are adapting to the requirements of occupational health and safety management systems worldwide. Despite the considerable acceptance of the systems for managing occupational health and safety in organizations, there is still no clear consensus on their effectiveness. The present study aimed to identify potential areas for improvements based on the experience and perception of the managers who worked in companies that are adopting the occupational health and safety assessment series 18001 standard in Iran. Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with the managers. A qualitative study design using a grounded theory approach was used to analyze the gathered data. Eleven categories emerged to explain the influencing factors that hinder or facilitate the effectiveness of the standard in the companies: (1) management commitment; (2) safety communication; (3) employee involvement; (4) integration; (5) training; (6) safety culture; (7) internal incentives; (8) enforcement; (9) occupational health and safety authority' support, (10) auditing, and (11) external incentives. Moreover, a conceptual model was developed based on the categories. The commitment of the senior managers to safety and their support of the system in practice can facilitate the improvement of the adaptation to the standard in the companies. Conducting efforts to train employees about occupational health and safety and to involve them in the practices required by the standard can help the companies in creating a positive safety culture. The development of a new inspection program with more enforcement on occupational health and safety legislation by the authorities would help the companies to adopt the requirements of the legislation. The application of an enforced policy by accreditation bodies to check the third-party auditing process could also increase the quality of auditing and help to improve the effectiveness of their systems to achieve a better occupational health and safety performance. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Rawlings, Anna Maria; Tapola, Anna; Niemivirta, Markku (2020)
    Students’ goal strivings are known to be connected with important outcomes, both academically and with regard to individual well-being. In spite of their importance, our knowledge of factors contributing to their early development is rather limited. In this longitudinal study on school beginners (N= 212), we focused on the interrelationships between achievement goal orientations (mastery; performance-approach; performance-avoidance; work-avoidance) and two temperamental sensitivities that appear relevant for the developing sense of mastery and performance in the school setting: interindividual reward sensitivity (reward derived from social approval and attention) and sensitivity to punishment (propensity to perceive cues of potential threat in the environment, and react with withdrawal and avoidance). The data were collected over the first three school years, from grade 1 (7–8 years) to grade 3 (9–10 years), and analysed using PLS-SEM. As expected, both temperamental sensitivities and achievement goal orientations remained relatively stable over time. Interindividual reward sensitivity was related negatively with mastery and positively with performance-approach and performance-avoidance orientations, from the first through to the third year. Punishment sensitivity had a positive effect on performance-avoidance orientation, and indirect, reciprocal, negative effects with performance-approach orientation. The findings provide new knowledge on early relationships between temperament and goal strivings. Interindividual reward sensitivity appears consistently associated with performance concerns and decreased mastery strivings. Such connections may have long-standing negative influence on students’ educational trajectories, and point to the importance of acknowledging individual differences in temperament and their role in motivation and learning.
  • Holmlund, Maria; Hobbs, Päivi (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd, 2009)
  • Salakari, Minna; Pylkkänen, Liisa; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Nurminen, Raija; Rautava, Päivi; Koskenvuo, Markku; Suominen, Sakari (2017)
    Objectives: Among breast cancer (BC) survivors, inadequate social support (SS) is associated with a significant increase in cancer-related mortality and reduction in quality of life (QoL). The aim of the study was to explore perceived SS during BC trajectory by comparing BC survivors, women with depression, women with arterial hypertension, and healthy female controls to each other, and to compare perceived balance of receiving and providing SS. Material and methods: The data of ongoing prospective postal survey was linked with national health registries. Respondents with BC (n = 64), depression (n = 471), arterial hypertension (n = 841) and healthy controls (n = 6274) formed the study population. SS was measured by a Sarason's 6-item shortened version of the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ). The modified Antonucci's (1986) social support convoy model of the network of individuals was used to measure the dominating direction of SS. Results: The main provider of SS for all participants combined was the spouse or partner (94.3%), close relative (12.0%) and friends (5.4%). In all groups, particularly in the BC and arterial hypertension group, spouse or partner was seen as the most important supporter. The group suffering from depression reported significantly less SS in each domain of appraisal (p <0.001). In total, 24.6% of all respondents reported receipt dominance of SS. Conclusion: SS is a well-known determinant of wellbeing. Our study lends support to the spouse's or the partner's central role during the recovery phase of BC. Identification of factors improving the overall QoL of BC survivors is an important public health challenge. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Tikkanen, Lotta; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Bujacz, Aleksandra; Nieminen, Juha (2021)
    This study focused on exploring individual variations in doctoral candidates' well-being, in terms of experienced research engagement and burnout by using a person-centered approach. In addition, the associations between well-being profiles and gender, country of origin, study status (full-time or part-time), research group status and drop-out intentions were explored. The participants were 692 PhD candidates in the field of medicine. Latent profile analysis was employed to identify the well-being profiles. Four distinct profiles were identified: high engagement-low burnout, high engagement-moderate burnout, moderate engagement-moderate burnout, and moderate engagement-high burnout. Working in a clinical unit or hospital and working in a research group seemed to be related to increased engagement and reduced risk for suffering burnout, while the intentions to quit one's doctoral studies were more frequently reported in profiles with moderate levels of engagement. The findings imply that although a significant number of PhD candidates in medicine had an increased risk for developing burnout, for most of the PhD candidates research education is an engaging experience.
  • Sihvonen, Jenniina (2019)
    The purpose of this study is to develop a holistic understanding of the drivers of consumer-brand identification (CBI) from a consumer's perspective, in other words, to explicate why and how consumers form identity-based connections with brands. In this conceptual study, the drivers of CBI are discussed by weaving together different perspectives presented in the extensive literature on identity-based consumer behaviour. The study at hand conceptualizes the drivers of CBI by acknowledging consumer's personality, life tasks and life values together with brand personality, brand promise and brand community as the main factors underlying the realization of a self-brand connection. The paper presents different scenarios for consumer-brand identification and related managerial implications. The study distinguishes three drivers of CBI: (1) the personality driver, (2) the lifestyle driver and (3) the values driver. A call is made for empirical studies that would examine the significance of each driver of CBI in differing contexts and product categories. The challenges to and possibilities for brand identity management are addressed. The study challenges the different schools of thought prevalent in contemporary brand management literature in approaching the drivers of CBI more holistically.
  • Tandon, Anushree; Dhir, Amandeep; Kaur, Puneet; Kushwah, Shiksha; Salo, Jari (2020)
    Although consumer interest in organic food has risen over time, resulting in a generally positive attitude toward these organic food products, scholarly research suggests a comparatively low volume of its consumption in the market. This has resulted in an urgent need to study the motivations which enhance consumers' proclivity to purchase food items produced organically. The current research attempts to understand potential associations between motivations (intrinsic and extrinsic), attitude, and buying behaviour towards organic food. Self-determination theory (SDT) was applied to develop a theoretically grounded framework which was evaluated with 378 organic food consumers. The hypotheses were tested by analyzing the data through structural equation modelling (SEM), wherein environmental concerns and trust were the moderating variables. The study results demonstrate the significant influence of intrinsic motivation, integrated and external regulation on consumer attitude, and buying behaviour. But, attitude had no significant association with buying behaviour. The findings indicate consumers' motivation may be stimulated to encourage higher frequencies of purchasing organic food by emphasizing values that reflect motivations arising from ethical or green consumerism, health, and social benefits. Furthermore, policymakers should focus on avenues to integrate organic food as permanent parts of individual lives and a socially exalting behavioral action.
  • Räsänen, Katariina; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Soini, Tiina; Väisänen, Pertti (2020)
    Teacher turnover has been recognized as a significant problem in the education worldwide. This study focuses on exploring reasons behind the turnover intentions, and persistence of such intentions in 5-year follow-up among Finnish teachers. Longitudinal survey data were collected from Finnish comprehensive school teachers in 2010 (T1n = 2310) and 2016 (T2n = 1450). The results showed that 50% of the teachers had turnover intentions. Turnover intentions were remarkably persistent, but the reasons for them varied significantly. Lack of professional commitment and factors related to the school system and workload were the main reasons for teacher turnover intention. The results suggest several factors that should be improved simultaneously in the teaching profession to increase teacher job satisfaction and retention.