Browsing by Subject "ANTIBODY"

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  • Huang, Xin; Ma, Kaiyue; Leinonen, Sara; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula (2020)
    The lack of certified reference materials has been one major challenge for gluten quantification in gluten-free products. In this study, the feasibility of using barley C-hordein as the calibrant for wheat gluten in R5 sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was investigated. The gluten composition and total gluten R5 reactivity ranged largely depending on the genotypes and the growing environment. The conversion factor of gliadin to gluten averaged 1.31 for common wheat, which is smaller than the theoretical factor of 2. Each gluten group had varying reactivity against the R5 antibody, where omega 1.2-, gamma- and alpha-gliadins were the main reactive groups from wheat gluten. A mixture of wheat cultivars or one single cultivar as the reference material can be difficult to keep current. Based on the average R5 reactivity of total gluten from the 27 common wheat cultivars, here we proposed 10% C-hordein mixed with an inert protein as the calibrant for wheat gluten quantification. In spiking tests of gluten-free oat flour and biscuits, calibration using 10% C-hordein achieved the same recovery as the gliadin standard with its cultivar-specific conversion factor. For its good solubility and good affinity to the R5 antibody, the application of C-hordein increases the probability of developing a series of reference materials for various food matrices.
  • Udomsap, Dutduan; Bisset, Hugues; Culioli, Gérald; Dollet, Pascal; Laatikainen, Katri; Siren, Heli Marja Marita; Branger, Catherine (2018)
    New electrochemical molecularly imprinted polymers (e-MIPs) for benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) based on vinylferrocene (VFc) as redox tracer directly integrated into binding cavities during polymerization with crosslinker are reported. Impacts on the BaP detection are discussed according to: 1) the addition or no of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) as comonomer, 2) the use of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) or divinylbenzene (DVB) as crosslinker. After characterization, these new e-MIPs and their corresponding non-imprinted polymers (e-NIPs) were incorporated in carbon paste electrodes and measurements were carried out by square wave voltammetry. All analyses revealed that e-MIP based on VFc and EDMA is the best to detect the template, with an imprinting factor of 7.3 and a LOD of 0.93 mu mol/L of BaP.
  • Iivanainen, Sanna; Ahvonen, Jarkko; Knuuttila, Aija; Tiainen, Satu; Koivunen, Jussi Pekka (2019)
    Background Anti-PD-(L)1 agents are standard of care treatments in various cancers but predictive factors for therapy selection are limited. We hypothesised that markers of systemic inflammation would predict adverse outcomes in multiple cancers treated with anti-PD-(L)1 agents. Material and methods Discovery cohort consisted of patients who were treated with anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) agents for advanced melanoma (MEL), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or renal and bladder cancers (GU) at Oulu University Hospital and had pretreatment C reactive protein (CRP), or neutrophil/lymphocyte values available. As a validation cohort, we collected patients treated with anti-PD-1 agents from three other hospitals in Finland. Results In the discovery cohort (n=56, MEL n=23, GU n=17, NSCLC n=16), elevated CRP over the upper limit of normal (ULN) (>10mg/mL) indicated poor progression-free (PFS; p=0.005) and overall survival (OS; p=0.000004) in the whole population and in MEL subgroup. Elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (>2.65) also indicated inferior PFS (p=0.02) and OS (p=0.009). In the validation cohort (n=107,MEL n=44, NSCLC n=42, GU n=17, other n=4), CRP over ULN also was a strong indicator for poor PFS (p=0.0000008), and OS (p=0.000006) in the whole population, and in MEL and NSCLC also. Conclusions Systemic inflammation suggested by elevated CRP is a very strong indicator for adverse prognosis on patients treated with anti-PD-(L)1 agents and has a potential negative predictive value for treatment with anti-PD-(L)1 agents. Prospective trials should investigate whether patients with elevated CRP gain any significant benefit from anti-PD-1 therapy.
  • Peltonen, Reetta; Gramkow, Mathias H.; Dehlendorff, Christian; Osterlund, Pia J.; Johansen, Julia S.; Isoniemi, Helena (2020)
    Background The inflammatory biomarkers, YKL-40 and interleukin-6 (IL-6), are elevated in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. We examined their associations with relapse-free survival and overall survival in combination with serum C-reactive protein (CRP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and carbohydrate antigen 19–9 (CA19-9) in patients with colorectal liver metastases. Methods Altogether 441 consecutive patients undergoing liver resection at Helsinki University Hospital between 1998 and 2013 were included in the study. Pre- and postoperative YKL-40 and IL-6 were determined from serum samples with commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits, and CRP, CEA, and CA19-9 by routine methods. Associations between these biomarkers and relapse-free and overall survival were examined using Cox regression analysis. Results Patients with 2–5 elevated biomarkers were at an increased risk of relapse compared to those with 0–1 elevated biomarkers, preoperatively (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.1–1.72) or postoperatively (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.23–1.92). Patients with 2–5 elevated biomarkers were also at an increased risk of death compared to those with 0–1 elevated biomarkers, preoperatively (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.39–2.24) or postoperatively (HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.44–2.33). Conclusion The results suggest that a protein panel of the inflammatory biomarkers YKL-40, IL-6, and CRP, and the cancer biomarkers CEA and CA19-9 might identify patients that benefit from more aggressive treatment and surveillance, although the additional value of IL-6 and CRP in this aspect is limited.
  • Sokka, Iris K.; Imlimthan, Surachet; Sarparanta, Mirkka; Maaheimo, Hannu; Johansson, Mikael P.; Ekholm, Filip S. (2021)
    Halogenation can be utilized for the purposes of labeling and molecular imaging, providing a means to, e.g., follow drug distribution in an organism through positron emission tomography (PET) or study the molecular recognition events unfolding by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. For cancer therapeutics, where often highly toxic substances are employed, it is of importance to be able to track the distribution of the drugs and their metabolites in order to ensure minimal side effects. Labeling should ideally have a negligible disruptive effect on the efficacy of a given drug. Using a combination of NMR spectroscopy and cytotoxicity assays, we identify a site susceptible to halogenation in monomethyl auristatin F (MMAF), a widely used cytotoxic agent in the antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) family of cancer drugs, and study the effects of fluorination and chlorination on the physiological solution structure of the auristatins and their cytotoxicity. We find that the cytotoxicity of the parent drug is retained, while the conformational equilibrium is shifted significantly toward the biologically active trans isomer, simultaneously decreasing the concentration of the inactive and potentially disruptive cis isomer by up to 50%. Our results may serve as a base for the future assembly of a multifunctional toolkit for the assessment of linker technologies and exploring bystander effects from the warhead perspective in auristatin-derived ADCs.
  • Int Myasthenia Gravis Genomics Con; Chia, Ruth; Saez-Atienzar, Sara; Murphy, Natalie; Tienari, Pentti J.; Traynor, Bryan J. (2022)
    Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody-mediated interference of signal transmission across the neuromuscular junction. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving 1,873 patients diagnosed with acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive myasthenia gravis and 36,370 healthy individuals to identify disease-associated genetic risk loci. Replication of the discovered loci was attempted in an independent cohort from the UK Biobank. We also performed a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) using expression data from skeletal muscle, whole blood, and tibial nerve to test the effects of disease-associated polymorphisms on gene expression. We discovered two signals in the genes encoding acetylcholine receptor subunits that are the most common antigenic target of the autoantibodies: a GWAS signal within the cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 1 subunit (CHRNA1) gene and a TWAS association with the cholinergic receptor nicotinic beta 1 subunit (CHRNB1) gene in normal skeletal muscle. Two other loci were discovered on 10p14 and 11q21, and the previous association signals at PTPN22, HLA-DQA1/HLA-B, and TNFRSF11A were confirmed. Subgroup analyses demonstrate that early-and late-onset cases have different genetic risk factors. Genetic correlation analysis confirmed a genetic link between myasthenia gravis and other autoimmune diseases, such as hypothyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes. Finally, we applied Priority Index analysis to identify potentially druggable genes/proteins and pathways. This study provides insight into the genetic architecture underlying myasthenia gravis and demonstrates that genetic factors within the loci encoding acetylcholine receptor subunits contribute to its pathogenesis.
  • Sokka, Iris Katariina; Ekholm, Filip S.; Johansson, Mikael P. (2019)
    Monomethyl auristatin E and monomethyl auristatin F are widely used cytotoxic agents in antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), a group of promising cancer drugs. The ADCs specifically target cancer cells, releasing the auristatins inside, which results in the prevention of mitosis. The auristatins suffer from a potentially serious flaw, however. In solution, the molecules exist in an equal mixture of two conformers, cis and trans. Only the trans-isomer is biologically active and the isomerization process, i.e., the conversion of cis to trans is slow. This significantly diminishes the efficiency of the drugs and their corresponding ADCs, and perhaps more importantly, raises concerns over drug safety. The potency of the auristatins would be enhanced by decreasing the amount of the biologically inactive isomer, either by stabilizing the transisomer or destabilizing the cis-isomer. Here, we follow the computer-aided design strategy of shifting the conformational equilibrium and employ high-level quantum chemical modeling to identify promising candidates for improved auristatins. Coupled cluster calculations predict that a simple halogenation in the norephedrine/phenylalanine residues shifts the isomer equilibrium almost completely toward the active trans-conformation, due to enhanced intramolecular interactions specific to the active isomer.
  • Johansson, Mikael P.; Maaheimo, Hannu; Ekholm, Filip S. (2017)
    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are emerging as a promising class of selective drug delivery systems in the battle against cancer and other diseases. The auristatins monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) and monomethyl auristatin F (MMAF) appear as the cytotoxic drug in almost half of the state-of-the-art ADCs on the market or in late stage clinical trials. Here, we present the first complete NMR spectroscopic characterisation of these challenging molecules, and investigate their structural properties by a combined NMR and quantum chemical modelling approach. We find that in solution, half of the drug molecules are locked in an inactive conformation, severely decreasing their efficiency, and potentially increasing the risk of side-effects. Furthermore, we identify sites susceptible to future modification, in order to potentially improve the performance of these drugs.
  • Hamdan, Firas; Ylösmäki, Erkko; Chiaro, Jacopo; Giannoula, Yvonne; Long, Maeve; Fusciello, Manlio; Feola, Sara; Martins, Beatriz; Feodoroff, Michaela; Antignani, Gabriella; Russo, Salvatore; Kari, Otto; Lee, Moon; Järvinen, Petrus; Nisen, Harry; Kreutzman, Anna; Leusen, Jeanette; Mustjoki, Satu; McWilliams, Thomas G.; Grönholm, Mikaela; Cerullo, Vincenzo (2021)
    Background Despite the success of immune checkpoint inhibitors against PD-L1 in the clinic, only a fraction of patients benefit from such therapy. A theoretical strategy to increase efficacy would be to arm such antibodies with Fc-mediated effector mechanisms. However, these effector mechanisms are inhibited or reduced due to toxicity issues since PD-L1 is not confined to the tumor and also expressed on healthy cells. To increase efficacy while minimizing toxicity, we designed an oncolytic adenovirus that secretes a cross-hybrid Fc-fusion peptide against PD-L1 able to elicit effector mechanisms of an IgG1 and also IgA1 consequently activating neutrophils, a population neglected by IgG1, in order to combine multiple effector mechanisms. Methods The cross-hybrid Fc-fusion peptide comprises of an Fc with the constant domains of an IgA1 and IgG1 which is connected to a PD-1 ectodomain via a GGGS linker and was cloned into an oncolytic adenovirus. We demonstrated that the oncolytic adenovirus was able to secrete the cross-hybrid Fc-fusion peptide able to bind to PD-L1 and activate multiple immune components enhancing tumor cytotoxicity in various cancer cell lines, in vivo and ex vivo renal-cell carcinoma patient-derived organoids. Results Using various techniques to measure cytotoxicity, the cross-hybrid Fc-fusion peptide expressed by the oncolytic adenovirus was shown to activate Fc-effector mechanisms of an IgA1 (neutrophil activation) as well as of an IgG1 (natural killer and complement activation). The activation of multiple effector mechanism simultaneously led to significantly increased tumor killing compared with FDA-approved PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor (Atezolizumab), IgG1-PDL1 and IgA-PDL1 in various in vitro cell lines, in vivo models and ex vivo renal cell carcinoma organoids. Moreover, in vivo data demonstrated that Ad-Cab did not require CD8+ T cells, unlike conventional checkpoint inhibitors, since it was able to activate other effector populations. Conclusion Arming PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors with Fc-effector mechanisms of both an IgA1 and an IgG1 can increase efficacy while maintaining safety by limiting expression to the tumor using oncolytic adenovirus. The increase in tumor killing is mostly attributed to the activation of multiple effector populations rather than activating a single effector population leading to significantly higher tumor killing.
  • Figueras, Eduard; Martins, Ana; Borbely, Adina; Le Joncour, Vadim; Cordella, Paola; Perego, Raffaella; Modena, Daniela; Pagani, Paolo; Esposito, Simone; Auciello, Giulio; Frese, Marcel; Gallinari, Paola; Laakkonen, Pirjo; Steinkuhler, Christian; Sewald, Norbert (2019)
    Tumor targeting has emerged as an advantageous approach to improving the efficacy and safety of cytotoxic agents or radiolabeled ligands that do not preferentially accumulate in the tumor tissue. The somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily and they are overexpressed in many neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). SSTRs can be efficiently targeted with octreotide, a cyclic octapeptide that is derived from native somatostatin. The conjugation of cargoes to octreotide represents an attractive approach for effective tumor targeting. In this study, we conjugated octreotide to cryptophycin, which is a highly cytotoxic depsipeptide, through the protease cleavable Val-Cit dipeptide linker using two different self-immolative moieties. The biological activity was investigated in vitro and the self-immolative part largely influenced the stability of the conjugates. Replacement of cryptophycin by the infrared cyanine dye Cy5.5 was exploited to elucidate the tumor targeting properties of the conjugates in vitro and in vivo. The compound efficiently and selectively internalized in cells overexpressing SSTR2 and accumulated in xenografts for a prolonged time. Our results on the in vivo properties indicate that octreotide may serve as an efficient delivery vehicle for tumor targeting.
  • Hemminki, Otto; Oksanen, Minna; Taipale, Kristian; Liikanen, Ilkka; Koski, Anniina; Joensuu, Timo; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli (2018)
    The first US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)- and EMA-approved oncolytic virus has been available since 2015. However, there are no markers available that would predict benefit for the individual patient. During 2007-2012, we treated 290 patients with advanced chemotherapy-refractory cancers, using 10 different oncolytic adenoviruses. Treatments were given in a Finnish Medicines Agency (FIMEA)-regulated individualized patient treatment program (the Advanced Therapy Access Program [ATAP]), which required long-term follow-up of patients, which is presented here. Focusing on the longest surviving patients, some key clinical and biological features are presented as "oncograms." Some key attributes that could be captured in the oncogram are suggested to predict treatment response and survival after oncolytic adenovirus treatment. The oncogram includes immunological laboratory parameters assessed in peripheral blood (leukocytes, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, interleukin-8 [IL-81, HMGB1, antiviral neutralizing antibody status), features of the patient (gender, performance status), tumor features (histological tumor type, tumor load, region of metastases), and oncolytic virus-specific features (arming of the virus). The retrospective approach used here facilitates verification in a prospective controlled trial setting. To our knowledge, the oncogram is the first holistic attempt to identify the patients most likely to benefit from adenoviral oncolytic virotherapy.
  • Pozharitskaya, Olga N.; Shikov, Alexander N.; Faustova, Natalya M.; Obluchinskaya, Ekaterina D.; Kosman, Vera M.; Vuorela, Heikki; Makarov, Valery G. (2018)
    Fucus vesiculosus L., known as bladderwrack, belongs to the brown seaweeds, which are widely distributed throughout northern Russia, Atlantic shores of Europe, the Baltic Sea, Greenland, the Azores, the Canary Islands, and shores of the Pacific Ocean. Fucoidan is a major fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharide found in Fucus (F.) vesiculosus. The pharmacokinetic profiling of active compounds is essential for drug development and approval. The aim of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of fucoidan in rats after a single-dose oral administration. Fucoidan was isolated from F. vesiculosus. The method of measuring anti-activated factor X (anti-Xa) activity by amidolytic assay was used to analyze the plasma and tissue concentrations of fucoidan. The tissue distribution of fucoidan after intragastric administration to the rats was characterized, and it exhibited considerable heterogeneity. Fucoidan preferentially accumulates in the kidneys (AUC(0-t) = 10.74 mu g.h/g; C-max = 1.23 mu g/g after 5 h), spleen (AUC(0-t) = 6.89 mu g.h/g; C-max = 0.78 mu g/g after 3 h), and liver (AUC(0-t) = 3.26 mu g.h/g; C-max = 0.53 mu g/g after 2 h) and shows a relatively long absorption time and extended circulation in the blood, with a mean residence time (MRT) = 6.79 h. The outcome of this study provides additional scientific data for traditional use of fucoidan-containing plants and offers tangible support for the continued development of new effective pharmaceuticals using fucoidan.
  • Stockfelt, Marit; Lundell, Anna-Carin; Hetland, Merete Lund; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Uhlig, Till; Heiberg, Marte Schrumpf; Haavardsholm, Espen A.; Nurmohamed, Michael T.; Lampa, Jon; Nordström, Dan; Petersen, Kim Horslev; Gudbjornsson, Bjorn; Grondal, Gerdur; Aldridge, Jonathan; Andersson, Kerstin; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; van Vollenhoven, Ronald; Rudin, Anna (2021)
    Background The type I interferon (IFN) gene signature is present in a subgroup of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Protein levels of IFN alpha have not been measured in RA and it is unknown whether they associate with clinical characteristics or treatment effect. Methods Patients with early untreated RA (n = 347) were randomized to methotrexate combined with prednisone, certolizumab-pegol, abatacept, or tocilizumab. Plasma IFN alpha protein levels were determined by single molecular array (Simoa) before and 24 weeks after treatment initiation and were related to demographic and clinical factors including clinical disease activity index, disease activity score in 28 joints, swollen and tender joint counts, and patient global assessment. Results IFN alpha protein positivity was found in 26% of the patients, and of these, 92% were double-positive for rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). IFN alpha protein levels were reduced 24 weeks after treatment initiation, and the absolute change was similar irrespective of treatment. IFN alpha protein positivity was associated neither with disease activity nor with achievement of CDAI remission 24 weeks after randomization. Conclusion IFN alpha protein positivity is present in a subgroup of patients with early RA and associates with double-positivity for autoantibodies but not with disease activity. Pre-treatment IFN alpha positivity did not predict remission in any of the treatment arms, suggesting that the IFN alpha system is distinct from the pathways of TNF, IL-6, and T-cell activation in early RA. A spin-off study of the NORD-STAR randomized clinical trial, NCT01491815 (ClinicalTrials), registered 12/08/2011, .
  • Wee, Bryan A.; Alves, Joana; Lindsay, Diane S. J.; Klatt, Ann-Brit; Sargison, Fiona A.; Cameron, Ross L.; Pickering, Amy; Gorzynski, Jamie; Corander, Jukka; Marttinen, Pekka; Opitz, Bastian; Smith, Andrew J.; Fitzgerald, J. Ross (2021)
    Legionella pneumophila is the most common cause of the severe respiratory infection known as Legionnaires' disease. However, the microorganism is typically a symbiont of free-living amoeba, and our understanding of the bacterial factors that determine human pathogenicity is limited. Here we carried out a population genomic study of 902 L. pneumophila isolates from human clinical and environmental samples to examine their genetic diversity, global distribution and the basis for human pathogenicity. We find that the capacity for human disease is representative of the breadth of species diversity although some clones are more commonly associated with clinical infections. We identified a single gene (lag-1) to be most strongly associated with clinical isolates. lag-1, which encodes an O-acetyltransferase for lipopolysaccharide modification, has been distributed horizontally across all major phylogenetic clades of L. pneumophila by frequent recent recombination events. The gene confers resistance to complement-mediated killing in human serum by inhibiting deposition of classical pathway molecules on the bacterial surface. Furthermore, acquisition of lag-1 inhibits complement-dependent phagocytosis by human neutrophils, and promoted survival in a mouse model of pulmonary legionellosis. Thus, our results reveal L. pneumophila genetic traits linked to disease and provide a molecular basis for resistance to complement-mediated killing. The bacterium Legionella pneumophila can cause severe respiratory infection, but is typically a symbiont of free-living amoeba. Here, the authors analyse the genomes of 902 clinical and environmental isolates, and identify a bacterial gene that is strongly associated with human infection and confers resistance to complement-mediated killing.
  • Rantsi, Tiina; Öhman, Hanna; Puolakkainen, Mirja; Bloigu, Aini; Paavonen, Jorma; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Tiitinen, Aila; Joki-Korpela, Päivi (2018)
    Problem: The accuracy of Chlamydia trachomatis antibody test in predicting tubal factor infertility (TFI) is limited, and more accurate methods are needed. Cell-mediated immune response (CMI) is crucial in the resolution of pathogen, but it may play an important role in the pathogenesis of C trachomatis-associated tubal damage. We studied whether combining the markers of C trachomatis-induced CMI to humoral immune response improves the accuracy of serology in TFI prediction. Method of study: Our prospective study consists of 258 subfertile women, of whom 22 (8.5%) had TFI. Women with other causes for subfertility served as a reference group. Serum C trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and chlamydial heat-shock protein 60 (cHSP60) IgG antibodies were measured by ELISA. CMI was studied by lymphocyte proliferation assay in vitro. Results: Serological markers were more prevalent in women with TFI than in other subfertile women (40.9% vs 12.3% for MOMP IgG and 27.3% vs 10.2% for cHSP60 IgG). The best test combination for TFI was C. trachomatis MOMP and cHSP60 antibody with an accuracy of 90.3%, sensitivity of 22.7% and specificity of 96.6%. Positive post-test probability of this combination was 54.2%, and negative post-test probability was 12.4%. Adding of the markers of CMI did not significantly improve the accuracy of serology in TFI prediction. Conclusion: The accuracy of TFI prediction increases when the combination of C trachomatis MOMP and cHSP60 antibody tests is used. C trachomatis-induced CMI was common in our study population, but the markers of CMI did not predict TFI.
  • O'Flynn, Joseph; Kotimaa, Juha; Faber-Krol, Ria; Koekkoek, Karin; Klar-Mohamad, Ngaisah; Koudijs, Angela; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J.; Stover, Cordula; Daha, Mohamed R.; van Kooten, Cees (2018)
    Properdin is the only known positive regulator of complement activation by stabilizing the alternative pathway convertase through C3 binding, thus prolonging its half-life. Recent in vitro studies suggest that properdin may act as a specific pattern recognition molecule. To better understand the role of properdin in vivo, we used an experimental model of acute anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with wild-type, C3-and properdin knockout mice. The model exhibited severe proteinuria, acute neutrophil infiltration and activation, classical and alternative pathway activation, and progressive glomerular deposition of properdin, C3 and C9. Although the acute renal injury was likely due to acute neutrophil activation, we found properdin deposition in C3-knockout mice that was not associated with IgG. Thus, properdin may deposit in injured tissues in vivo independent of its main ligand C3.
  • Koskinen, Maarit K.; Helminen, Olli; Matomaki, Jaakko; Aspholm, Susanna; Mykkanen, Juha; Makinen, Marjaana; Simell, Ville; Vaha-Makila, Mari; Simell, Tuula; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Toppari, Jorma; Simell, Olli (2016)
    Objective: We aimed to characterize insulin responses to i.v. glucose during the preclinical period of type 1 diabetes starting from the emergence of islet autoimmunity. Design and methods: A large population-based cohort of children with HLA-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes was observed from birth. During regular follow-up visits islet autoantibodies were analysed. We compared markers of glucose metabolism in sequential intravenous glucose tolerance tests between 210 children who were positive for multiple (>= 2) islet autoantibodies and progressed to type 1 diabetes (progressors) and 192 children testing positive for classical islet-cell antibodies only and remained healthy (non-progressors). Results: In the progressors, the first phase insulin response (FPIR) was decreased as early as 4-6 years before the diagnosis when compared to the non-progressors (P=0.001). The difference in FPIR between the progressors and non-progressors was significant (P Conclusions: FPIR is decreased several years before the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, implying an intrinsic defect in beta-cell mass and/or function.
  • Forssen, Patrik; Multia, Evgen; Samuelsson, Jorgen; Andersson, Marie; Aastrup, Teodor; Altun, Samuel; Wallinder, Daniel; Wallbing, Linus; Liangsupree, Thanaporn; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Fornstedt, Torgny (2018)
    When using biosensors, analyte biomolecules of several different concentrations are percolated over a chip with immobilized ligand molecules that form complexes with analytes. However, in many cases of biological interest, e.g., in antibody interactions, complex formation steady-state is not reached. The data measured are so-called sensorgram, one for each analyte concentration, with total complex concentration vs time. Here we present a new four-step strategy for more reliable processing of this complex kinetic binding data and compare it with the standard global fitting procedure. In our strategy, we first calculate a dissociation graph to reveal if there are any heterogeneous interactions. Thereafter, a new numerical algorithm, AIDA, is used to get the number of different complex formation reactions for each analyte concentration level. This information is then used to estimate the corresponding complex formation rate constants by fitting to the measured sensorgram one by one. Finally, all estimated rate constants are plotted and clustered, where each cluster represents a complex formation. Synthetic and experimental data obtained from three different QCM biosensor experimental systems having fast (close to steady-state), moderate, and slow kinetics (far from steady-state) were evaluated using the four-step strategy and standard global fitting. The new strategy allowed us to more reliably estimate the number of different complex formations, especially for cases of complex and slow dissociation kinetics. Moreover, the new strategy proved to be more robust as it enables one to handle system drift, i.e., data from biosensor chips that deteriorate over time.
  • Al-Akhrass, Hussein; Pietilä, Mika; Lilja, Johanna; Vesilahti, Ella-Maria; Anttila, Johanna M.; Haikala, Heidi M.; Munne, Pauliina M.; Klefström, Juha; Peuhu, Emilia; Ivaska, Johanna (2022)
    In breast cancer, the currently approved anti-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (HER2) therapies do not fully meet the expected clinical goals due to therapy resistance. Identifying alternative HER2-related therapeutic targets could offer a means to overcome these resistance mechanisms. We have previously demonstrated that an endosomal sorting protein, sortilin-related receptor (SorLA), regulates the traffic and signaling of HER2 and HER3, thus promoting resistance to HER2-targeted therapy in breast cancer. This study aims to assess the feasibility of targeting SorLA using a monoclonal antibody. Our results demonstrate that anti-SorLA antibody (SorLA ab) alters the resistance of breast cancer cells to HER2 monoclonal antibody trastuzumab in vitro and in ovo. We found that SorLA ab and trastuzumab combination therapy also inhibits tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell density in a mouse xenograft model of HER2-positive breast cancer. In addition, SorLA ab inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer patient-derived explant three-dimensional cultures. These results provide, for the first time, proof of principle that SorLA is a druggable target in breast cancer.
  • Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Pollari, Marjukka; Brück, Oscar; Pellinen, Teijo; Autio, Matias; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Mannisto, Susanna; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Kallioniemi, Olli; Mustjoki, Satu; Leppä, Sirpa (2019)
    Primary testicular lymphoma is a rare lymphoid malignancy, most often, histologically, representing diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The tumor and limited immune surveillance have a major impact on diffuse large B-cell lymphoma pathogenesis and. survival, but the impact on primary testicular lymphoma is unknown. Here, the purpose of the study was to characterize the tumor microenvironme.nt in primary testicular lymphoma, and associate the findings with outcome. We profiled the expression of 730 immune response enes in 60 primary testicular lymphomas utilizing the Nanostring platorm, and used multiplex imrnunohistochemistry to characterize the immune cell phenotypes in the tumor tissue. We identified a gene signature enriched for T-lymphocyte markers differentially expressed. between the patients. Low expression of the signature predicted poor outcome independently of the International Prognostic Index (progression -free survival: HR=2.810, 95%CI: 1.228-6.431, P=0.014; overall survival: HR=3.267, 95`)/0' CI: 1.406-7.590, P=0.006). The T-lymphocyte signature was associated with outcome also in an independent diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cohort (n=96). Multiplex immunohistochemistry revealed that poor survival of primary testicular lymphoma patients correlated with low percentage of CD3'CD4' and CD3+CD8' tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (P