Browsing by Subject "ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS"

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  • Ribeiro, Deidiane Elisa; Casarotto, Plinio Cabrera; Júnior, Ailton Spiacci; Fernandes, Gabriel Gripp; Pinheiro, Lucas César; Tanus- Santos, José Eduardo; Zangrossi Jr, Hélio; Silveira Guimarães, Francisco; Lourenço Joca, Samia Regiane; Biojone, Caroline (2019)
    Nitric oxide (NO) triggers escape reactions in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (dPAG), a core structure mediating panic-associated response, and decreases the release of BDNF in vitro. BDNF mediates the panicolytic effect induced by antidepressant drugs and produces these effects per se when injected into the dPAG. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors would have panicolytic properties associated with increased BDNF signaling in the dPAG. We observed that the repeated (7 days), but not acute (1 day), systemic administration of the NOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (AMG; 15 mg/kg/day) increased the latency to escape from the open arm of the elevated T-maze (ETM) and inhibited the number of jumps in hypoxia-induced escape reaction in rats, suggesting a panicolytic-like effect. Repeated, but not acute, AMG administration (15 mg/kg) also decreased nitrite levels and increased TRKB phosphorylation at residues Y706/7 in the dPAG. Notwithstanding the lack of AMG effect on total BDNF levels in this structure, the microinjection of the TRK antagonist K252a into the dPAG blocked the anti-escape effect of this drug in the ETM. Taken together our data suggest that the inhibition of NO production by AMG increases the levels of pTRKB, which is required for the panicolytic-like effect observed.
  • Uutela, Marko; Lindholm, Jesse; Rantamaki, Tomi; Umemori, Juzoh; Hunter, Kerri; Voikar, Vootele; Castren, Maija L. (2014)
  • Laukkanen, Liina; Diniz, Cassiano R. A. F.; Foulquier, Sebastien; Prickaerts, Jos; Castren, Eero; Casarotto, Plinio C. (2021)
    Blockers of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) exert antidepressant-like effects by indirectly facilitating the activation of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R), which leads to increased surface expression and transactivation of tropomyosin-related kinase B receptors (TRKB). Compound 21 (C21) is a non-peptide AT2R agonist that produces neuroprotective effects. However, the behavioral effects of C21 and its involvement with the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-TRKB system still need further investigation. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of C21 on the activation of TRKB and its consequences on conditioned fear. The administration of C21 (0.1-10 mu M/15 min) increased the surface levels of TRKB but was not sufficient to increase the levels of phosphorylated TRKB (pTRKB) in cultured cortical neurons from rat embryos. Consistent with increased TRKB surface expression, C21 (10 mu M/15 min or 3 days) facilitated the effect of BDNF (0.1 ng/mL/15 min) on pTRKB in these cells. In contextual fear conditioning, the freezing time of C21-treated (administered intranasally) wild-type mice was decreased compared to the vehicle-treated group, but no effect of C21 was observed in BDNF.het animals. We observed no effect of C21 in the elevated plus-maze test for anxiety. Taken together, our results indicate that C21 facilitated BDNF effect by increasing the levels of TRKB on the cell surface and reduced the freezing time of mice in a BDNF-dependent manner, but not through a general anxiolytic-like effect.
  • Ojanpera, Ilkka; Kriikku, Pirkko; Vuori, Erkki (2016)
    The fatal toxicity index (FTI) is the absolute number of fatal poisonings caused by a particular drug divided by its consumption figure. Consequently, it is a useful measure in evaluating toxicity of the drug and its relevance in fatal poisonings. In this study, we assessed the FTI of medicinal drugs in 3 years (2005, 2009, and 2013) in Finland. As the measure of drug consumption, we used the number of defined daily doses (DDD) per population in each year. There were 70 medicinal drugs in Finland for which the mean FTI expressed as the number of deaths per million DDD over the three study years was higher or equal to 0.1. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system was used for the classification of the active ingredients of medicinal drugs according to the organ or system which they act on. Of these 70 drugs, 55 drugs (78.6 %) acted on the nervous system (denoted by ATC code N), 11 (15.7 %) on the cardiovascular system (C), three (4.3 %) on the alimentary tract and metabolism (A), and one (1.4 %) on the musculoskeletal system (M). The nervous system drugs consisted of 20 psycholeptics, (ATC code N05), 20 psychoanaleptics (N06), eight analgesics (N02), six antiepileptics (N03), and one other nervous system drug (N07). The highest individual FTIs were associated with the opioids methadone, dextropropoxyphene, oxycodone, tramadol, and morphine; the antipsychotics levomepromazine and chlorprothixene; and the antidepressants doxepin, amitriptyline, trimipramine, and bupropion. Buprenorphine was not included in the study, because most of the fatal buprenorphine poisonings were due to smuggled tablets. A clearly increasing trend in FTI was observed with pregabalin and possibly with bupropion, both drugs emerging as abused substances.
  • Steinzeig, Anna; Cannarozzo, Cecilia; Castren, Eero (2019)
    Heightened neuronal plasticity expressed during early postnatal life has been thought to permanently decline once critical periods have ended. For example, monocular deprivation is able to shift ocular dominance in the mouse visual cortex during the first months of life, but this effect is lost later in life. However, various treatments, such as the antidepressant fluoxetine, can reactivate a critical period-like plasticity in the adult brain. When monocular deprivation is supplemented with chronic fluoxetine administration, a major shift in ocular dominance is produced after the critical period has ended. In the current study, we characterized the temporal patterns of fluoxetine-induced plasticity in the adult mouse visual cortex, using in vivo optical imaging. We found that artificially induced plasticity in ocular dominance extended beyond the duration of the naturally occurring critical period and continued as long as fluoxetine was administered. However, this fluoxetine-induced plasticity period ended as soon as the drug was not given. These features of antidepressant-induced plasticity may be useful when designing treatment strategies involving long-term antidepressant treatment in humans.
  • Vermeulen, Eric; van den Anker, John N.; Della Pasqua, Oscar; Hoppu, Kaarlo; van der Lee, Johanna H.; GRiP (2017)
    Objectives In children, there is often lack of sufficient information concerning the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of a study drug to support dose selection and effective evaluation of efficacy in a randomised clinical trial (RCT). Therefore, one should consider the relevance of relatively small PKPD studies, which can provide the appropriate data to optimise the design of an RCT. Methods Based on the experience of experts collaborating in the EU-funded Global Research in Paediatrics consortium, we aimed to inform clinician-scientists working with children on the design of investigator-initiated PKPD studies. Key findings The importance of the identification of an optimal dose for the paediatric population is explained, followed by the differences and similarities of dose-ranging and efficacy studies. The input of clinical pharmacologists with modelling expertise is essential for an efficient dose-finding study. Conclusions The emergence of new laboratory techniques and statistical tools allows for the collection and analysis of sparse and unbalanced data, enabling the implementation of (observational) PKPD studies in the paediatric clinic. Understanding of the principles and methods discussed in this study is essential to improve the quality of paediatric PKPD investigations, and to prevent the conduct of paediatric RCTs that fail because of inadequate dosing.
  • Malm, Heli; Artama, Miia; Brown, Alan S.; Gissler, Mika; Gyllenberg, David; Hinkka-Yli-Salomaki, Susanna; McKeague, Ian; Sourander, Andre (2012)
  • Lesnikova, Angelina; Casarotto, Plinio; Moliner, Rafael; Fred, Senem Merve; Biojone, Caroline; Castren, Eero (2021)
    Perineuronal nets (PNNs) have an important physiological role in the retention of learning by restricting cognitive flexibility. Their deposition peaks after developmental periods of intensive learning, usually in late childhood, and they help in long-term preservation of newly acquired skills and information. Modulation of PNN function by various techniques enhances plasticity and regulates the retention of memories, which may be beneficial when memory persistence entails negative symptoms such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this study, we investigated the role of PTP sigma [receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase S, a phosphatase that is activated by binding of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) from PNNs] in retention of memories using Novel Object Recognition and Fear Conditioning models. We observed that mice haploinsufficient for PTPRS gene (PTP sigma(+/-)), although having improved short-term object recognition memory, display impaired long-term memory in both Novel Object Recognition and Fear Conditioning paradigm, as compared to WT littermates. However, PTP sigma(+/-) mice did not show any differences in behavioral tests that do not heavily rely on cognitive flexibility, such as Elevated Plus Maze, Open Field, Marble Burying, and Forced Swimming Test. Since PTP sigma has been shown to interact with and dephosphorylate TRKB, we investigated activation of this receptor and its downstream pathways in limbic areas known to be associated with memory. We found that phosphorylation of TRKB and PLC gamma are increased in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdaloid complex of PTP sigma(+/-) mice, but other TRKB-mediated signaling pathways are not affected. Our data suggest that PTP sigma downregulation promotes TRKB phosphorylation in different brain areas, improves short-term memory performance but disrupts long-term memory retention in the tested animal models. Inhibition of PTP sigma or disruption of PNN-PTP sigma-TRKB complex might be a potential target for disorders where negative modulation of the acquired memories can be beneficial.
  • Winkel, Frederike; Ryazantseva, Maria; Voigt, Mathias B.; Didio, Giuliano; Lilja, Antonia; Llach Pou, Maria; Steinzeig, Anna; Harkki, Juliana; Englund, Jonas; Khirug, Stanislav; Rivera, Claudio; Palva, Satu; Taira, Tomi; Lauri, Sari E.; Umemori, Juzoh; Castren, Eero (2021)
    Elevated states of brain plasticity typical for critical periods of early postnatal life can be reinstated in the adult brain through interventions, such as antidepressant treatment and environmental enrichment, and induced plasticity may be critical for the antidepressant action. Parvalbumin-positive (PV) interneurons regulate the closure of developmental critical periods and can alternate between high and low plasticity states in response to experience in adulthood. We now show that PV plasticity states and cortical networks are regulated through the activation of TrkB neurotrophin receptors. Visual cortical plasticity induced by fluoxetine, a widely prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant, was lost in mice with reduced expression of TrkB in PV interneurons. Conversely, optogenetic gain-of-function studies revealed that activation of an optically activatable TrkB (optoTrkB) specifically in PV interneurons switches adult cortical networks into a state of elevated plasticity within minutes by decreasing the intrinsic excitability of PV interneurons, recapitulating the effects of fluoxetine. TrkB activation shifted cortical networks towards a low PV configuration, promoting oscillatory synchrony, increased excitatory-inhibitory balance, and ocular dominance plasticity. OptoTrkB activation promotes the phosphorylation of Kv3.1 channels and reduces the expression of Kv3.2 mRNA providing a mechanism for the lower excitability. In addition, decreased expression and puncta of Synaptotagmin2 (Syt2), a presynaptic marker of PV interneurons involved in Ca2+-dependent neurotransmitter release, suggests lower inputs onto pyramidal neurons suppressing feed-forward inhibition. Together, the results provide mechanistic insights into how TrkB activation in PV interneurons orchestrates the activity of cortical networks and mediating antidepressant responses in the adult brain.