Browsing by Subject "ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY"

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  • Gu, Ying; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Napolitano, Nicole; Clemens, McKenzie; Zhang, Yazhou; Sorsa, Timo; Zhang, Yu; Johnson, Francis; Golub, Lorne M. (2013)
  • Metsämuuronen, Sari; Sirén, Heli (2019)
    Phenolics and extracted phenolic compounds of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) show antibacterial activity against several bacteria. The majority of phenolic compounds are stilbenes, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids, and lignans that are biosynthesized in the wood through the phenylpropanoid pathway. In Scots pine (P. sylvestris), the most abundant phenolic and antibacterial compounds are pinosylvin-type stilbenes and flavonol- and dihydroflavonol-type flavonoids, such as kaempferol, quercetin, and taxifolin and their derivatives. In Norway spruce (P. abies) on the other hand, the main stilbene is resveratrol and the major flavonoids are quercetin and myricetin. In general, when the results from the literature regarding the activities of flavonoid glycosides and their aglycones against a total of twenty-one microorganisms are summarized, it was found that phenolic glycosides are less active than the corresponding aglycones, although a number of exceptions are also known. The aglycones in plants respond to various kinds of biotic stress. Synergistic effects between aglycones and their glycosides have been observed. Minimum inhibition concentrations of below 10 mg L−1 against bacteria have been reported for gallic acid, apigenin, and several methylated and acylated flavonols present in these industrially important trees. In general, the phenolic compounds are more active against Gram-positive bacteria, but apigenin is reported to exhibit strong activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The present review lists some of the biosynthesis pathways for the antibacterial phenolic metabolites found in Scots pine (P. sylvestris) and Norway spruce (P. abies). The antimicrobial activity of the compounds is collected and compared to gather information about the most effective secondary metabolites.
  • Tienaho, Jenni; Karonen, Maarit; Muilu-Mäkelä, Riina; Kaseva, Janne; de Pedro, Nuria; Vicente, Francisca; Genilloud, Olga; Aapola, Ulla; Uusitalo, Hannu; Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Franzen, Robert; Wähälä, Kristiina; Karp, Matti; Santala, Ville; Sarjala, Tytti (2020)
    Despite the continuing interest in various plant and natural products, only a small portion of the biologically active compounds from nature has been discovered and exploited. In this study, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of aqueous fractions of three endophytic fungi isolated from the roots of 8-year-old Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) growing on a drained peatland were investigated. The endophytic fungi species were Acephala applanata, Phialocephala fortinii, and Humicolopsis cephalosporioides/Coniochaeta mutabilis. The bioactivities were examined using hydrogen peroxide scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance capacity tests as well as sensitive Escherichia coli-based biosensors, which produce a luminescent signal in the presence of substances with oxidative or genotoxic properties. In addition, cell models for Parkinson's disease, age-related macular degeneration, and osteoarthritis were used to evaluate the potential for pharmaceutical applications. The aqueous extracts of fungi and 19 out of 42 fractions were found to be active in one or more of the tests used. However, no activity was found in the age-related macular degeneration and osteoarthritis cell model tests. Additionally, bioactivity data was connected with metabolites putatively annotated, and out of 330 metabolites, 177 were interesting in view of the bioactivities investigated. A majority of these were peptides and all three fungal species shared a highly similar metabolome. We propose that Scots pine endophytic fungi are a rich source of interesting metabolites, and synergistic effects may cause the bioactivities, as they were found to vary after the fractionation process.
  • Oksuz, Tugba; Tacer-Caba, Zeynep; Nilufer-Erdil, Dilara; Boyacioglu, Dilek (2019)
    In this study, it is aimed to understand the changes in sour cherry phytochemicals when their co-digestions are simulated in dairy model systems comprising skim milk, non-fat-yoghurt, probiotic yoghurt or cream. These co-digestions were analyzed for their total phenolic and anthocyanin contents, total antioxidant activity (TAA) in addition to phenolic and anthocyanin profiles, individually. Sour cherry phenolics were stable during gastric conditions (120%); 54% lost in pancreatic digestion and being available (59%) in serum available fraction (IN). Anthocyanins were lost both in gastric (30%) and pancreatic digestions (16%), being only little available (0.6%) in IN. Soymilk had inhibitory effects on TAA. Dairy food matrix components evaluated were found to have distinct effects on the measured bioavailability of individual sour cherry phenolics. This study might aid both consumers and industry on selecting the food matrices to aiding increase in bioavailability.
  • Liu, Chang; Damodaran, Srinivasan; Heinonen, Irma Marina (2019)
    The potential use of microbial transglutaminase (MTG)-treated faba bean protein isolate (FBPI) as emulsifiers to maintain physical and oxidative stability of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion was investigated. MTG-treated FBPIs (MTG-FBPIs) were prepared by incubating with MTG for 60, 120 or 240 min. O/W emulsions were stabilized by 3% (w/v) of MTG-FBPIs or control-FBPI (treated with inactive MTG) and stored at 37 degrees C for 7 days. MTG treatments induced cross-linking in FBPI, raised the protein net surface charges by 5%-8%, and increased the emulsion particle size by 19%-135%. MTG treatment for 120 and 240 min but not 60 min induced excessive surface hydrophobicity, resulting in decreased emulsifying activity and physical stability of emulsion. By day 7, all MTG-treated FBPIs showed similar inhibiting effects against lipid oxidation in emulsion, indicated by less conjugated dienes and hexanal production. MTG-FBPIs moderately promoted protein oxidation (120 min > 240 min approximate to 60 min). Thus, prolonged MTG treatment should be avoided to prevent accelerated protein oxidation and droplets coalescence. MTG treatment for 60 min makes FBPI a potential emulsifier to maintain physical stability while improving lipid oxidative stability in emulsion, potentially attributed to thicker interfacial layer, larger droplet size, and protective effect of protein.
  • Verni, Michela; Wang, Changyin; Montemurro, Marco; De Angelis, Maria; Katina, Kati; Rizzello, Carlo G.; Coda, Rossana (2017)
    This study investigated the metabolic traits of 27 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains belonging to different species, previously isolated from faba bean. The activities assayed, related to technological and nutritional improvement of fermented faba bean, included peptidases, beta-glucosidase, phytase, as well as exopolysaccharides synthesis and antimicrobial properties. In addition, the bacteria performance as starter cultures during faba bean fermentation on proteolysis, antioxidant potential, and degradation of condensed tannins were assessed. Fermentative profiling showed that only 7 out of 27 strains were able to metabolize D-raffinose, particularly Leuc. mesenteroides I01 and I57. All strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus exerted high PepN activity and exhibited beta-glucosidase activity higher than the median value of 0.015 U, while phytase activity was largely distributed among the different strains. All the weissellas, and in lower amount leuconostocs, showed ability to produce EPS from sucrose. None of the strains showed antimicrobial activity toward Staphylococcus aureus, while eight strains of P. pentosaceus exhibited a strong inhibitory activity toward Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. Generally, the doughs fermented with pediococci exhibited high amount of total free amino acids, antioxidant activity, and condensed tannins degradation. These results allowed the identification of LAB biotypes as potential starter cultures for faba bean bioprocessing, aiming at the enhancement of faba bean use in novel food applications.
  • Verni, Michela; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Coda, Rossana (2019)
    Cereals are one of the major food sources in human diet and a large quantity of by-products is generated throughout their processing chain. These by-products mostly consist of the germ and outer layers (bran), deriving from dry and wet milling of grains, brewers’ spent grain originating from brewing industry, or others originating during bread-making and starch production. Cereal industry by-products are rich in nutrients, but still they end up as feed, fuel, substrates for biorefinery, or waste. The above uses, however, only provide a partial recycle. Although cereal processing industry side streams can potentially provide essential compounds for the diet, their use in food production is limited by their challenging technological properties. For this reason, the development of innovative biotechnologies is essential to upgrade these by-products, potentially leading to the design of novel and commercially competitive functional foods. Fermentation has been proven as a very feasible option to enhance the technological, sensory, and especially nutritional and functional features of the cereal industry by-products. Through the increase of minerals, phenolics and vitamins bioavailability, proteins digestibility, and the degradation of antinutritional compounds as phytic acid, fermentation can lead to improved nutritional quality of the matrix. In some cases, more compelling benefits have been discovered, such as the synthesis of bioactive compounds acting as antimicrobial, antitumoral, antioxidant agents. When used for baked-goods manufacturing, fermented cereal by-products have enhanced their nutritional profile. The key factor of a successful use of cereal by-products in food applications is the use of a proper bioprocessing technology, including fermentation with selected starters. In the journey toward a more efficient food chain, biotechnological approaches for the valorization of agricultural side streams can be considered a very valuable help.
  • Salih, Enass Y. A.; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Luukkanen, Olavi; Fahmi, Mustafa K. M.; Fyhrquist, Pia (2021)
    In Sudanese traditional medicine, decoctions, macerations, and tonics of the stem and root of Combretum hart-mannianum are used for the treatment of persistent cough, a symptom that could be related to tuberculosis (TB). To verify these traditional uses, extracts from the stem wood, stem bark, and roots of C. hartmannianum were screened for their growth inhibitory effects against Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC 14468. Methanol Soxhlet and ethyl acetate extracts of the root gave the strongest effects (MIC 312.5 and 625 mu g/ml, respectively). HPLC-UV/DAD and UHPLC/QTOF-MS analysis of the ethyl acetate extract of the root led to the detection of 54 compounds, of which most were polyphenols and many characterized for the first time in C. hartmannianum. Among the major compounds were terflavin B and its two isomers, castalagin, corilagin, tellimagrandin I and its derivative, (S)-flavogallonic acid dilactone, punicalagin, and methyl-ellagic acid xylopyranoside. In addition, di-, tri- and tetragalloyl glucose, combregenin, terminolic acid, cordifoliside D, luteolin, and quercetin-3-O-galactoside-7-O-rhamnoside-(2 -> 1)-O-beta-D-arabinopyranoside were characterized. Luteolin gave better growth inhibition against M. smegmatis (MIC 250 mu g/ml) than corilagin, ellagic acid, and gallic acid (MIC 500-1000 mu g/ml). Our study justifies the use of C. hartmannianum in Sudanese folk medicine against prolonged cough that could be related to TB infection. This study demonstrates that C. hartmannianum should be explored further for new anti-TB drug scaffolds and antibiotic adjuvants.
  • Valoppi, Fabio; Haman, Nabil; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Scampicchio, Matteo (2020)
    This study aims to evaluate the effect of vegetable waxes on the kinetics of lipid oxidation of linseed oil. Apple and orange waxes were obtained using supercritical carbon dioxide. The capacity of waxes to inhibit or retard the oxidation of linseed oil was determined by isothermal calorimetry at 298 K. The results show that waxes were able to slow down linseed oil autoxidation, with apple waxes being more active than orange waxes. However, such activity was visible only at relatively high concentrations (>1% of waxes), greatly higher than the concentration used with radical chain breakers like BHT (0.2%). The inhibition activity was explained by considering three different mechanisms: (1) residual polyphenol content in the wax, (2) high termination rate of the radical chain process, and (3) physical hindrance of the oxidation process by change in viscosity. All these mechanisms were possible, although the latter seemed to be the most important. Finally, the importance of waxes in the inhibition of lipid autoxidation was determined by testing their inhibition activity in combination with primary antioxidants. A mixture of waxes with BHA, ethoxyquin and alpha-tocopherol showed a higher rate of inhibition than when present individually. This suggested a strong cooperative radical scavenging activity, whose beneficial effect might pave the way to the formulation of novel functional ingredients.
  • Pärnän, Pirjo; Lähteenmäki, Hanna; Tervahartiala, Taina; Räisänen, Ismo T.; Sorsa, Timo (2021)
    Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis ideae L.) is a low-bush wild plant found in the northern hemisphere. The berries are used in traditional medicine in Finland to treat oral yeast infections. General and oral effects of lingonberries on the microbiome and inflammation are reviewed. A brief introduction to oral microbiome symbiosis and dysbiosis, innate and adaptive immunity and inflammation are included, and special features in microbe/host interactions in the oral environment are considered. In vitro anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and in vivo mouse and human studies are included, focusing on the symbiotic effect of lingonberries on oral and general health.
  • Samkumar, Amos; Jones, Dan; Karppinen, Katja; Dare, Andrew P.; Sipari, Nina; Espley, Richard V.; Martinussen, Inger; Jaakola, Laura (2021)
    The biosynthesis of anthocyanins has been shown to be influenced by light quality. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the light-mediated regulation of fruit anthocyanin biosynthesis are not well understood. In this study, we analysed the effects of supplemental red and blue light on the anthocyanin biosynthesis in non-climacteric bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.). After 6 days of continuous irradiation during ripening, both red and blue light elevated concentration of anthocyanins, up to 12- and 4-folds, respectively, compared to the control. Transcriptomic analysis of ripening berries showed that both light treatments up-regulated all the major anthocyanin structural genes, the key regulatory MYB transcription factors and abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthetic genes. However, higher induction of specific genes of anthocyanin and delphinidin biosynthesis alongside ABA signal perception and metabolism were found in red light. The difference in red and blue light signalling was found in 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), ABA receptor pyrabactin resistance-like (PYL) and catabolic ABA-8'hydroxylase gene expression. Red light also up-regulated expression of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) domain transporters, which may indicate involvement of these proteins in vesicular trafficking of anthocyanins during fruit ripening. Our results suggest differential signal transduction and transport mechanisms between red and blue light in ABA-regulated anthocyanin and delphinidin biosynthesis during bilberry fruit ripening.
  • Raitanen, Jan-Erik; Järvenpää, Eila; Korpinen, Risto; Mäkinen, Sari; Hellström, Jarkko; Kilpeläinen, Petri; Liimatainen, Jaana; Ora, Ari; Tupasela, Tuomo; Jyske, Tuula (2020)
    Bark of Norway spruce and Scots pine trees contain large amounts of condensed tannins. Tannins extracted with hot water could be used in different applications as they possess antioxidative and antimicrobial activities. The use of bark tannins as e.g., food preservatives calls for increases in our knowledge of their antioxidative activities when applied in foodstuffs. To assess the ability of bark tannins to prevent lipid oxidation, hot water extracts were evaluated in a liposome model. Isolated tannins were also applied in dry-cured, salty meat snacks either as liquid extracts or in dry-powder form. Consumer acceptance of the snacks was tested by a sensory evaluation panel where outlook, odor, taste, and structure of the snacks were evaluated and compared to a commercial product without tannin ingredients. Our results show that conifer bark tannin-rich extracts have high capacity to prevent lipid oxidation in the liposome model. The efficacies of pine and spruce bark extracts were ten to hundred folds higher, respectively, than those of phenolic berry extracts. The bark extracts did not significantly influence the odor or taste of the meat snacks. The findings indicate that bark extracts may be used as sustainable food ingredients. However, more research is needed to verify their safety.
  • Salih, Enass Y.A.; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Kanninen, Markku; Luukkanen, Olavi; Sipi, Marketta; Lehtonen, Mari; Vuorela, Heikki; Fyhrquist, Pia (2018)
    AbstractEthnopharmacological relevance Terminalia laxiflora Engl. & Diels, (Sudanese Arabic name: Darout الدروت) and Terminalia brownii Fresen (Sudanese Arabic name: Alshaf ألشاف) (Combretaceae) are used in Sudanese traditional folk medicine and in other African countries for treatment of infectious diseases, TB and its symptoms, such as cough, bronchitis and chest pain. Aim of study Because of the frequent use of T. laxiflora and T. brownii in African traditional medicine and due to the absence of studies regarding their antimycobacterial potential there was a need to screen extracts of T. laxiflora and T. brownii for their growth inhibitory potential and to study the chemical composition and compounds in growth inhibitory extracts. Materials and methods The plant species were collected in Sudan (Blue Nile Forest, Ed Damazin Forestry areas) and selected according to their uses in traditional medicine for the treatment of bacterial infections, including TB. Eighty extracts and fractions of the stem bark, stem wood, roots, leaves and fruits of T. laxiflora and T. brownii and nine pure compounds present in the active extracts were screened against Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC 14468 using agar diffusion and microplate dilution methods. Inhibition zones and MIC values were estimated and compared to rifampicin. HPLC-UV/DAD, GC/MS and UHPLC/Q-TOF MS were employed to identify the compounds in the growth inhibitory extracts. Results The roots of T. laxiflora and T. brownii gave the best antimycobacterial effects (IZ 22–27 mm) against Mycobacterium smegmatis. The lowest MIC of 625 µg/ml was observed for an acetone extract of the root of T. laxiflora followed by methanol and ethyl acetate extracts, both giving MIC values of 1250 µg/ml. Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography purification of T. brownii roots resulted in low MIC values of 62.5 µg/ml and 125 µg/ml for acetone and ethanol fractions, respectively, compared to 5000 µg/ml for the crude methanol extract. Methyl (S)-flavogallonate is suggested to be the main active compound in the Sephadex LH- 20 acetone fraction, while ellagic acid xyloside and methyl ellagic acid xyloside are suggested to give good antimycobacterial activity in the Sephadex LH-20 ethanol fraction. RP-18 TLC purifications of an ethyl acetate extract of T. laxiflora roots resulted in the enrichment of punicalagin in one of the fractions (Fr5). This fraction gave a five times smaller MIC (500 µg/ml) than the crude ethyl acetate extract (2500 µg/ml) and this improved activity is suggested to be mostly due to punicalagin. 1,18-octadec-9-ene-dioate, stigmast-4-en-3-one, 5α-stigmastan-3,6-dione, triacontanol, sitostenone and β-sitosterol were found in antimycobacterial hexane extracts of the stem bark of both studied species. Of these compounds, 1,18-octadec-9-ene-dioate, stigmast-4-en-3-one, 5α-stigmastan-3,6-dione, triacontanol, sitostenone have not been previously identified in T. brownii and T. laxiflora. Moreover, both plant species contained friedelin, betulinic acid, β-amyrine and two unknown oleanane-type triterpenoids. Of the listed compounds, friedelin, triacontanol and sitostenone gave a MIC of 250 µg/ml against M. smegmatis, whereas stigmasterol and β-sitosterol gave MIC values of 500 µg/ml. Conclusions Our results show that T. laxiflora and T. brownii contain antimycobacterial compounds of diverse polarities and support the traditional uses of various parts of T. laxiflora and T.brownii as decoctions for treatment of tuberculosis. Further investigations are warranted to explore additional (new) antimycobacterial compounds in the active extracts of T. laxiflora and T. brownii.
  • Seseogullari-Dirihan, R.; Apollonio, F.; Mazzoni, A.; Tjaderhane, L.; Pashley, D.; Breschi, L.; Tezvergil-Mutluay, A. (2016)
    Objectives. This study evaluated the endogenous matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity of demineralized dentin matrix following 1 or 5 min pretreatment by various collagen crosslinkers. Generic MMP activity assay, total protein analysis, in situ zymography, gelatin zymography and multiplex bead technology were used to evaluate matrix-bound MMP activity. Methods. Six different crosslinkers; glutaraldehyde, riboflavin/UVA, riboflavin-5-monophospate/UVA, sumac berry extract, grape seed extract, and curcumin were used. Demineralized dentin beams were pretreated with respective crosslinkers for 1 or 5 min. Demineralized dentin beams with no crosslinker pretreatment served as control. The reduction in the total activity of dentin matrices were measured using generic MMP activity assay. Dentin slabs were used for in situ zymography and evaluated by using hydrolysis of self-quenched fluorescein-conjugated gelatin under confocal microscopy. Dentin beam extracts were used for total protein assay and multiplex analysis and powder extracts were used for gelatin zymography. Results. MMP activity in crosslinker pretreated samples decreased significantly between 21% and 70%, whereas untreated control samples' activity increased up to 84%. Zymograms confirmed a decrease in the gelatinolytic activity and in the amount of extractable total protein content. Multiplex analysis of extracts of crosslinker-treated dentin showed a reduction in the MMP-8, MMP-2 and MMP-9 release. Significance. The result of this work suggests that the effect of the crosslinkers is source dependent. The use of crosslinkers for as little as 1 min on demineralized dentin can inactivate the endogenous protease activity of dentin matrices. (C) 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.