Browsing by Subject "ANTIOXIDANT"

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  • Jawhari, Fatima Zahra; El Moussaoui, Abdelfattah; Bourhia, Mohammed; Imtara, Hamada; Mechchate, Hamza; Es-Safi, Imane; Ullah, Riaz; Ezzeldin, Essam; Mostafa, Gamal A.; Grafov, Andriy; Ibenmoussa, Samir; Bousta, Dalila; Bari, Amina (2020)
    Background: Anacyclus pyrethrum (A. pyrethrum) is a wild species belonging to the family Asteraceae, which is used in traditional medicines. Aim of the study: This work was undertaken to study the chemical composition, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing properties of hydroalcoholic extracts of different parts (roots, seeds, leaves, and capitula) of A. pyrethrum. Material and Methods: The phytochemical analysis of the studied extracts was conducted by GC-MS. The analgesic activity was evaluated in mice using acetic acid and formaldehyde methods. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested using the inhibitory method of edema induced in rats. The healing activity of the hydroethanolic extracts was explored by excision and incision wound healing models in rats. Results: The phytochemical analysis of the studied plant extracts affirmed the presence of interesting compounds, including some newly detected elements, such as sarcosine, N-(trifluoroacetyl)-butyl ester, levulinic acid, malonic acid, palmitic acid, morphinan-6-One, 4,5.alpha.-epoxy-3-hydroxy-17-methyl, 2,4-undecadiene-8,10-diyne-N-tyramide, and isovaleric acid. The extracts of different parts (roots, seeds, leaves, and capitula) exhibited promising anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and wound healing effects, with percentages of inhibition up to 98%, 94%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: This study might contribute towards the well-being of society as it provides evidence on the potential analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing properties of A. pyrethrum.
  • Comandolli-Wyrepkowski, Claudia Dantas; Jensen, Bruno Bezerra; Grafova, Iryna; dos Santos, Pierre Alexandre; Comapa Barros, Angela Maria; Soares, Fabiane Veloso; Marques Barcellos, Jose Fernando; da Silva, Aline Fagundes; Grafov, Andriy; Ramos Franco, Antonia Maria (2017)
    Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is difficult due to the scarce number of drugs able to eliminate completely the intracellular form of the parasite. In the present study, the aim was to evaluate: i) phytochemical properties of extracts from Libidibia ferrea; ii) antileishmanial activity of extracts from L. ferrea against promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis; iii) the effects of topical treatment using hydrogel containing active extract of L. ferrea on golden hamsters infected with L. (L.) amazonensis. Extracts from leaves, branches and fruits of L. ferrea were obtained with hexane and methanol and were tested by in vitro assays in promastigotes and murine macrophages J774 experimentally infected with amastigotes of Leishmania. Groups of hamsters with CL received topical treatment with a formulation of extract (10%) hydrogels, 50 mg. day(-1) for 40 days. In vitro activity of FrMeOH (methanolic extract from fruits without seeds) resulted in significant reduction of viable promastigotes of L. (L.) amazonensis (IC50 of 15.4 mu g. mL(-1)) and demonstrated inhibition potential of amastigote forms of L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (V.) guyanensis and low cytotoxicity in macrophages. The overall data of topical treatment with extract hydrogels (GelFrMeOH) showed that lesion sizes were significantly reduced (42.78%), with low parasite burden by RT-qPCR and culture analysis by microscopy examination, and with histopathological findings such as lower inflammatory cell infiltration 40 days after treatment. Chemical analysis demonstrated FrMeOH contains high levels of phenolic compounds. The results indicate a possible alternative therapy for CL using phytotherapics. KEYWORDS: cutaneous leishmaniasis, natural products, topical formulations, experimental treatment
  • Ahmadian, Zainab; Rebelo Correia, Alexandra Maria; Hasany, Masoud; Figueiredo, Patricia; Dobakhti, Faramarz; Reza Eskandari, Mohammad; Hosseini, Seyed; Abiri, Ramin; Khorshid, Shiva; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A.; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali (2021)
    Extracellular matrix‐mimicking hydrogels with antioxidant, hemostasis, and antibacterial properties offer translating avenues towards wound repair through the promotion of fibroblast proliferation. In article number 2001122 by Hélder A. Santos, Mohammad‐Ali Shahbazi, and co‐workers, hydrogen bonding among the functional groups of gelatin and tannic acid creates a biocompatible hydrogel, where the improvement of re‐epithelialization and collagen deposition are its main features to treat full‐thickness wounds.
  • Mauramo, Matti; Onali, Tuulia; Wahbi, Wafa; Vasara, Jenni; Lampinen, Anniina; Mauramo, Elina; Kivimäki, Anne; Martens, Stefan; Häggman, Hely; Sutinen, Meeri; Salo, Tuula (2021)
    Previous studies indicate that bilberry with high amounts of phenolic compounds can inhibit carcinogenic processes of colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo. However, no studies have focused on the effects of bilberry on oral cancer. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of bilberry powder on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells using both in vitro and in vivo assays. The effects of 0, 1, 10, and 25 mg/mL of whole bilberry powder on the viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion of OSCC (HSC-3) cells were examined and compared with 0.01 mg/mL of cetuximab. Two oral keratinocyte cell lines served as controls. Tumor area was analyzed in zebrafish microinjected with HSC-3 cells and treated with 2.5, 10, or 25 mu g/mL of bilberry powder. Metastases in the head or tail areas were counted. Bilberry powder inhibited the viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion of HSC-3 cells (p < 0.05), which was more pronounced with higher concentrations. Cetuximab had no effect on HSC-3 cell migration or invasion. Compared to controls, the tumor area in zebrafish treated with bilberry powder (10 and 25 mu g/mL) was reduced significantly (p = 0.038 and p = 0.021, respectively), but the number of fish with metastases did not differ between groups. Based on our in vitro and in vivo experiments, we conclude that whole bilberry powder has anti-tumor effects on OSCC cells.
  • Ma, Fanyi; Zhang, Yun; Yao, Yanna; Wen, Yurong; Hu, Weiping; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Xiuhua; Bell, Alan E.; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina (2017)
    The properties of mucilage obtained from Dioscorea opposita, generated during industrial manufacturing were investigated in this study. Characteristics such as monosaccharide content, amino acid content, molecular weight, and structural features were measured, whereas morphology was observed using a scanning/transmission electron microscope. Additionally, emulsification properties at different concentrations (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, and 1.0%) and under acidic and basic pH (5.0 and 9.0) conditions were studied. The results showed that emulsions prepared from mucilage and medium-chain triglycerides presented more effective emulsifying functions and higher stability, especially at low concentrations. Both, acidic and basic conditions improved the overall emulsification properties, which suggested that the isoelectric point of amino acids may be involved in the emulsification properties. The results of this study show that mucilage from Dioscorea opposita can be considered as a sustainable resource of a natural emulsifier obtained from industrial waste. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Ayvaz, Muavviz; Guven, Avni; Fagerstedt, Kurt Valter (2015)
    Potato crop production in Turkey ranks on the thirteenth place in the world. Toxicity is a problematic issue for some parts of the Turkish soils. Hence, it is very important to clarify the physiological responses of plants to toxic mineral stress. In this study, two different potato cultivars - Solanum tuberosum cv. Resy and Solanum tuberosum cv. Agria - were used as a study material. Excess boron was applied in two different concentrations (5 mmol/L and 12.5 mmol/L) 32 days after planting the tubers. Plants were harvested at the end of 15 days of excess boron application. Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) was measured. Shoot height and shoot-root fresh weight contents were determined. Analyses were carried out for the contents of the endogenous hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) by using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GS-MS). According to the obtained data, plants' shoot height did not change, whereas the shoot's fresh weight decreased significantly with increasing of the boron concentrations in cv Resy, by applying 12.5 mmol/L boron. With 12.5 mmol/L boron, the photosynthesis was negatively affected in both cultivars. Boron application led to increased endogenous IAA and ABA content in both cultivars. As a result, cv. Resy showed more resistance to excess boron. Findings on the hormone metabolism and chlorophyll fluorescence in different cultivars will shed a light on understanding the physiological response to excess mineral stress.
  • Zhang, Rui; Maltari, Riku; Guo, Ming; Kontro, Jussi; Eronen, Aleksi; Repo, Timo (2020)
    More than 90 % of global lignin production comes from Kraft pulp mills but due to shortage of economical viable methods to valorise lignin, it is commonly burned for energy. Therefore, finding new routes to utilize Kraft lignin (KL) as a renewable raw material for the chemical industry is of significant economic and environmental importance. Herein we report a novel, two-step procedure for facile synthesis of vanillin from technical KL by combining solvent fractionation and catalytic oxidation reaction. From the studied green solvents, 1-propanol was the most attractive for one-step, single solvent fractionation as it afforded uniform, low molecular weight lignin fractions (Mw=1300 g·mol−1, Mn=580 g·mol−1) with yield of 46 wt%. Using this homogeneous lignin as a raw material, CuSO4 catalyzed oxidation reaction proceeds smoothly, and under optimized conditions a high vanillin yield of 10.9 wt% was achieved. The method reported herein is promising as it facilitates straightforward and high yield vanillin synthesis from commercially available technical KL.
  • Aly, Ashraf A.; Mohamed, Nasr K.; Hassan, Alaa A.; El-Shaieb, Kamal M.; Makhlouf, Maysa M.; Bräse, Stefan; Nieger, Martin; Brown, Alan B. (2019)
    The reactions of dialkyl acetylenedicarboxylates with various 2-oxo-acenaphthoquinylidene- and 4-acetyl[2.2]paracyclophanylidene-thiosemicarbazones were investigated. Using simple experimental procedures, 1,3-Thiazolidin-4-ones derived from acenaphthequinone or [2.2]paracyclophane were obtained as major products in good yields. In the case of allyl derivative of acenaphthoquinylidene-thiosemicarbazones, a complex structure of tetramethyl 5-(2-(((Z,E)-N-allyl-N'-(2-oxoacenaphthylen-1(2H)-ylidene)carbamohydrazonoyl)thio)-1,2,3-tris-(methoxycarbonyl)-cyclopropyl)-4-methoxy-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-diene-1,2,3,6-tetracarboxylate was formed. Single crystal X-ray analysis was used as an efficient tool to confirm the structure of the synthesized compounds as well as different spectroscopic data (H-1-NMR, C-13-NMR, 2D-NMR, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis). The mechanism of the obtained products was discussed.
  • EFSA Panel Dietetic Prod Nutr; Heinonen, Marina (2017)
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panelon Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt (PQQ), trade name BioPQQ, as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97. PQQ is produced by fermentation using Hyphomicrobiumdenitrificans CK-275 and purification process. PQQ has a minimum purity of 99.0%. The information provided on the composition, specifications, batch-to-batch variability, stability and production process of PQQ is sufficient and does not raise safety concerns. The applicant intends to market PQQ for use in food supplements for healthy adults, except pregnant and lactating women, at a maximum proposed level of consumption of 20 mg/day (corresponding to 0.29 mg/kg bw per day for a 70-kg person). The proposed level of consumption is at least 250 times higher than the estimated background intake of PQQ occurring naturally in foods. Information on the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of PQQ in animals and humans is limited. Considering the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) of 100mg/kg bw per day from a 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity study with BioPQQ, and the maximum proposed level of consumption, the Panelconcludes that the margin of exposure (of 344) is sufficient. The Panelconcludes that the novel food, pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt (BioPQQ (TM)), is safe under the intended conditions of use as specified by the applicant. (C) 2017 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • Korpelainen, Helena; Pietilainen, Maria (2020)
    Sorrel (Rumex acetosaL.) is a perennial, dioecious herb occupying a variety of habitats. Sorrel has been utilized as a wild gathered plant for thousands of years and as a cultivated plant for centuries. Primarily roots but also other tissues have been used in folk remedies since ancient times. In recent investigations, different phytochemical and pharmacological activities ofRumexhave been analyzed, and many bioactive compounds have been detected. Sorrel is also a tasty plant and its leaves are a good source of macronutrients and micronutrients. However, the presence of high levels of oxalic acid reduces the bioavailability of some minerals, especially calcium, when using uncooked plant parts. Further investigations on different sorrel compounds are needed to show their true effect. It is beneficial that sorrel is easily propagated and there are no serious insect or disease problems. A few types ofR. acetosaseeds are presently available commercially, including wild types and a few cultivars.
  • Gatta, Viviana; Ilina, Polina; Porter, Alison; McElroy, Stuart; Tammela, Päivi (2019)
    Since quorum sensing (QS) is linked to the establishment of bacterial infection, its inactivation represents one of the newest strategies to fight bacterial pathogens. LsrK is a kinase playing a key role in the processing of autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a quorum-sensing mediator in gut enteric bacteria. Inhibition of LsrK might thus impair the quorum-sensing cascade and consequently reduce bacterial pathogenicity. Aiming for the development of a target-based assay for the discovery of LsrK inhibitors, we evaluated different assay set-ups based on ATP detection and optimized an automation-compatible method for the high-throughput screening of chemical libraries. The assay was then used to perform the screening of a 2000-compound library, which provided 12 active compounds with an IC50
  • Kara, Mohammed; Assouguem, Amine; Al Kamaly, Omkulthom Mohamed; Benmessaoud, Safaa; Imtara, Hamada; Mechchate, Hamza; Hano, Christophe; Zerhouni, Abdou Rachid; Bahhou, Jamila (2021)
    Apple vinegar is a natural product widely used in food and traditional medicine as it contains many bioactive compounds. The apple variety and production methods are two factors that play a major role in determining the quality of vinegar. Therefore, this study aims to determine the quality of apple vinegar samples from different varieties (Red Delicious, Gala, Golden Delicious, and Starking Delicious) prepared by three methods using small apple pieces, apple juice, and crushed apple, through determining the physicochemical properties and antibacterial activity of these samples. The antibacterial activity was studied against five pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli (ATB: 57), Escherichia coli (ATB: 97), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, using two methods, disk diffusion and microdilution, for determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations and the minimum bactericidal concentrations. The results of this study showed that the lowest pH value was 3.6 for Stark Delicious, obtained by liquid fermentation, and the highest acetic acid values were 4.7 and 4% for the vinegar of Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, prepared by solid fermentation, respectively. The results of the antibacterial activity showed considerable activity of apple vinegar on the tested strains. Generally, the Staphylococcus aureus strain appears less sensitive and Pseudomonas aeruginosa seems to be very sensitive against all samples, while the other strains have distinct sensitivities depending on the variety studied and the method used. A higher antibacterial activity was found in vinegar obtained by the apple pieces method and the Red Delicious variety, with a low MIC and MBC recorded, at 1.95 and 3.90 mu L/mL, respectively. This study has shown that the choice of both apple variety and production method is therefore an essential step in determining and aiming for the desired quality of apple vinegar.
  • Hemilä, Harri; Koivula, Teija (2013)
    BACKGROUND: Tetanus is a severe disease that can be prevented by vaccination. In developing countries vaccination coverage is not always high. Cases still occur also in developed countries, particularly in elderly people owing to their reduced immuno protection. There are about 1 million tetanus cases per year globally. In animal studies, vitamin C has protected against various infections and bacterial toxins. In a study with rats, vitamin C protected against the purified tetanus toxin. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of vitamin C on tetanus. SEARCH METHODS: In May 2013 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations ); and Ovid EMBASE for this third update. SELECTION CRITERIA: Controlled trials of vitamin C as a prevention or treatment for tetanus, whether or not these were placebo controlled, in any language, published or unpublished. Two review authors independently made inclusion decisions. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Both review authors independently extracted data from trial reports and assessed methodological quality. Since one of the cells in a 2 × 2 table had no events, we calculated the odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) for case fatality rate by using the Peto-method. Another of the 2 × 2 tables had no empty cells and the inverse-variance method was used to calculate its risk ratio (RR) estimate and 95% CI. We also used the Fisher's exact test to calculate the exact 95% CI for the OR of the 2 × 2 table with the empty cell. MAIN RESULTS: One single trial was eligible for inclusion. This non-randomised, unblinded, controlled trial undertaken in Bangladesh involved 117 tetanus patients. Vitamin C at a dosage of 1 g/day was administered intravenously alongside conventional treatment. At recruitment, the participants were stratified into two age groups and the results were reported by age. There was a significant difference in the vitamin C effect between the two age groups (P = 0.01). In the tetanus patients aged 1 to 12 years (n = 62), vitamin C treatment was associated with a 100% reduction in case fatality rate (95% CI from -100% to -94%). In patients aged 13 to 30 years (n = 55), vitamin C treatment was associated with a 45% reduction in case fatality rate (95% CI from -69% to -5%). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: A single, non-randomised, poorly reported trial of vitamin C as a treatment for tetanus suggests a considerable reduction in mortality. However, concerns about trial quality mean that this result must be interpreted with caution and vitamin C cannot be recommended as a treatment for tetanus on the basis of this evidence. New trials should be carried out to examine the effect of vitamin C on tetanus treatment.