Browsing by Subject "ANTITUMOR-ACTIVITY"

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  • V. Almeida, Patrick; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kaasalainen, Martti; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Helder A. (The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014)
  • V. Almeida, Patrick; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kaasalainen, Martti; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Helder A. (2014)
  • Knuuttila, Matias; Hämäläinen, Esa; Poutanen, Matti (2019)
    Recent development of gas chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS) has provided novel tools to define sex steroid concentrations. These new methods overcome several of the problems associated with immunoassays for sex steroids. With the novel MS-based applications we are now able to measure small concentrations of the steroid hormones reliably and with high accuracy in both body fluids and tissue homogenates. The sensitivity of the tandem mass spectrometry assays allows us also for the first time to reliably measure picomolar or even femtomolar concentrations of estrogens and androgens. Furthermore, due to a high sensitivity and specificity of MS technology, we are also able to measure low concentrations of steroid hormones of interest in the presence of pharmacological concentration of other steroids and structurally closely related compounds. Both of these features are essential for multiple preclinical models for prostate cancer. The MS assays are also valuable for the simultaneous measurement of multiple steroids and their metabolites in small sample volumes in serum and tissue biopsies of prostate cancer patients before and after drug interventions. As a result, novel information about steroid hormone synthesis and metabolic pathways in prostate cancer has been obtained. In our recent studies, we have extensively applied a GC-MS/MS method to study androgen biosynthesis and metabolism in VCaP prostate cancer xenografts in mice. In the present review, we shortly summarize some of the benefits of the GC-MS/MS and novel LC-MS/MS assays, and provide examples of their use in defining novel mechanisms of androgen action in prostate cancer.
  • Jernström, Sandra; Hongisto, Vesa; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Due, Eldri Undlien; Tadele, Dagim Shiferaw; Edgren, Henrik; Kallioniemi, Olli; Perälä, Merja; Mlandsmo, Gunhild Mari; Sahlberg, Kristine Kleivi (2017)
    Background: Approximately 15%-20% of all diagnosed breast cancers are characterized by amplified and overexpressed HER2 (= ErbB2). These breast cancers are aggressive and have a poor prognosis. Although improvements in treatment have been achieved after the introduction of trastuzumab and lapatinib, many patients do not benefit from these drugs. Therefore, in-depth understanding of the mechanisms behind the treatment responses is essential to find alternative therapeutic strategies. Materials and methods: Thirteen HER2 positive breast cancer cell lines were screened with 22 commercially available compounds, mainly targeting proteins in the ErbB2-signaling pathway, and molecular mechanisms related to treatment sensitivity were sought. Cell viability was measured, and treatment responses between the cell lines were compared. To search for response predictors and genomic and transcriptomic profiling, PIK3CA mutations and PTEN status were explored and molecular features associated with drug sensitivity sought. Results: The cell lines were divided into three groups according to the growth-retarding effect induced by trastuzumab and lapatinib. Interestingly, two cell lines insensitive to trastuzumab (KPL4 and SUM190PT) showed sensitivity to an Akt1/2 kinase inhibitor. These cell lines had mutation in PIK3CA and loss of PTEN, suggesting an activated and druggable Akt-signaling pathway. Expression levels of five genes (CDC42, MAPK8, PLCG1, PTK6, and PAK6) were suggested as predictors for the Akt1/2 kinase-inhibitor response. Conclusion: Targeting the Akt-signaling pathway shows promise in cell lines that do not respond to trastuzumab. In addition, our results indicate that several molecular features determine the growth-retarding effects induced by the drugs, suggesting that parameters other than HER2 amplification/expression should be included as markers for therapy decisions.
  • Ruuskanen, Miia; Irjala, Heikki; Minn, Heikki; Vahlberg, Tero; Randen-Brady, Reija; Hagström, Jaana; Syrjänen, Stina; Leivo, Ilmo (2019)
    Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is related to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in endemic areas; however, the role of viruses in nonendemic countries is unclear. Our nationwide study investigated the prevalence and prognostic significance of EBV and human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in Finnish NPC tumors. Methods We analyzed samples from 150 patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2009. Viral status was determined using EBV and HPV RNA in situ hybridizations, and p16 immunohistochemistry. Patient and treatment characteristics were obtained from patient records. Results In our white patient cohort, 93 of 150 (62%) patients were EBV-positive and 21/150 (14%) patients were HPV-positive with no coinfections. Thirty-six (24%) tumors were negative for both viruses. The 5-year disease-specific survival for patients with EBV-positive, HPV-positive, and EBV/HPV-negative tumors was 69%, 63%, and 39%, respectively. In multivariable-adjusted analysis, overall survival was better among patients with EBV-positive (P = .005) and HPV-positive (P = .03) tumors compared to patients with EBV/HPV-negative tumors. Conclusions In our low-incidence population, EBV and HPV are important prognostic factors for NPC.
  • Hotti, Hannu; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Seppanen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Rischer, Heiko (2017)
    Sarraceniaceae is a New World carnivorous plant family comprising three genera: Darlingtonia, Heliamphora, and Sarracenia. The plants occur in nutrient-poor environments and have developed insectivorous capability in order to supplement their nutrient uptake. Sarracenia flava contains the alkaloid coniine, otherwise only found in Conium maculatum, in which its biosynthesis has been studied, and several Aloe species. Its ecological role and biosynthetic origin in S. flava is speculative. The aim of the current research was to investigate the occurrence of coniine in Sarracenia and Darlingtonia and to identify common constituents of both genera, unique compounds for individual variants and floral scent chemicals. In this comprehensive metabolic profiling study, we looked for compound patterns that are associated with the taxonomy of Sarracenia species. In total, 57 different Sarracenia and D. californica accessions were used for metabolite content screening by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The resulting high-dimensional data were studied using a data mining approach. The two genera are characterized by a large number of metabolites and huge chemical diversity between different species. By applying feature selection for clustering and by integrating new biochemical data with existing phylogenetic data, we were able to demonstrate that the chemical composition of the species can be explained by their known classification. Although transcriptome analysis did not reveal a candidate gene for coniine biosynthesis, the use of a sensitive selected ion monitoring method enabled the detection of coniine in eight Sarracenia species, showing that it is more widespread in this genus than previously believed.
  • Aly, Ashraf A.; El-Sheref, Essmat M.; Bakheet, Momtaz E. M.; Mourad, Mai A. E.; Brown, Alan B.; Bräse, Stefan; Nieger, Martin; Ibrahim, Mahmoud A. A. (2018)
    Two novel series of N-2,3-bis(6-substituted-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-3-yl)naphthalene-1,4-diones 3a-d and substituted N-(methyl/ethyl)bisquinolinone triethyl-ammonium salts 4e,f were successfully synthesized. The synthesized compounds were targeted as new candidates to extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) with considerable antineoplastic activity. The synthesis involved the reactions of 2 equivalents of 4-hydroxy-2(1H)-quinolinones la-f and one equivalent of 1,4-naphthoquinone (2) in a mixture of ethanol/dimethylformamide (1:1) as a solvent and 0.5 mL Et3N. In the reaction of 6-methyl-4-hydroxyquinolone 1b with 2, a side product 4b of the second series was obtained. In general, the presence of free NH-quinolone gave a single compound of the first series, whereas reaction of N-methyl/ethyl-quinolones 1e, f with 2 enhanced the formation of compounds of the second series. The structures of the new compounds were proved by different spectroscopic techniques such as IR, NMR (2D-NMR) and mass spectra, elemental analysis, and X-ray crystallography. To further elucidate the mechanism of action of these newly synthesized compounds, compounds 3a, 3b, 4e and 4f were selected to investigate for their MAP Kinases pathway inhibition together with molecular docking using ATP-binding site of ERK2. The results revealed that compounds 3a, 3b and 4f inhibited ETS-1 phosphorylation by ERK2 in a dose dependent manner. Also, compound 4f showed highest potency for ERK2 inhibition with ATPcompetitive inhibition mechanism which was confirmed by the formation of three hydrogen bond in the molecular docking studies. The synthesized compounds were then tested for their in vitro anticancer activity against the NCI-60 panel of tumor cell lines. Interestingly, the selected compounds displayed from modest to strong cytotoxic activities. Compound 3b demonstrated broad spectrum anti-tumor activity against the nine tumor subpanels tested, while compound 3d proved to be lethal to most of the cancer cell lines as shown by their promising GI(50) and TGI values in NCI in vitro five dose testing. These results revealed that the synthesized compounds can potentially serve as leads for the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents and structure improvement will be necessary for some derivatives for enhancing their cellular activities and pharmacokinetic profile.
  • Forsgård, Richard A.; Marrachelli, Vannina G.; Linden, Jere; Frias, Rafael; Carmen Collado, Maria; Korpela, Riitta; Monleon, Daniel; Spillmann, Thomas; Österlund, Pia (2019)
    Gastrointestinal toxicity is a frequently observed adverse event during cancer treatment with traditional chemotherapeutics. Currently, traditional chemotherapeutics are often combined with targeted biologic agents. These biologics, however, possess a distinct toxicity profile, and they may also exacerbate the adverse effects of traditional chemotherapeutics. In this study, we aimed to characterize the gastrointestinal and metabolic changes after a 2-week treatment period with aflibercept, an antiangiogenic VEGFR decoy, and with erlotinib, a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor. Male rats were treated either with aflibercept or erlotinib for 2 weeks. During the 2-week treatment period, the animals in the aflibercept group received twosubcutaneous doses of 25 mg/kg aflibercept. The erlotinib group got 10 mg/kg of erlotinib by oral gavage every other day. The control groups were treated similarly but received either saline injections or oral gavage of water. Intestinal toxicity was assessed by measuring intestinal permeability and by histological analyses of intestinal tissues. Metabolic changes were measured with H-1 nuclear magnetic resonance in serum and urine. Neither aflibercept nor erlotinib induced changes in intestinal permeability or intestinal tissue morphology. However, aflibercept treatment resulted in stunted body weight gain and altered choline, amino acid, and lipid metabolism. Two-week treatment with aflibercept or erlotinib alone does not induce observable changes in gastrointestinal morphology and function. However, observed aflibercept-treatment related metabolic changes suggest alterations in intestinal microbiota, nutrient intake, and adipose tissue function. The metabolic changes are also interesting in respect to the systemic effects of aflibercept and their possible associations with adverse events caused by aflibercept administration.