Browsing by Subject "AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS"

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  • Krieger, Ulrich K.; Siegrist, Franziska; Marcolli, Claudia; Emanuelsson, Eva U.; Gobel, Freya M.; Bilde, Merete; Marsh, Aleksandra; Reid, Jonathan P.; Huisman, Andrew J.; Riipinen, Ilona; Hyttinen, Noora; Myllys, Nanna; Kurten, Theo; Bannan, Thomas; Percival, Carl J.; Topping, David (2018)
    To predict atmospheric partitioning of organic compounds between gas and aerosol particle phase based on explicit models for gas phase chemistry, saturation vapor pressures of the compounds need to be estimated. Estimation methods based on functional group contributions require training sets of compounds with well-established saturation vapor pressures. However, vapor pressures of semivolatile and low-volatility organic molecules at atmospheric temperatures reported in the literature often differ by several orders of magnitude between measurement techniques. These discrepancies exceed the stated uncertainty of each technique which is generally reported to be smaller than a factor of 2. At present, there is no general reference technique for measuring saturation vapor pressures of atmospherically relevant compounds with low vapor pressures at atmospheric temperatures. To address this problem, we measured vapor pressures with different techniques over a wide temperature range for intercomparison and to establish a reliable training set. We determined saturation vapor pressures for the homologous series of polyethylene glycols (H-(O-CH2-CH2)(n)-OH) for n = 3 to n = 8 ranging in vapor pressure at 298 K from 10(-7) to 5 x 10(-2) Pa and compare them with quantum chemistry calculations. Such a homologous series provides a reference set that covers several orders of magnitude in saturation vapor pressure, allowing a critical assessment of the lower limits of detection of vapor pressures for the different techniques as well as permitting the identification of potential sources of systematic error. Also, internal consistency within the series allows outlying data to be rejected more easily. Most of the measured vapor pressures agreed within the stated uncertainty range. Deviations mostly occurred for vapor pressure values approaching the lower detection limit of a technique. The good agreement between the measurement techniques (some of which are sensitive to the mass accommodation coefficient and some not) suggests that the mass accommodation coefficients of the studied compounds are close to unity. The quantum chemistry calculations were about 1 order of magnitude higher than the measurements. We find that extrapolation of vapor pressures from elevated to atmospheric temperatures is permissible over a range of about 100 K for these compounds, suggesting that measurements should be performed best at temperatures yielding the highest-accuracy data, allowing subsequent extrapolation to atmospheric temperatures.
  • Ferreira, Daniela C.; Oliveira, Mayara L.; Bioni, Thais A.; Nawaz, Haq; King, Alistair W. T.; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka; Hummel, Michael; Sixta, Herbert; El Seoud, Omar A. (2019)
    The efficiency of mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs) and molecular solvents in cellulose dissolution and derivatization depends on the structures of both components. We investigated the ILs 1-(1-butyl)-3-methylimidazolium acetate (C(4)MeImAc) and 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium acetate (C(3)OMeImAc) and their solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO, to assess the effect of presence of an ether linkage in the IL side-chain. Surprisingly, C(4)MeImAc-DMSO was more efficient than C(3)OMeImAc-DMSO for the dissolution and acylation of cellulose. We investigated both solvents using rheology, NMR spectroscopy, and solvatochromism. Mixtures of C(3)OMeImAc-DMSO are more viscous, less basic, and form weaker hydrogen bonds with cellobiose than C(4)MeImAc-DMSO. We attribute the lower efficiency of C(3)OMeImAc to "deactivation" of the ether oxygen and C2-(H) under bar of the imidazolium ring due to intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Using the corresponding ILs with C2-(CH3) under bar instead of C2-(H) under bar, namely, 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium acetate (C(4)Me(2)ImAc) and 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3-dimethylimidazolium acetate (C(3)OMe(2)ImAc) increased the concentration of dissolved cellulose; without noticeable effect on biopolymer reactivity.
  • Virtanen, Tiina; Parkkila, Petteri; Koivuniemi, Artturi; Lahti, Jussi; Viitala, Tapani; Kallioinen, Mari; Mänttäri, Mika; Bunker, Alex (2018)
    Adsorptive fouling, by phenolic compounds, is a serious issue regarding the development and use of membrane based filtration technologies for water purification and wastewater treatment. We have developed a novel, combined, protocol of Raman spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments, along with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, to study the interaction of vanillin, a model phenolic compound, with the polyethersulfone (PES) surface of a membrane. The adsorption of vanillin to the PES surface was found to be highly pH dependent; the source of this was determined, by MD simulation, to be the stronger interaction with the protonated form of vanillin, predominant at low pH. Vanillin interacts with the PES surface, both through entropy driven, hydrophobic, interactions and, for the case of the protonated form, H-bonding of the hydroxyl group with the sulphur oxygens of the PES molecules. In addition to general insight into the fouling process that can be used to develop new methods to inhibit adsorptive fouling, our results also elucidate the specific interaction of the PES membrane with vanillin that can be used in the development of anti-fouling coatings, based on the structure of vanillin.
  • Murdachaew, Garold; Nathanson, Gilbert M.; Gerber, R. Benny; Halonen, Lauri (2016)
    Deprotonation of organic acids at aqueous surfaces has important implications in atmospheric chemistry and other disciplines, yet it is not well-characterized or understood. This article explores the interactions of formic acid (FA), including ionization, in collisions at the air-water interface. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with dispersion-corrected density functional theory were used. The 8-50 picosecond duration trajectories all resulted in the adsorption of FA within the interfacial region, with no scattering, absorption into the bulk or desorption into the vapor. Despite the known weak acidity of FA, spontaneous deprotonation of the acid was observed at the interface on a broad picosecond timescale, ranging from a few picoseconds typical for stronger acids to tens of picoseconds. Deprotonation occurred in 4% of the trajectories, and was followed by Grotthuss proton transfer through adjacent water molecules. Both sequential and ultrafast concerted proton transfer were observed. The formation of contact ion pairs and solvent-separated ion pairs, and finally the reformation of neutral FA, both trans and cis conformers, occurred in different stages of the dynamics. To better understand the deprotonation mechanisms at the interface compared with the process in bulk water, we used well-tempered metadynamics to obtain deprotonation free energy profiles. While in bulk water FA deprotonation has a free energy barrier of 14.8 kJ mol(-1), in fair agreement with the earlier work, the barrier at the interface is only 7.5 kJ mol(-1). Thus, at the air-water interface, FA may dissociate more rapidly than in the bulk. This finding can be rationalized with reference to the dissimilar aqueous solvation and hydrogen-bonding environments in the interface compared to those in bulk liquid water.
  • An, Junxue; Liu, Xiaoyan; Dedinaite, Andra; Korchagina, Evgeniya; Winnik, Francoise M.; Claesson, Per M. (2017)
    Equilibration in adsorbing polymer systems can be very slow, leading to different physical properties at a given condition depending on the pathway that was used to reach this state. Here we explore this phenomenon using a diblock copolymer consisting of a cationic anchor block and a thermoresponsive block of poly(2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline), PIPOZ. We find that at a given temperature different polymer chain densities at the silica surface are achieved depending on the previous temperature history. We explore how this affects surface and friction forces between such layers using the atomic force microscope colloidal probe technique. The surface forces are purely repulsive at temperatures
  • Siipola, Virpi; Pflugmacher, Stephan; Romar, Henrik; Wendling, Laura; Koukkari, Pertti (2020)
    The applicability of steam activated pine and spruce bark biochar for storm water and wastewater purification has been investigated. Biochar samples produced from the bark of scots pine (Pinus sylvestrus) and spruce (Picea spp.) by conventional slow pyrolysis at 475 degrees C were steam activated at 800 degrees C. Steam activation was selected as a relatively inexpensive method for creating porous biochar adsorbents from the bark-containing sidestreams of the wood refining industry. A suite of standard analytical procedures were carried out to quantify the performance of the activated biochar in removing both cations and residual organics from aqueous media. Phenol and microplastics retention and cation exchange capacity were employed as key test parameters. Despite relatively low surface areas (200-600 m(2)/g), the steam-activated biochars were highly suitable adsorbents for the chemical species tested as well as for microplastics removal. The results indicate that ultra-high porosities are not necessary for satisfactory water purification, supporting the economic feasibility of bio-based adsorbent production.
  • Catte, Andrea; Girych, Mykhailo; Javanainen, Matti; Loison, Claire; Melcr, Josef; Miettinen, Markus S.; Monticelli, Luca; Maatta, Jukka; Oganesyan, Vasily S.; Ollila, O. H. Samuli; Tynkkynen, Joona; Vilov, Sergey (2016)
    Despite the vast amount of experimental and theoretical studies on the binding affinity of cations -especially the biologically relevant Na+ and Ca2+ - for phospholipid bilayers, there is no consensus in the literature. Here we show that by interpreting changes in the choline headgroup order parameters according to the 'molecular electrometer' concept [Seelig et al., Biochemistry, 1987, 26, 7535], one can directly compare the ion binding affinities between simulations and experiments. Our findings strongly support the view that in contrast to Ca2+ and other multivalent ions, Na+ and other monovalent ions (except Li+) do not specifically bind to phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers at sub-molar concentrations. However, the Na+ binding affinity was overestimated by several molecular dynamics simulation models, resulting in artificially positively charged bilayers and exaggerated structural effects in the lipid headgroups. While qualitatively correct headgroup order parameter response was observed with Ca2+ binding in all the tested models, no model had sufficient quantitative accuracy to interpret the Ca2+: lipid stoichiometry or the induced atomistic resolution structural changes. All scientific contributions to this open collaboration work were made publicly, using nmrlipids. as the main communication platform.
  • Xue, Na; Qiu, Xing-Ping; Aseyev, Vladimir; Winnik, Francoise M. (2017)
    At room temperature, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) is soluble in water and in methanol. Within intermediate mixing ratios of the two solvents, the PNIPAM coils collapse into insoluble globules, a phenomenon known as co-nonsolvency. Visual observation of mixed PNIPAM/water/methanol systems (polymer concentration >= 10 g L-1, M-n 80 000 g L-1) revealed that mixtures of methanol volume fractions (phi(M)) ranging from 0.57 to 0.65 undergo macroscopic liquid-liquid phase separation (MLLPS) at 21 degrees C. MLLPS took place over a wider composition range (0.25 <phi(M) <0.60) for water/methanol mixtures containing a polymer sample bearing n butyl end-groups (PNIPAM-45K (10.0 g L-1,M-n 44 500 g mol(-1)), but systems containing a polymer with chloroethyl end-groups (PNIPAM-CI) (10.0 g L-1,M-n 44 500 g mol(-1)) did not undergo MLLPS over the entire mixing ratio span. Observation by fluorescence microscopy of a demixed PNIPAM-45K/water/methanol sample containing trace amounts of pyrene-labeled PNIPAM revealed that the rim of the heavy phase droplets is enriched in PNIPAM, which may affect the stability/coalescence of the droplets. '1-1NMR spectroscopy analysis of the heavy and light phases formed indemixed PNIPAM-45K/water/methanol samples indicated that the heavy liquid phase is enriched in PNIPAM and in water compared to the nominal composition of mixtures as prepared. A temperature/composition map (-40 degrees C <T <+45.5 degrees C) of PNIPAM-45K/water/methanol is reported, based on visual observations of samples prepared and stabilized at 21 C. Interestingly, the macroscopically demixed samples were, never transparent: one or both liquid phases remained cloudy or opaque independently of their history over experimentally undefined long times, implying that the samples reached metastability. The equilibrium state of lowest free energy that corresponds to the coexistence of two transparent phases was never attained.
  • Pooch, Fabian; Sliepen, Marjolein; Knudsen, Kenneth D.; Nyström, Bo; Tenhu, Heikki; Winnik, Francoise M. (2019)
    Poly(2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline)-b-poly(lactide) (PiPOx-b-PLA) diblock copolymers comprise two miscible blocks: the hydrophilic and thermosensitive PiPOx and the hydrophobic PLA, a biocompatible and biodegradable polyester. They self-assemble in water, forming stable dispersions of nanoparticles with hydrodynamic radii (R-h) ranging from similar to 18 to 60 nm, depending on their molar mass, the relative size of the two blocks, and the configuration of the lactide unit. Evidence from H-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, light scattering, small-angle neutron scattering, and cryo-transmission electron microscopy indicates that the nanoparticles do not adopt the typical core-shell morphology. Aqueous nanoparticle dispersions heated from 20 to 80 degrees C were monitored by turbidimetry and microcalorimetry. Nanoparticles of copolymers containing a poly(DL-lactide) block coagulated irreversibly upon heating to 50 degrees C, forming particles' of various shapes (R-h similar to 200-500 nm). Dispersions of PiPOx-b-poly(L-lactide) coagulated to a lesser extent or remained stable upon heating. From the entire experimental evidence, we conclude that PiPOx-b-PLA nanoparticles consist of a core of PLA/PiPOx chains associated via dipole-dipole interactions of the PLA and PiPOx carbonyl groups. The core is surrounded by tethered PiPOx loops and tails responsible for the colloidal stability of the nanoparticles in water. While the core of all nanoparticles studied contains associated PiPOx and PLA blocks, fine details of the nanoparticles morphology vary predictably with the size and composition of the copolymers, yielding particles of distinctive thermosensitivity in aqueous dispersions.
  • Vartiainen, Ville; Raula, Janne; Bimbo, Luis M.; Viinamäki, Jenni; Backman, Janne T.; Ugur, Nurcin; Kauppinen, Esko; Sutinen, Eva; Joensuu, Emmi; Koli, Katri; Myllärniemi, Marjukka (2018)
    The aim of this work was to study the antifibrotic effect of pulmonary administration of tilorone to lung fibrosis. L-leucine coated tilorone particles were prepared and their aerosolization properties were analyzed using two dry powder inhalers (Easyhaler and Twister). In addition, the biological activity and cell monolayer permeation was tested. The antifibrotic effect of tilorone delivered by oropharyngeal aspiration was studied in vivo using a silica-induced model of pulmonary fibrosis in mice in a preventive setting. When delivered from the Easyhaler in an inhalation simulator, the emitted dose and fine particle fraction were independent from the pressure applied and showed dose repeatability. However, with Twister the aerosolization was pressure-dependent indicating poor compatibility between the device and the formulation. The formulation showed more consistent permeation through a differentiated Calu-3 cell monolayer compared to pristine tilorone. Tilorone decreased the histological fibrosis score in vivo in systemic and local administration, but only systemic administration decreased the mRNA expression of type I collagen. The difference was hypothesized to result from 40-fold higher drug concentration in tissue samples in the systemic administration group. These results show that tilorone can be formulated as inhalable dry powder and has potential as an oral and inhalable antifibrotic drug.
  • Kondo, Masaaki; Takahashi, Rintaro; Qiu, Xing-Ping; Winnik, Francoise M.; Terao, Ken; Sato, Takahiro (2017)
    Aqueous solutions of the doubly thermosensitive block copolymer poly(2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline)-b-poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) heated to 50 degrees C underwent a macroscopic liquid/liquid phase separation. The small-angle X-ray scattering intensity recorded from the concentrated phase settled on the bottom of a sample indicated that this phase was in the disordered state without any microphase separation, although the block copolymer was amphiphilic in water at 50 degrees C. It was also confirmed that the contribution to the scattering intensities of individual copolymer chains and their aggregates existing in the coexisting concentrated phase was very small, compared with the total scattering intensity of the phase-separated solution, when the concentrated phase was suspended in the form of colloidal droplets in the lean phase.
  • Fowler, Michael Andrew; Duhamel, Jean; Qiu, Xing Ping; Korchagina, Evgeniya; Winnik, Francoise M. (2018)
    The temperature-dependent behavior of aqueous solutions composed of a small amount of monodisperse poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) labeled at one or both ends with pyrene (Py-n-PNIPAM with n = 1 or 2) and a 10-fold excess of a nonfluorescent poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM(22K), M-n = 22 000 g/mol) was characterized using steady-state (SSF) and time-resolved (TRF) fluorescence. Turbidimetry studies indicated that all solutions exhibited two temperature-induced transitions: one at T-upsilon the cloud point of the pyrene-labeled polymers, and one at T-c22, the cloud point of PNIPAM(22K). These two transitions were also inferred from a decrease in the excimer-to-monomer fluorescence intensity ratio, namely, the I-E/I-M ratio, obtained from SSF spectra. TRF decays of the pyrene monomer were acquired and fitted with a sum of exponentials to obtain the number-average lifetime (tau). Plots of (1) versus temperature also showed transitions at T-c and T-c22. The changes in behavior observed at T, for both I-E/I-M and (tau) were consistent with those observed for solutions of solely Py-n-PNIPAM samples. The transitions found at T-c22 for the Pyn-PNIPAM solutions with PNIPAM(22K) were not observed in aqueous solutions of Py-n-PNIPAM without PNIPAM(22K). They were explained by invoking substantial mixing of labeled and unlabeled chains as temperature exceeded Tc-22. This mixing could only occur if the mesoglobules composed of labeled chains were not "frozen" at temperatures above T-c22 despite forming stable entities in this temperature range. This phenomenon was rationalized by considering the difference in the characteristic reptation time of the chains found in a Py-n-PNIPAM and PNIPAM(22K) mesoglobule at temperatures larger than T-c22.
  • Karjalainen, Erno; Aseyev, Vladimir; Tenhu, Heikki (2015)
    The solution properties of statistical copolymers of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAm) and cationic (3-acrylamidopropyl) trimethylammonium chloride (AMPTMA) have been studied. The phase behavior of the copolymers in aqueous solutions is strongly affected by the addition of lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (LiNTf2), NaCl, or both. Hydrophobic NTf2 counter ions bind to the AMPTMA repeating units. By adjusting the balance between hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions the transition temperature of the copolymers may be tuned over a wide temperature range. It was observed that a homopolymer PAMPTMA undergoes an UCST-type phase separation in an aqueous solution in the presence of both NaCl and LiNTf2. When AMPTMA and NIPAm are present in the copolymer in nearly equal amounts both LCST and UCST can coexist. It was observed that the effect of LiNTf2 is similar to that of the salts in the kosmotropic end of the Hofmeister series for PNIPAm.