Browsing by Subject "ARACHIDONIC-ACID"

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  • Itokazu, Yutaka; Tajima, Nobuyoshi; Kerosuo, Laura; Somerharju, Pentti; Sariola, Hannu; Yu, Robert K.; Kakela, Reijo (2016)
    The central nervous system (CNS) harbors multiple glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expressing cell types. In addition to the most abundant cell type of the CNS, the astrocytes, various stem cells and progenitor cells also contain GFAP+ populations. Here, in order to distinguish between two types of GFAP expressing cells with or without the expression of the A2B5 antigens, we performed lipidomic analyses on A2B5+/GFAP+ and A2B5-/GFAP+ cells from rat spinal cord. First, A2B5+/GFAP- progenitors were exposed to the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) to induce their differentiation to A2B5+/GFAP+ cells or A2B5-/GFAP+ astrocytes, respectively. The cells were then analyzed for changes in their phospholipid, sphingolipid or acyl chain profiles by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography. Compared to A2B5+/GFAP- progenitors, A2B5-/GFAP+ astrocytes contained higher amounts of ether phospholipids (especially the species containing arachidonic acid) and sphingomyelin, which may indicate characteristics of cellular differentiation and inability for multipotency. In comparison, principal component analyses revealed that the lipid composition of A2B5+/GFAP+ cells retained many of the characteristics of A2B5+/GFAP- progenitors, but their lipid profile was different from that of A2B5-/GFAP+ astrocytes. Thus, our study demonstrated that two GFAP+ cell populations have distinct lipid profiles with the A2B5+/GFAP+ cells sharing a phospholipid profile with progenitors rather than astrocytes. The progenitor cells may require regulated low levels of lipids known to mediate signaling functions in differentiated cells, and the precursor lipid profiles may serve as one measure of the differentiation capacity of a cell population.
  • Asghar, Muhammad Yasir; Lassila, Taru; Törnquist, Kid (2021)
    Calcium signaling participates in a vast number of cellular processes, ranging from the regulation of muscle contraction, cell proliferation, and mitochondrial function, to the regulation of the membrane potential in cells. The actions of calcium signaling are, thus, of great physiological significance for the normal functioning of our cells. However, many of the processes that are regulated by calcium, including cell movement and proliferation, are important in the progression of cancer. In the normal thyroid, calcium signaling plays an important role, and evidence is also being gathered showing that calcium signaling participates in the progression of thyroid cancer. This review will summarize what we know in regard to calcium signaling in the normal thyroid as, well as in thyroid cancer.
  • Luukkonen, Panu K.; Zhou, You; Haridas, Nidhina P. A.; Dwivedi, Om P.; Hyotylainen, Tuulia; Ali, Ashfaq; Juuti, Anne; Leivonen, Marja; Tukiainen, Taru; Ahonen, Linda; Scott, Emma; Palmer, Jeremy M.; Arola, Johanna; Orho-Melander, Marju; Vikman, Petter; Anstee, Quentin M.; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Oresic, Matej; Groop, Leif; Yki-Jarvinen, Hannele (2017)
    Background: Carriers of the transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 E167K gene variant (TM6SF2(EK/KK)) have decreased expression of the TM6SF2 gene and increased risk of NAFLD and NASH. Unlike common 'obese/metabolic' NAFLD, these subjects lack hypertriglyceridemia and have lower risk of cardiovascular disease. In animals, phosphatidylcholine (PC) deficiency results in a similar phenotype. PCs surround the core of VLDL consisting of triglycerides (TGs) and cholesteryl-esters (CEs). We determined the effect of the TM6SF2 E167K on these lipids in the human liver and serum and on hepatic gene expression and studied the effect of TM6SF2 knockdown on hepatocyte handling of these lipids. Methods: Liver biopsies were taken from subjects characterized with respect to the TM6SF2 genotype, serum and liver lipidome, gene expression and histology. In vitro, after TM6SF2 knockdown in HuH-7 cells, we compared incorporation of different fatty acids into TGs, CEs, and PCs. Results: The TM6SF2(EK/KK) and TM6SF2EE groups had similar age, gender, BMI and HOMA-IR. Liver TGs and CEs were higher and liver PCs lower in the TM6SF2(EK/KK) than the TM6SF2EE group (p Conclusions: Hepatic lipid synthesis from PUFAs is impaired and could contribute to deficiency in PCs and increased intrahepatic TG in TM6SF2 E167K variant carriers. (C) 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Eating Disorder Working Grp Psych; Huckins, L. M.; Palotie, A.; Palta, P.; Kaprio, J.; Keski-Rahkonen, A.; Raevuori, A. H. (2018)
    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder presenting with dangerously low body weight, and a deep and persistent fear of gaining weight. To date, only one genome-wide significant locus associated with AN has been identified. We performed an exome-chip based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 2158 cases from nine populations of European origin and 15 485 ancestrally matched controls. Unlike previous studies, this GWAS also probed association in low-frequency and rare variants. Sixteen independent variants were taken forward for in silico and de novo replication (11 common and 5 rare). No findings reached genome-wide significance. Two notable common variants were identified: rs10791286, an intronic variant in OPCML (P = 9.89 x 10(-6)), and rs7700147, an intergenic variant (P = 2.93 x 10(-5)). No low-frequency variant associations were identified at genome-wide significance, although the study was well-powered to detect low-frequency variants with large effect sizes, suggesting that there may be no AN loci in this genomic search space with large effect sizes.
  • Tigistu-Sahle, Feven; Lampinen, Milla; Kilpinen, Lotta; Holopainen, Minna; Lehenkari, Petri; Laitinen, Saara; Käkelä, Reijo (2017)
    High arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and low n-3 PUFA levels impair the capacity of cultured human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs) to modulate immune functions. The capacity of the hBMSCs to modify PUFA structures was found to be limited. Therefore, different PUFA supplements given to the cells resulted in very different glycerophospholipid (GPL) species profiles and substrate availability for phospholipases, which have preferences for polar head group and acyl chains when liberating PUFA precursors for production of lipid mediators. When supplemented with 20:4n-6, the cells increased prostaglandin E2 secretion. However, they elongated 20:4n-6 to the less active precursor, 22:4n-6, and also incorporated it into triacylglycerols, which may have limited the proinflammatory signaling. The n-3 PUFA precursor, 18:3n-3, had little potency to reduce the GPL 20:4n-6 content, while the eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acid supplements efficiently displaced the 20:4n-6 acyls, and created diverse GPL species substrate pools allowing attenuation of inflammatory signaling.(Jlr) The results emphasize the importance of choosing appropriate PUFA supplements for in vitro hBMSC expansion and suggests that for optimal function they require an exogenous fatty acid source providing 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 sufficiently, but 20:4n-6 moderately, which calls for specifically designed optimal PUFA supplements for the cultures.
  • Holopainen, Minna; Colas, Romain A.; Valkonen, Sami; Tigistu-Sahle, Feven; Hyvärinen, Kati; Mazzacuva, Francesca; Lehenkari, Petri; Käkelä, Reijo; Dalli, Jesmond; Kerkelä, Erja; Laitinen, Saara (2019)
    Human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hMSCs) are used in experimental cell therapy to treat various immunological disorders, and the extracellular vesicles (hMSC-EVs) they produce have emerged as an option for cell-free therapeutics. The immunomodulatory function of hMSCs resembles the resolution of inflammation, in which proresolving lipid mediators (LMs) play key roles. Multiple mechanisms underlying the hMSC immunosuppressive effect has been elucidated; however, the impact of LMs and EVs in the resolution is poorly understood. In this study, we supplemented hMSCs with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs); arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, which serve as precursors for multiple LMs. We then determined the consequent compositional modifications in the fatty acid, phospholipid, and LM profiles. Mass spectrometric analyses revealed that the supplemented PUFAs were incorporated into the main membrane phospholipid classes with different dynamics, with phosphatidylcholine serving as the first acceptor. Most importantly, the PUFA modifications were transferred into hMSC-EVs, which are known to mediate hMSC immunomodulation. Furthermore, the membrane-incorporated PUFAs influenced the LM profile by increasing the production of downstream prostaglandin E-2 and proresolving LMs, including Resolvin E2 and Resolvin D6. The production of LMs was further enhanced by a highly proinflammatory stimulus, which resulted in an increase in a number of mediators, most notably prostaglandins, while other stimulatory conditions had less a pronounced impact after a 48-h incubation. The current findings suggest that PUFA manipulations of hMSCs exert significant immunomodulatory effects via EVs and proresolving LMs, the composition of which can be modified to potentiate the therapeutic impact of hMSCs.