Browsing by Subject "ARCHAEAL COMMUNITY"

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  • Myllykangas, Jukka-Pekka; Rissanen, Antti J.; Hietanen, Susanna; Jilbert, Tom (2020)
    Methane is produced microbially in vast quantities in sediments throughout the world's oceans. However, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) provides a near-quantitative sink for the produced methane and is primarily responsible for preventing methane emissions from the oceans to the atmosphere. AOM is a complex microbial process that involves several different microbial groups and metabolic pathways. The role of different electron acceptors in AOM has been studied for decades, yet large uncertainties remain, especially in terms of understanding the processes in natural settings. This study reports whole-core incubation methane oxidation rates along an estuarine gradient ranging from near fresh water to brackish conditions, and investigates the potential role of different electron acceptors in AOM. Microbial community structure involved in different methane processes is also studied in the same estuarine system using high throughput sequencing tools. Methane oxidation in the sediments was active in three distinct depth layers throughout the studied transect, with total oxidation rates increasing seawards. We find extensive evidence of non-sulphate AOM throughout the transect. The highest absolute AOM rates were observed below the sulphate-methane transition zone (SMTZ), strongly implicating the role of alternative electron acceptors (most likely iron and manganese oxides). However, oxidation rates were ultimately limited by methane availability. ANME-2a/b were the most abundant microbial phyla associated with AOM throughout the study sites, followed by ANME-2d in much lower abundances. Similarly to oxidation rates, highest abundances of microbial groups commonly associated with AOM were found well below the SMTZ, further reinforcing the importance of non-sulphate AOM in this system.
  • Ritari, Jarmo; Koskinen, Kaisa; Hultman, Jenni; Kurola, Jukka M.; Kymäläinen, Maritta; Romantschuk, Martin; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri (2012)
  • Aho, Velma T. E.; Tolonen, Tiina; Haverinen, Jasmiina; Jaakkola, Mari; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Laine, M. Minna (2020)
    The microbes present in bioethanol production processes have been previously studied in laboratory-scale experiments, but there is a lack of information on full-scale industrial processes. In this study, the microbial communities of three industrial bioethanol production processes were characterized using several methods. The samples originated from second-generation bioethanol plants that produce fuel ethanol from biowaste, food industry side streams, or sawdust. Amplicon sequencing targeting bacteria, archaea, and fungi was used to explore the microbes present in biofuel production and anaerobic digestion of wastewater and sludge. Biofilm-forming lactic acid bacteria and wild yeasts were identified in fermentation samples of a full-scale plant that uses biowaste as feedstock. During the 20-month monitoring period, the anaerobic digester adapted to the bioethanol process waste with a shift in methanogen profile indicating acclimatization to high concentrations of ammonia. Amplicon sequencing does not specifically target living microbes. The same is true for indirect parameters, such as low pH, metabolites, or genes of lactic acid bacteria. Since rapid identification of living microbes would be indispensable for process management, a commercial method was tested that detects them by measuring the rRNA of selected microbial groups. Small-scale testing indicated that the method gives results comparable with plate counts and microscopic counting, especially for bacterial quantification. The applicability of the method was verified in an industrial bioethanol plant, inspecting the clean-in-place process quality and detecting viability during yeast separation. The results supported it as a fast and promising tool for monitoring microbes throughout industrial bioethanol processes.