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  • Goncalves, Bronner P.; Pett, Helmi; Tiono, Alfred B.; Murry, Daryl; Sirima, Sodiomon B.; Niemi, Mikko; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Chris; ter Heine, Rob (2017)
    Low-dose primaquine is recommended to prevent Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in areas threatened by artemisinin resistance and areas aiming for malaria elimination. Community treatment campaigns with artemisinin-based combination therapy in combination with the gametocytocidal primaquine dose target all age groups, but no studies thus far have assessed the pharmacokinetics of this gametocytocidal drug in African children. We recruited 40 children participating in a primaquine efficacy trial in Burkina Faso to study primaquine pharmacokinetics. These children received artemether-lumefantrine and either a 0.25- or a 0.40-mg/kg primaquine dose. Seven blood samples were collected from each participant for primaquine and carboxy-primaquine plasma levels determinations: one sample was collected before primaquine administration and six after primaquine administration according to partially overlapping sampling schedules. Physiological population pharmacokinetic modeling was used to assess the impact of weight, age, and CYP2D6 genotype on primaquine and carboxy-primaquine pharmacokinetics. Despite linear weight normalized dosing, the areas under the plasma concentration-time curves and the peak concentrations for both primaquine and carboxy-primaquine increased with age and body weight. Children who were CYP2D6 poor metabolizers had higher levels of the parent compound, indicating a lower primaquine CYP2D6-mediated metabolism. Our data indicate that primaquine and carboxy-primaquine pharmacokinetics are influenced by age, weight, and CYP2D6 genotype and suggest that dosing strategies may have to be reconsidered to maximize the transmission-blocking properties of primaquine.
  • Pett, Helmi; Bradley, John; Okebe, Joseph; Dicko, Alassane; Tiono, Alfred B.; Goncalves, Bronner P.; Stone, Will; Chen, Ingrid; Lanke, Kjerstin; Neuvonen, Mikko; Mustaniemi, Anna-Liina; Eziefula, Alice C.; Gosling, Roly; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Drakeley, Chris; Niemi, Mikko; Bousema, Teun (2019)
    Single-dose primaquine (PQ) clears mature gametocytes and reduces the transmission of Plasmodium fakiparurn after artemisinin combination therapy. Genetic variation in CYP2D6, the gene producing the drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), influences plasma concentrations of PQ and its metabolites and is associated with PQ treatment failure in Plasmodium vivax malaria. Using blood and saliva samples of varying quantity and quality from 8 clinical trials across Africa (n = 1,076), we were able to genotype CYP2D6 for 774 samples (72%). We determined whether genetic variation in CYP2D6 has implications for PQ efficacy in individuals with gametocytes at the time of PQ administration (n = 554) and for safety in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals treated with PQ (n = 110). Individuals with a genetically inferred CYP2D6 poor/intermediate metabolizer status had a higher gametocyte prevalence on day 7 or 10 after PQ than those with an extensive/ultrarapid CYP2D6 metabolizer status (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.10, 2.90]; P = 0.018). The mean minimum hemoglobin concentrations during follow-up for G6PD-deficient individuals were 11.8 g/dl for CYP2D6 extensive/ultrarapid metabolizers and 12.1 g/dl for CYP2D6 poor/intermediate metabolizers (P = 0. 803). CYP2D6 genetically inferred metabolizer status was also not associated with anemia following PQ treatment (P = 0.331). We conclude that CYP2D6 poor/intermediate metabolizer status may be associated with prolonged gametocyte carriage after treatment with single-low-dose PQ but not with treatment safety.
  • Bastiaens, Guido J. H.; Tiono, Alfred B.; Okebe, Joseph; Pett, Helmi E.; Coulibaly, Sam A.; Goncalves, Bronner P.; Affara, Muna; Ouedraogo, Alphonse; Bougouma, Edith C.; Sanou, Guillaume S.; Nebie, Issa; Bradley, John; Lanke, Kjerstin H. W.; Niemi, Mikko; Sirima, Sodiomon B.; d'Alessandro, Umberto; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Chris (2018)
    Background Primaquine (PQ) actively clears mature Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes but in glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (G6PDd) individuals can cause hemolysis. We assessed the safety of low-dose PQ in combination with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) in G6PDd African males with asymptomatic P. falciparum malaria. Methods and findings In Burkina Faso, G6PDd adult males were randomized to treatment with AL alone (n = 10) or with PQ at 0.25 (n = 20) or 0.40 mg/kg (n = 20) dosage; G6PD-normal males received AL plus 0.25 (n = 10) or 0.40 mg/kg (n = 10) PQ. In The Gambia, G6PDd adult males and boys received DP alone (n = 10) or with 0.25 mg/kg PQ (n = 20); G6PD-normal males received DP plus 0.25 (n = 10) or 0.40 mg/kg (n = 10) PQ. The primary study endpoint was change in hemoglobin concentration during the 28-day follow-up. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme 2D6 (CYP2D6) metabolizer status, gametocyte carriage, haptoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase levels and reticulocyte counts were also determined. In Burkina Faso, the mean maximum absolute change in hemoglobin was -2.13 g/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], -2.78, -1.49) in G6PDd individuals randomized to 0.25 PQ mg/kg and -2.29 g/dL (95% CI, -2.79, -1.79) in those receiving 0.40 PQ mg/kg. In The Gambia, the mean maximum absolute change in hemoglobin concentration was -1.83 g/dL (95% CI, -2.19, -1.47)in G6PDd individuals receiving 0.25 PQ mg/kg. After adjustment for baseline concentrations, hemoglobin reductions in G6PDd individuals in Burkina Faso were more pronounced compared to those in G6PD-normal individuals receiving the same PQ doses (P = 0.062 and P = 0.022, respectively). Hemoglobin levels normalized during follow-up. Abnormal haptoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase levels provided additional evidence of mild transient hemolysis post-PQ. Conclusions Single low-dose PQ in combination with AL and DP was associated with mild and transient reductions in hemoglobin. None of the study participants developed moderate or severe anemia; there were no severe adverse events. This indicates that single low-dose PQ is safe in G6PDd African males when used with artemisinin-based combination therapy.