Browsing by Subject "ARTERIAL STIFFNESS"

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  • Eriksson, Mia D.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Salonen, Minna K.; Mikkola, Tuija M.; Kajantie, Eero; Wasenius, Niko; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Laine, Merja K. (2021)
    Background: Millions of people live with depression and its burden of disease. Depression has an increased comorbidity and mortality that has remained unexplained. Studies have reported connections between advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and various disease processes, including mental health. The present study evaluated associations between AGEs, depressive symptoms, and types of depressive symptoms. Methods: From the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, 815 participants with a mean age of 76 years were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Characteristics regarding self-reported lifestyle and medical history, as well as blood tests were obtained along with responses regarding depressive symptoms according to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Mental Health Inventory-5. Each participant had their AGE level measured non-invasively with skin autofluorescence (SAF). Statistical analyses looked at relationships between types of depressive symptoms and AGE levels by sex. Results: Of women, 27% scored >= 10 on the BDI and 18% of men, respectively. Men had higher crude AGE levels (mean [standard deviation], arbitrary units) (2.49 [0.51]) compared to women (2.33 [0.46]) (p < 0.001). The highest crude AGE levels were found in those with melancholic depressive symptoms (2.61 [0.57]), followed by those with non-melancholic depressive symptoms (2.45 [0.45]) and those with no depressive symptoms (2.38 [0.49]) (p = 0.013). These findings remained significant in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions: The current study shows an association between depressive symptoms and higher AGE levels. The association is likely part of a multi-factorial effect, and hence no directionality, causality, or effect can be inferred solely based on the results of this study.
  • Nuotio, Joel; Vahamurto, Lauri; Pahkala, Katja; Magnussen, Costan G.; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Kahonen, Mika; Laitinen, Tomi; Taittonen, Leena; Tossavainen, Paivi; Lehtimaki, Terho; Jokinen, Eero; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Olli; Juonala, Markus (2019)
    Aims: Disparity in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and risk factor levels between urban and rural regions has been confirmed worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine how living in different community types (urban-rural) in childhood and adulthood are related to cardiovascular risk factors and surrogate markers of CVD such as carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and left ventricular mass (LVM). Methods: The study population comprised 2903 participants (54.1% female, mean age 10.5 years in 1980) of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study who had been clinically examined in 1980 (age 3-18 years) and had participated in at least one adult follow-up (2001-2011). Results: In adulthood, urban residents had lower systolic blood pressure (-1 mmHg), LDL-cholesterol (-0.05 mmol/l), lower body mass index (-1.0 kg/m(2)) and glycosylated haemoglobin levels (-0.05 mmol/mol), and lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (19.9 v. 23.7%) than their rural counterparts. In addition, participants continuously living in urban areas had significantly lower IMT (-0.01 mm), LVM (1.59 g/m(2.7)) and pulse wave velocity (-0.22 m/s) and higher carotid artery compliance (0.07%/10 mmHg) compared to persistently rural residents. The differences in surrogate markers of CVD were only partially attenuated when adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions: Participants living in urban communities had a more favourable cardiovascular risk factor profile than rural residents. Furthermore, participants continuously living in urban areas had less subclinical markers related to CVD compared with participants living in rural areas. Urban-rural differences in cardiovascular health might provide important opportunities for optimizing prevention by targeting areas of highest need.
  • Koli, Raika; Kohler, Klaus; Tonteri, Elina; Peltonen, Juha; Tikkanen, Heikki; Fogelholm, Mikael (2015)
    Background: Several studies have shown that cocoa and cocoa-containing foods have the potential to lower blood pressure and improve endothelial function. Most of the studies reporting the beneficial effects of dark chocolate on blood pressure have been short ( Design: This was a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial involving 22 adults (8 women, 14 men), aged 33-64 y, BMI 27.7 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2) with mild hypertension. During the intervention period (8-wks) the participants reduced the intake of habitual snacks and replaced them with dark chocolate (49 g/day). In the control period, they only reduced the snacks without any added chocolate. Data (blood lipid profile, glucose, insulin, 24 h blood pressure) was collected in the beginning and end of both periods (intervention and control), and some variables also in the run-in and run-out periods (weight, body fat percentage, blood pressure, arterial stiffness index, diet and physical activity). Results: Daily consumption of dark chocolate had no effects on 24 h blood pressure, resting blood pressure (mean +/- SD, pre 142 +/- 11.5/89 +/- 4 mmHg vs. post 142 +/- 14.2/88 +/- 9.4 mmHg in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively) or arterial stiffness (mean +/- SD, pre 7.68 +/- 0.88 vs. post 7.76 +/- 0.89). Weight was reduced by 1.0 +/- 2.2 kg during the control (reduced snack only) period, but was unchanged while eating chocolate (p <0.027 between the treatments). Conclusion: The data collected in this study indicates that inclusion of dark chocolate daily in the diet had no significant effects on blood pressure or other cardiovascular risk factors during a reduced snack period.
  • Hallikainen, Maarit; Halonen, Janne; Konttinen, Jussi; Lindholm, Harri; Simonen, Piia; Nissinen, Markku J.; Gylling, Helena (2013)
  • Benetos, Athanase; Petrovic, Mirko; Strandberg, Timo (2019)
    The prevalence of arterial hypertension, particularly systolic hypertension, is constantly rising worldwide. This is mainly the clinical expression of arterial stiffening as a result of the population's aging. Chronic elevation in blood pressure represents a major risk factor not only for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality but also for cognitive decline and loss of autonomy later in life. Clinical evidence obtained in community-dwelling older people with few comorbidities and preserved autonomy supports the beneficial effects of lowering blood pressure in older hypertensive subjects even after the age of 80 years. However, observational studies in frail older individuals treated for hypertension have shown higher morbidity and mortality rates compared with those with lower blood pressure levels. Clearly, in very old subjects, the therapeutic strategy of one size fits all cannot be applied because of the enormous functional heterogeneity in these individuals. Geriatric medicine proposes taking into account the function/ frailty/ autonomy status of older people. In the present review, we propose to adapt the antihypertensive treatment using an easy-to-apply visual numeric scale allowing the identification of 3 different patient profiles according to the functional status and autonomy for activities of daily living. For the preserved function profile, strategies should be those proposed for younger old adults. For the loss of function/ preserved activities of daily living' profile, a more detailed geriatric assessment is needed to define the benefit/ risk balance as well as requirements for the tailoring of the various therapeutic strategies. Lastly, for the loss of function and altered activities of daily living' profile, therapeutic strategies should be thoroughly reassessed, including deprescribing (when considered appropriate). In the near future, controlled trials are necessary for the most frail older subjects (ie, in those systematically excluded from previous clinical trials) to gain stronger evidence regarding the benefits of the various therapeutic strategies.
  • Pulkkinen, Mari-Anne; Tuomaala, Anna-Kaisa; Hero, Matti; Gordin, Daniel; Sarkola, Taisto (2020)
    Introduction We studied if motivational interviewing (MI) added to standard educational care (SEC) improves vascular health in adolescents with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes. Research design and methods 47 adolescents with type 1 diabetes of at least 2 years duration and hemoglobin A1c >75 mmol/mol (>9.0%) on two visits were randomized to MI+SEC or SEC. We also compared vascular health parameters of patients with type 1 diabetes at trial baseline with a group of healthy historical controls matched for age and body size. Results 39 adolescents (20 MI+SEC) completed the vascular health study. At 12 months, parameter changes were not statistically significantly different between MI+SEC and SEC (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV): mean difference 0.052 m/s (95% CI -0.395 to 0.500, p=0.81); carotid-radial PWV (crPWV): 0.118 m/s (95% to 0.478 to 0.713, p=0.69), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT): 0.002 mm (95% CI -0.37 to 0.40, p=0.93), systolic blood pressure (BP) z-score: 0.495 (95% CI -0.099 to 1.09, p=0.10). At baseline, duration of type 1 diabetes was associated with radial IMT (r=0.430, p=0.007) and cfPWV (r=0.373, p=0.018), and carotid, femoral and brachial IMT were correlated with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) SD (r=0.440, p=0.017; r=0.377, p=0.048; r=0.387, p=0.038). There was an inverse association between CGM time-in-range (3.9-10.0 mmol/L) and crPWV (r=-0.476, p=0.022) changes. Systolic BP change was associated with body mass index change (r=0.374, p=0.019) and IMT change (r=0.461, p=0.016 for carotid IMT; r=0.498, p=0.010 for femoral IMT). PWVs were higher and common carotid compliance lower among patients with type 1 diabetes at baseline compared with healthy controls, but no other differences were found. Conclusion There was no effect of MI added to SEC on vascular health parameters. Although disease duration and glycemic control were associated with vascular health at baseline, there were only limited associations between glycemic control and vascular health parameter changes. Vascular health parameter changes were interrelated suggesting clustering of cardiovascular risk.
  • Lassenius, Mariann I.; Makinen, Ville-Petteri; Fogarty, Christopher; Peraneva, Lina; Jauhiainen, Matti; Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Kirveskari, Juha; Vaarala, Outi; Nieminen, Janne K.; Horkko, Sohvi; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Gordin, Daniel; Ahola, Aila J.; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per Henrik; Lehto, Markku; FinnDiane Study Grp (2014)
  • Cherney, David Z. I.; Cooper, Mark E.; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Pfarr, Egon; Johansen, Odd Erik; Woerle, Hans J.; Broedl, Uli C.; Lund, Soren S. (2018)
    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce HbA1c, blood pressure, and weight in patients with type 2 diabetes. To investigate the effect of renal function on reductions in these parameters with the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin, we assessed subgroups by baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) in pooled data from five 24-week trials of 2286 patients with type 2 diabetes randomized to empagliflozin or placebo. Reductions in HbA1c with empagliflozin versus placebo significantly diminished with decreasing baseline eGFR. Reductions in systolic blood pressure (SBP) with empagliflozin were maintained in patients with lower eGFR. The mean placebo-corrected changes from baseline in systolic blood pressure at week 24 with empagliflozin were -3.2 (95% confidence interval -4.9,-1.5) mmHg, -4.0 (-5.4, -2.6) mmHg, -5.5 (-7.6, -3.4) mmHg, and -6.6 (-11.4, -1.8) mmHg in patients with an eGFR of 90 or more, 60 to 89, 30 to 59, and under 30 ml/min/1.73m(2), respectively. Similar trends were observed for diastolic blood pressure. Weight loss with empagliflozin versus placebo tended to be attenuated in patients with a lower eGFR. Results were consistent in a 12-week ambulatory blood pressure monitoring trial in 823 patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Thus, unlike HbA1c reductions, systolic blood pressure and weight reductions with empagliflozin are generally preserved in patients with chronic kidney disease.